City Terminal Zone
The City Terminal Zone known as the City Zone Branch, is a collection of rail lines of the Long Island Rail Road in New York City. It includes to all stations that lie in fare zone 1, the set of stations west of Jamaica. There are three routes that are part of the City Terminal Zone: New York Penn Station – Trains that, from Jamaica, travel west along the Main Line to Penn Station in Manhattan via the East River Tunnels. Atlantic Terminal – Trains that travel along the Atlantic Branch to Brooklyn. Long Island City – Trains that serve Hunterspoint Avenue and Long Island City in Queens; these trains use the Main Line west of Jamaica, but skip Woodside, Forest Hills, Kew Gardens. This route is served only during weekday rush hours in the peak direction; the City Terminal Zone included the Lower Montauk Branch from Long Island City to Jamaica until passenger service on that route was discontinued in November 2012. This line included Penny Bridge, Fresh Pond and Richmond Hill stations until they were closed in March 1998.
The City Terminal Zone is slated to include a branch to a new station underneath Grand Central Terminal as part of the East Side Access project. A new station in Sunnyside, Queens, is scheduled to be built once the remainder of the project is complete. City Terminal Zone branch timetable
J/Z (New York City Subway service)
The J Nassau Street Local and Z Nassau Street Express are two rapid transit services in the B Division of the New York City Subway. Their route emblems, or "bullets", are colored brown since they use the BMT Nassau Street Line in Lower Manhattan; the J operates at all times while the Z, operating internally as its rush-hour variant, runs with six trips in each peak direction on weekdays. When the Z operates, the two services form a skip-stop pair between Sutphin Boulevard–Archer Avenue–JFK Airport and Marcy Avenue. On weekdays during midday and rush hours, J/Z trains run express in each peak direction in Brooklyn between Myrtle Avenue and Marcy Avenue, bypassing three stations. At all other times, only the J operates; the current J/Z descends from several routes, including the JJ/15 between Lower Manhattan and 168th Street in Queens. The current skip-stop pattern was implemented in 1988; the Jamaica Line – known as the Broadway Elevated – was one of the original elevated lines in Brooklyn, completed in 1893 from Cypress Hills west to Broadway Ferry in Williamsburg.
It was a two-track line, with a single local service between the two ends, a second east of Gates Avenue, where the Lexington Avenue Elevated merged. This second service became the 12, was eliminated on October 13, 1950 with the abandonment of the Lexington Avenue Elevated; the second major service on the Broadway Elevated ran between Canarsie and Williamsburg via the BMT Canarsie Line, started on July 30, 1906, when the Broadway and Canarsie tracks were connected at East New York. As part of the Dual Contracts, an extension from Cypress Hills east to Jamaica was completed on July 3, 1918, a third track was added west of East New York, express trains began running on it in 1922; the Brooklyn–Manhattan Transit Corporation numbered its services in 1924, the Canarsie and Jamaica services became 14 and 15. Both ran express during rush hours in the peak direction west of East New York. Express trains would only stop at Myrtle Avenue, Essex Street and Canal Street, before making local stops afterwards.
Additional 14 trains, between Eastern Parkway or Atlantic Avenue on the Canarsie Line and Manhattan provided rush-hour local service on Broadway. When the 14th Street–Eastern Line and Canarsie Line were connected on July 14, 1928, the old Canarsie Line service was renamed the Broadway Line, providing only weekday local service over the Broadway Elevated west of Eastern Parkway; the Atlantic Avenue trips remained, rush-hour trains continued to serve Rockaway Parkway, though they did not use the Broadway express tracks. The 14 was cut back to only rush-hour service. On the Manhattan end, the first extension was made on September 16, 1908, when the Williamsburg Bridge subway tracks opened. Broadway and Canarsie trains were extended to the new Essex Street terminal, further to Chambers Street when the line was extended on August 4, 1913; when the BMT Nassau Street Line was completed on May 30, 1931, the 15 was extended to Broad Street, the 14 was truncated to Canal Street. Some 14 trains began terminating at Crescent Street on the Jamaica Line in 1956.
