The Keiyō Road is a toll road in Japan. It is operated by East Nippon Expressway Company. Keiyō is a kanji acronym of two characters, each representing the two major urban areas connected by the route; the first character represents Tokyo and the second represents Chiba The route is designated as National Route 14 and a bypass for National Route 16. The section from the origin to Miyanogi Junction is classified as a road for motor vehicles only, while the section from Miyanogi Junction to the terminus is classified as a national highway for motor vehicles only with national expressway concurrency as it is concurrent with the Higashi-Kantō Expressway Tateyama Route; the road is an important artery in the eastern part of the Tokyo urban area, carrying an average of 315,236 vehicles per day. Starting in Edogawa Ward, the road crosses the Edo River to the east into Chiba Prefecture, passing through the cities of Ichikawa and Narashino. In this area the road is parallel to the Higashi-Kantō Expressway a few kilometers to the south.
The road meets this expressway at Miyanogi Junction and turns south, passing through the city of Chiba. At the south end of the city beyond Soga Interchange the Keiyō Road terminates, however the roadway continues as the Tateyama Expressway; the speed limit is 60 km/h on the section designated as Route 14, 80 km/h on the section designated as Route 16. For the purposes of toll assessment, the road is divided into six sections. Usage of one section incurs a toll of 100 yen for passenger cars, light trucks, 2-wheeled vehicles, 150 yen for large trucks and buses, 350 yen for oversized vehicles. Traversing the entire road therefore costs 600 yen for a passenger car; the method of toll collection differs depending on the section of road used. From Shinozaki Interchange to Miyanogi Junction, toll booths at interchanges and toll gates on the main route are positioned so that a flat rate is charged at each station. From Miyanogi Junction to the terminus, tickets are issued upon entering the road which are used to calculate the toll at the exit point.
Electronic Toll Collection is accepted for payment, however commuter, off-peak, late night discounts do not apply. Due to the positioning of toll collection points, there are a few potential journeys that do not incur any toll at all; these include travelling only between Shinozaki Interchange and Ichikawa Interchange, travelling only between Takeishi Interchange and Makuhari Interchange, entering the road at Takeshi Interchange and exiting at Hanawa Interchange. IC - interchange, JCT - junction, PA - parking area, TN - tunnel, TB - toll gate East Nippon Expressway Company
Kasumigaseki is a district in Chiyoda Ward in Tokyo, Japan. It is the location of most of Japan's cabinet ministry offices; the name is used as a metonym for the Japanese government bureaucracy, as opposed to Nagatachō, which refers to the elected government or the legislative branch. Kasumigaseki Station was one of the stations affected during the Tokyo subway sarin attack. 2nd Bldg. of the Central Common Government OfficeJapan Transport Safety Board National Public Safety Commission Fair Trade Commission Coast Guard Patent Office Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries Ministry of Economy and Industry Ministry of Finance Ministry of Foreign Affairs Ministry of Justice Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Tourism Ministry of Health and Welfare Ministry of Education, Sports and Technology Ministry of the Environment Public Security Intelligence Agency National Police Agency Financial Services Agency Agency for Cultural Affairs National Personnel Authority Board of Audit of Japan Tokyo Metropolitan Police HQ Tokyo High Court and Intellectual Property High Court Tokyo District Court, Summary Court and Family Court Japan Post headquarters Kasumigaseki Building - Tokyo's first high-rise office buildingThe Asian Development Bank Institute has its head office on the 8th floor of the Kasumigaseki Building.