Manhattan–bound rush hour skip-stop service between Jamaica and East New York was implemented on June 18, 1959, with trains leaving 168th Street on weekdays between 7 AM and 8:30 AM. Express 15 trains served "A" stations, while the morning 14 became the Jamaica Local, running between Jamaica and Canal Street, stopped at stations marked "B". Express 15 trains continued to run express between Eastern Parkway and Canal Street, making only stops at Myrtle Avenue, Essex Street, Canal Street; these stations were as follows: All trains: 168th Street • Sutphin Boulevard • 75th Street–Elderts Lane • Eastern Parkway • Myrtle Avenue • Essex Street • Canal Street "A" stations: 168th Street • Sutphin Boulevard • 121st Street • 111th Street • Woodhaven Boulevard • 85th Street–Forest Parkway • Elderts Lane • Crescent Street • Cleveland Street • Eastern Parkway "B" stations: 168th Street • 160th Street • Sutphin Boulevard • Queens Boulevard • Metropolitan Avenue • 104th Street • Elderts Lane • Cypress Hills • Norwood Avenue • Van Siclen Avenue • Alabama Avenue • Eastern ParkwayLetters were assigned to most BMT services in the early 1960s.
The BMT Jamaica services retained their numbers until November 1967. The 15 became the QJ, the 14 became the JJ; when the Chrystie Street Connection opened on November 26, 1967, many services were changed. The two local services - the JJ and KK - were combined as the JJ, but without any major routing changes, thus non-rush hour JJ trains ran between Jamaica and Broad Street, while morning rush hour JJ trains ran to Canal Street, afternoon rush hour JJ trains ran between Canal Street and Atlantic Avenue or Crescent Street. The rush-hour express J was combined with the weekday QT Brighton Local via tunnel to form the weekday QJ, running between Jamaica and Brighton Beach via the Jamaica Line, BMT Nassau Street Line, Montague Street Tunnel, BMT Brighton Line; the RJ was a special peak-direction rush-hour service, running local on the Jamaica Line, Nassau Street Line, Montague Street Tunnel, BMT Fourth Avenue Line to 95th Street in Fort Hamilton. This was an extension of a former rush-hou
East New York, Brooklyn
East New York is a residential neighborhood in the eastern section of the borough of Brooklyn in New York City, United States. Its boundaries, starting from the north and moving clockwise are: Cypress Hills Cemetery to the north, the Borough of Queens to the east, Jamaica Bay to the south, the Bay Ridge Branch railway tracks next to Van Sinderen Avenue to the west. Linden Boulevard and Atlantic Avenue are the primary thoroughfares through East New York. East New York was founded as the Town of New Lots in the 1650s, it was annexed as the 26th Ward of the growing City of Brooklyn in 1886, became part of New York City in 1898. During the latter part of the twentieth century, East New York came to be predominantly inhabited by African Americans and Latinos. East New York is part of Brooklyn Community District 5, its primary ZIP Codes are 11207, 11208, 11239, it is patrolled by the 75th Precinct of the New York City Police Department. New York City Housing Authority property in the area is patrolled by P.
S. A. 2. Politically it is represented by the New York City Council's 42nd Districts. At the northern edge of what is now East New York, a chain of hills, geologically a terminal moraine, separates northwestern Long Island from Jamaica and the Hempstead Plains, the main part of Long Island's fertile outwash plain; the southern portions of the neighborhood, consisted of salt marshes and several creeks, which drained into Jamaica Bay. These areas were settled by the Jameco Native Americans, used by the Canarsee and Rockaway tribes as fishing grounds. In the 1650s, Dutch colonists began settling in the eastern sections of Brooklyn, forming the towns of Flatbush and New Lots; the area along with the rest of Brooklyn and modern New York City was ceded to the British Empire in 1664. A few 18th Century roads, including the ferry road or Palmer Turnpike from Brooklyn to Jamaica, passed through the chain of hills. During the American Revolutionary War invading British and Hessian soldiers ended an all-night forced march at this pass in August 1776 to surprise and flank General George Washington and the Continental Army, to win the Battle of Long Island.
In 1835, Connecticut merchant John Pitkin purchased the land of the Town of New Lots north of New Lots Avenue, opening a shoe factory at what is now Williams Street and Pitkin Avenue. Pitkin named the area "East New York" to signify it as the eastern end of New York City. In 1836 the Brooklyn and Jamaica Railroad opened through the area. In 1860 the LIRR moved its terminus to Queens, the line through Brooklyn was shortened to end at East New York. In 1852, New Lots was ceded from the Town of Flatbush. In the middle 19th century, the road between Brooklyn and Jamaica became the Brooklyn and Jamaica Plank Road; the Brooklyn and Rockaway Beach Railroad was built to connect the LIRR's Atlantic Branch with Canarsie at a point known as Broadway Junction. As happened at 19th Century railroad junctions, a railway town arose. Sprawling development into rustic northern part of the Town of "New Lots" followed the reach of elevated transit lines into the area: the Jamaica Avenue Line in 1885 and the Fulton Street Line in 1889.
The road to Brooklyn was renamed Fulton Street, the one to Jamaica, Jamaica Avenue and the one to Williamsburg, Broadway. East New York was annexed as the 26th Ward of the growing City of Brooklyn in 1886. In the 20th century its name came to be applied to much of the former township. In 1939, the Works Progress Administration Guide to New York City wrote: The development of East New York began in 1835 through the enterprise of John R. Pitkin, a wealthy Connecticut merchant who visualized it as a great city rivaling New York; the Panic of 1837 smashed his hopes. After 1853, a modest development began. By the 1930s, the residents were chiefly Italians, Jewish and Russians who moved in from Brownsville and other near-by crowded localities. Many of the Slavic families continue to burn candles before icons, observe religious fetes according to the old calendar... After World War II, thousands of manufacturing jobs left New York City thereby increasing the importance of the remaining jobs to those with limited education and job skills.
During this same period, large numbers of Puerto Ricans from the Caribbean island and African-Americans from the South emigrated to New York City looking for employment. East New York, no longer replete with the jobs the new residents had come for, was thereby faced with a host of new socioeconomic problems, including widespread unemployment and crime. Since the late 1950s East New York has had some of the highest crime rates in Brooklyn, is considered by some to be the borough's murder capital, alongside Brownsville. Many social problems associated with poverty from crime to drug addiction have been prevalent in the area for decades. Despite the decline of crime compared to their peaks during the crack and heroin epidemics, violent crime continues to be widespread in the community. East New York's 75th Police Precinct reported the highest murder rate in the city in 2011, according to crime reports compiled by DNAinfo.com. East New York has higher dropout
Long Island Rail Road
The Long Island Rail Road abbreviated as the LIRR, is a commuter rail system in the southeastern part of the U. S. state of New York, stretching from Manhattan to the eastern tip of Suffolk County on Long Island. With an average weekday ridership of 354,800 passengers in 2016, it is the busiest commuter railroad in North America, it is one of the world's few commuter systems that runs 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, year-round. It is publicly owned by the Metropolitan Transportation Authority, which refers to it as MTA Long Island Rail Road; the LIRR logo combines the circular MTA logo with the text Long Island Rail Road, appears on the sides of trains. The LIRR is one of two commuter rail systems owned by the MTA, the other being the Metro-North Railroad in the northern suburbs of the New York area. Established in 1834 and having operated continuously since it is one of the oldest railroads in the United States still operating under its original name and charter. There are 124 stations and more than 700 miles of track on its two lines to the two forks of the island and eight major branches, with the passenger railroad system totaling 319 miles of route.
As of 2018, the LIRR's budgetary burden for expenditures was $1.6 billion, which it supports through the collection of taxes and fees. The Long Island Rail Road Company was chartered in 1834 to provide a daily service between New York and Boston via a ferry connection between its Greenport, New York, terminal on Long Island's North Fork and Stonington, Connecticut; this service was superseded in 1849 by the land route through Connecticut that became part of the New York, New Haven and Hartford Railroad. The LIRR refocused its attentions towards serving Long Island, in competition with other railroads on the island. In the 1870s, railroad president Conrad Poppenhusen and his successor Austin Corbin acquired all the railroads and consolidated them into the LIRR; the LIRR was unprofitable for much of its history. In 1900, the Pennsylvania Railroad bought a controlling interest as part of its plan for direct access to Manhattan which began on September 8, 1910; the wealthy PRR subsidized the LIRR during the first half of the new century, allowing expansion and modernization.
Electric operation began in 1905. After the Second World War, the railroad industry's downturn and dwindling profits caused the PRR to stop subsidizing the LIRR, the LIRR went into receivership in 1949; the State of New York, realizing how important the railroad was to Long Island's future, began to subsidize the railroad in the 1950s and 1960s. In June 1965, the state finalized an agreement to buy the LIRR from the PRR for $65 million; the LIRR was placed under the control of a new Metropolitan Commuter Transit Authority. The MCTA was rebranded the Metropolitan Transportation Authority in 1968 when it incorporated several other New York City-area transit agencies. With MTA subsidies the LIRR modernized further, continuing to be the busiest commuter railroad in the United States; the LIRR is one of the few railroads that has survived as an intact company from its original charter to the present. The LIRR operates out of three western terminals in New York City, with a fourth expected by the early 2020s.
Major terminals include: Pennsylvania Station, in Midtown Manhattan, is the busiest of the western terminals, serving 500 daily trains. It is reached via the Amtrak-owned East River Tunnels from the Main Line in Long Island City; the New York City Subway's 34th Street–Penn Station and 34th Street–Penn Station stations are next to the terminal. It connects LIRR with Amtrak and NJ Transit trains. Atlantic Terminal Flatbush Avenue, in Downtown Brooklyn serves most other trains, it is next to the New York City Subway's Atlantic Avenue–Barclays Center station complex, providing easy access to Lower Manhattan. Rush-hour trains run to one of two stations in Long Island City, Queens: the Hunterspoint Avenue station, or the Long Island City station on the East River. From Hunterspoint Avenue, the Hunters Point Avenue subway station can be reached for Midtown Manhattan access; the same subway trains can be reached from Long Island City station at the Vernon Boulevard–Jackson Avenue subway station. It connects to the NYC Ferry's East River Ferry to Midtown or Lower Manhattan.
Access to a fourth major terminal is under construction. As early as 2022, the LIRR intends to start service to a new station under Grand Central Terminal via the East Side Access; the East Side Access project will reduce congestion while increasing the number of trains during peak hours. However, some February 2014 estimates push the opening date as far back as September 2024. In addition, the Jamaica station is a major hub transfer point in Jamaica, Queens, it has yard and bypass tracks. Passengers can transfer between trains on all LIRR lines except the Port Washington Branch. A sixth platform with two tracks is under construction and will serve Atlantic Branch shuttle trains to Brooklyn once completed. Transfer is made to separate facilities for three subway services at the Sutphin Boulevard–Archer Avenue–JFK station, a number of bus routes, the AirTrain automated electric rail system to JFK Airport; the railroad's headquarters are next to the station. The Long Island Rail Road system has eleven passenger branches
L (New York City Subway service)
The L 14th Street–Canarsie Local is a rapid transit service in the B Division of the New York City Subway. Its route emblem, or "bullet", is colored medium gray; the L operates at all times between Eighth Avenue in Chelsea and Rockaway Parkway in Canarsie, Brooklyn. It briefly enters Queens at Halsey Street, serving the neighborhood of Ridgewood, it is the first New York City Subway service to be automated using communications-based train control. The L commenced its current route and service pattern upon completion of the Canarsie Line in 1928. Express trains ran along the L's trackage in central Brooklyn, running along the BMT Fulton Street Line in eastern Brooklyn, but were discontinued in 1956. Since the L has been local; the L, being a local train, was given the LL designation when letters were assigned to the BMT division. From 1928 to 1967, the same service was assigned the BMT number 16. In 1924, part of the eventual 14th Street–Canarsie Line opened, called the "14th Street–Eastern District Line", was given the number 16.
This was extended east, in 1928 it was joined to the existing BMT Canarsie Line east of Broadway Junction. Since that time, the 14th Street–Canarsie Line service has operated as it is today, except for an extension from Sixth Avenue to Eighth Avenue, which opened on May 30, 1931 to connect to the new Eighth Avenue Subway; the Eighth Avenue Terminal was built in IND style and has been restored to BMT style like Fulton Street and Broad Street. During rush hours, express service ran nonstop between Lorimer Myrtle -- Wyckoff Avenues. Before the 14th Street–Eastern and Canarsie Lines were connected, the Canarsie part of the line had a number, 14, running from Lower Manhattan via the Broadway Elevated and called the Canarsie Line; when the 14th Street–Eastern Line was connected in 1928, this was renamed the Broadway Line, but continued to operate to Rockaway Parkway. Starting on September 23, 1936, express trains ran to Lefferts Boulevard via the connection with the Fulton Street Elevated at Atlantic Avenue.
This connection was severed on April 30, 1956 the service ran to Rockaway Parkway again, but was discontinued on August 23. The R27 to R38's roll signs had both L and LL for express and local service though the express never ran thereafter. On November 26, 1967, with the opening of the Chrystie Street Connection, the BMT Eastern Division lines were given letters; the 14 to Canarsie was given the label JJ. On the other hand, the 16 became the LL. Canarsie service to Lower Manhattan was discontinued in 1968; when double letters were dropped on May 5, 1985, the LL became the L, it still has that designation. Skip-stop was never implemented. Ridership on the L has increased since 2000, since many neighborhoods along the route have experienced gentrification; the Metropolitan Transportation Authority's $443 million fleet of subway cars on the L was introduced in 2002, but by 2006 was too small to handle growing ridership. The Transit Authority had projected that 212 Kawasaki-made R143 subway cars would be enough to accommodate ridership demands for years to come, but ridership has risen higher than expected.
Therefore, sixty-eight new R160A cars manufactured by Alstom were equipped with CBTC so they could run on the L. The BMT Canarsie Line tracks underwent an extensive retrofit over to CBTC, a system that controls the trains via a computer on board, as opposed manually operated by a human operator; this was completed in April 2012. While the retrofit has resulted in nearly two years of service changes and station closings, this system will allow trains to run closer together, enables in-station "countdown clock" displays to note the exact time until the next train arrives; the line used OPTO beginning in June 2005, but a combination of public outcry regarding perceived safety issues, which increased after the July 2005 London tube bombings, heavy lobbying by the Transport Workers Union of America, as well as an arbitration ruling that MTA had breached its contract with TWU caused the Metropolitan Transportation Authority to end OPTO the following September. However, the MTA's successful implementation of countdown clocks on the L has been the first in the system.
Starting April 27, 2019, continuing until 2020, service will be limited between Third Avenue and Bedford Avenue on late nights and weekends to allow for repairs on the Canarsie Line tunnels under the East River, which were badly damaged by Hurricane Sandy in 2012. This will last about 15 to 20 months; the original plan was for a full 15-month closure, but the plans were revised in January 2019. The L uses the following lines with the same service pattern at all times; the L runs on the BMT Canarsie Line in its entirety. MTA NYC Transit – L 14th Street – Canarsie Local MTA Subway Time – L Train "L Subway Timetable, Effective June 24, 2018". Metropolitan Transportation Authority. Retrieved June 24, 2018
Direct current is the unidirectional flow of electric charge. A battery is a good example of a DC power supply. Direct current may flow in a conductor such as a wire, but can flow through semiconductors, insulators, or through a vacuum as in electron or ion beams; the electric current flows in a constant direction, distinguishing it from alternating current. A term used for this type of current was galvanic current; the abbreviations AC and DC are used to mean alternating and direct, as when they modify current or voltage. Direct current may be obtained from an alternating current supply by use of a rectifier, which contains electronic elements or electromechanical elements that allow current to flow only in one direction. Direct current may be converted into alternating current with a motor-generator set. Direct current is used as a power supply for electronic systems. Large quantities of direct-current power are used in production of aluminum and other electrochemical processes, it is used for some railways in urban areas.
High-voltage direct current is used to transmit large amounts of power from remote generation sites or to interconnect alternating current power grids. Direct current was produced in 1800 by Italian physicist Alessandro Volta's battery, his Voltaic pile; the nature of how current flowed. French physicist André-Marie Ampère conjectured that current travelled in one direction from positive to negative; when French instrument maker Hippolyte Pixii built the first dynamo electric generator in 1832, he found that as the magnet used passed the loops of wire each half turn, it caused the flow of electricity to reverse, generating an alternating current. At Ampère's suggestion, Pixii added a commutator, a type of "switch" where contacts on the shaft work with "brush" contacts to produce direct current; the late 1870s and early 1880s saw electricity starting to be generated at power stations. These were set up to power arc lighting running on high voltage direct current or alternating current; this was followed by the wide spread use of low voltage direct current for indoor electric lighting in business and homes after inventor Thomas Edison launched his incandescent bulb based electric "utility" in 1882.
Because of the significant advantages of alternating current over direct current in using transformers to raise and lower voltages to allow much longer transmission distances, direct current was replaced over the next few decades by alternating current in power delivery. In the mid-1950s, high-voltage direct current transmission was developed, is now an option instead of long-distance high voltage alternating current systems. For long distance underseas cables, this DC option is the only technically feasible option. For applications requiring direct current, such as third rail power systems, alternating current is distributed to a substation, which utilizes a rectifier to convert the power to direct current; the term DC is used to refer to power systems that use only one polarity of voltage or current, to refer to the constant, zero-frequency, or varying local mean value of a voltage or current. For example, the voltage across a DC voltage source is constant as is the current through a DC current source.
The DC solution of an electric circuit is the solution where all currents are constant. It can be shown that any stationary voltage or current waveform can be decomposed into a sum of a DC component and a zero-mean time-varying component. Although DC stands for "direct current", DC refers to "constant polarity". Under this definition, DC voltages can vary in time, as seen in the raw output of a rectifier or the fluctuating voice signal on a telephone line; some forms of DC have no variations in voltage, but may still have variations in output power and current. A direct current circuit is an electrical circuit that consists of any combination of constant voltage sources, constant current sources, resistors. In this case, the circuit voltages and currents are independent of time. A particular circuit voltage or current does not depend on the past value of any circuit voltage or current; this implies that the system of equations that represent a DC circuit do not involve integrals or derivatives with respect to time.
If a capacitor or inductor is added to a DC circuit, the resulting circuit is not speaking, a DC circuit. However, most such circuits have a DC solution; this solution gives the circuit currents when the circuit is in DC steady state. Such a circuit is represented by a system of differential equations; the solution to these equations contain a time varying or transient part as well as constant or steady state part. It is this steady state part, the DC solution. There are some circuits. Two simple examples are a constant current source connected to a capacitor and a constant voltage source connected to an inductor. In electronics, it is common to refer to a circuit, powered by a DC voltage source such as a battery or the output of a DC power supply as a DC circuit though what is meant is that the circuit is DC powered. DC is found in many extra-low voltage applications and some low-voltage applications where these are powered by batteries or solar power systems. Most electronic circuits require a DC power supply.
Domestic DC installations have differ
The volt is the derived unit for electric potential, electric potential difference, electromotive force. It is named after the Italian physicist Alessandro Volta. One volt is defined as the difference in electric potential between two points of a conducting wire when an electric current of one ampere dissipates one watt of power between those points, it is equal to the potential difference between two parallel, infinite planes spaced 1 meter apart that create an electric field of 1 newton per coulomb. Additionally, it is the potential difference between two points that will impart one joule of energy per coulomb of charge that passes through it, it can be expressed in terms of SI base units as V = potential energy charge = J C = kg ⋅ m 2 A ⋅ s 3. It can be expressed as amperes times ohms, watts per ampere, or joules per coulomb, equivalent to electronvolts per elementary charge: V = A ⋅ Ω = W A = J C = eV e; the "conventional" volt, V90, defined in 1987 by the 18th General Conference on Weights and Measures and in use from 1990, is implemented using the Josephson effect for exact frequency-to-voltage conversion, combined with the caesium frequency standard.
For the Josephson constant, KJ = 2e/h, the "conventional" value KJ-90 is used: K J-90 = 0.4835979 GHz μ V. This standard is realized using a series-connected array of several thousand or tens of thousands of junctions, excited by microwave signals between 10 and 80 GHz. Empirically, several experiments have shown that the method is independent of device design, measurement setup, etc. and no correction terms are required in a practical implementation. In the water-flow analogy, sometimes used to explain electric circuits by comparing them with water-filled pipes, voltage is likened to difference in water pressure. Current is proportional to the amount of water flowing at that pressure. A resistor would be a reduced diameter somewhere in the piping and a capacitor/inductor could be likened to a "U" shaped pipe where a higher water level on one side could store energy temporarily; the relationship between voltage and current is defined by Ohm's law. Ohm's Law is analogous to the Hagen–Poiseuille equation, as both are linear models relating flux and potential in their respective systems.
The voltage produced by each electrochemical cell in a battery is determined by the chemistry of that cell. See Galvanic cell § Cell voltage. Cells can be combined in series for multiples of that voltage, or additional circuitry added to adjust the voltage to a different level. Mechanical generators can be constructed to any voltage in a range of feasibility. Nominal voltages of familiar sources: Nerve cell resting potential: ~75 mV Single-cell, rechargeable NiMH or NiCd battery: 1.2 V Single-cell, non-rechargeable: alkaline battery: 1.5 V. Some antique vehicles use 6.3 volts. Electric vehicle battery: 400 V when charged Household mains electricity AC: 100 V in Japan 120 V in North America, 230 V in Europe, Asia and Australia Rapid transit third rail: 600–750 V High-speed train overhead power lines: 25 kV at 50 Hz, but see the List of railway electrification systems and 25 kV at 60 Hz for exceptions. High-voltage electric power transmission lines: 110 kV and up Lightning: Varies often around 100 MV.
In 1800, as the result of a professional disagreement over the galvanic response advocated by Luigi Galvani, Alessandro Volta developed the so-called voltaic pile, a forerunner of the battery, which produced a steady electric current. Volta had determined that the most effective pair of dissimilar metals to produce electricity was zinc and silver. In 1861, Latimer Clark and Sir Charles Bright coined the name "volt" for the unit of resistance. By 1873, the British Association for the Advancement of Science had defined the volt and farad. In 1881, the International Electrical Congress, now the International Electrotechnical Commission, approved the volt as the unit for electromotive force, they made the volt equal to 108 cgs units of voltage