On the same floor, the Asian Development Bank has its Japan offices. Kasumigaseki Common Gate - Twin tower buildings adjacent to the Kasumigaseki Building. New Kasumigaseki Building Nipponkoa Insurance Building Kasumigaseki Station Sakuradamon Station Toranomon Station Japan Post Holdings has its headquarters in Kasumigaseki. Tokuyama Corporation has its headquarters in Kasumigaseki Common Gate West Tower and PricewaterhouseCoopers has offices on the 15th floor of the Kasumigaseki Building. In the Kasumigaseki Building has its headquarters the Lixil Group Corporation. At different points of time All Nippon Airways and Mitsui Chemicals had their headquarters in the Kasumigaseki Building. In July 1978, when Nippon Cargo Airlines first began, it operated within a single room inside All Nippon Airways's space in the Kasumigaseki Building. At one time Cantor Fitzgerald had an office in the Toranomon Mitsui Building in Kasumigaseki. History of Kasumigaseki
The Kita-Kantō Expressway is a 4-laned national expressway in Japan. It is operated by East Nippon Expressway Company; the route connects the capitals of the 3 northern prefectures in the Kantō region - Maebashi and Mito. The expressway begins at a junction with the Kan-etsu Expressway in Gunma Prefecture and heads east along the southern edge of the prefecture; the route ends abruptly in the city of Ōta, however the route will be extended to a junction with the Tōhoku Expressway in Tochigi Prefecture by 2011. The expressway follows the route of the Tōhoku Expressway northward for about 13 km diverges from this expressway following an easterly course once more, it runs through the southern areas of Utsunomiya and heads into eastern areas of Tochigi Prefecture, where the route terminates once again in the city of Mooka. The section connecting Tochigi and Ibaraki Prefectures was scheduled to be completed in 2009. From Sakuragawa in western Ibaraki, the route continues towards a junction with the Jōban Expressway and runs along the southern edge of the Mito city area, where the expressway has its final terminus.
At the terminus, the Higashi-Mito Road continues towards the Pacific Ocean coastline using the same roadway. The route runs parallel to National Route 50 for most of its length. IC - interchange, SIC - smart interchange, JCT - junction, SA - service area, PA - parking area, BR - bridge East Nippon Expressway Company Ibaraki Kitakan
The Toyota 4Runner is a compact mid-size sport utility vehicle produced by the Japanese manufacturer Toyota and sold throughout the world from 1984 to present. In Japan, it is known as the Toyota Hilux Surf; the original 4Runner was a compact SUV and little more than a Toyota pickup truck with a fiberglass shell over the bed, but the model has since undergone significant independent development into a cross between a compact and a mid-size SUV. All 4Runners have been built in Japan at Toyota's plant in Tahara, Aichi, or at the Hino Motors plant in Hamura. For Southeast Asia the Hilux Surf was replaced in 2005 by the similar Fortuner, based on the Hilux platform; as of 2014, the 4Runner is sold in the United States, Central America, Ecuador and Chile. The 4Runner came in at number five in a 2019 study by iSeeCars.com ranking the longest-lasting vehicles in the US. The 4Runner had 3.9 percent of vehicles according to the study. The Trekker was one of the first prototype walk through conversions done to Toyota trucks in the early 1980s.
They were similar to the successive 4Runner conversions done by Toyota, which started production in 1984, but were designed and built by Winnebago Industries with the approval of Toyota. They were no longer a viable conversion when Toyota started producing the 4Runner in 1984, it was in essence the marketing test vehicle for Toyota to be able to introduce the 4Runner. The Trekker was produced from early 1981 through 1983; the Trekkers were all built on Toyota short box chassis'. All of the Trekkers were classified as SR5 by both Winnebago and Toyota, regardless of the actual VIN denotation. There were to be a SR5 and Deluxe version of the Trekker, one with vented windows and one without. All 1981 Trekkers had vented canopy windows. Non vented. Non vented windows were installed due to the leaking issues of a forward facing vent on the 1981 Trekkers canopy windows rather than the classification of SR5 vs Deluxe. Toyota shipped all trucks from Japan as cab and chassis in order to avoid the 25% assembled truck customs tax.
The trucks destined for production as Trekkers were shipped to the dealership handling the national distribution of the Trekker. From there they went to Winnebago to have the Trekker conversion installed, returned after completion to the dealership for national distribution. Most of the Trekker conversions sold went to the west coast of the United States; the Trekker conversion consisted of a fiberglass tub, bed sides, a non-removable canopy and rear hatch. The kit included a folding rear seat that could be folded forward to lay flat and add cargo space to the back. There was no tailgate on the Trekkers; the factory Toyota vinyl cab headliner was matched to the custom rear canopy headliner. About 1500 of the Trekkers were sold in the United States. An additional unknown number of Trekker kits less than 200, were shipped to Canada to be installed on Canadian trucks at the dealerships. 20 to 30 of the Trekker kits were shipped to Saudi Arabia for installation. For the first generation N60 series Hilux Surf and export specification 4Runner introduced in 1983, instead of developing an new model, modified the existing Hilux with short-bed pickup body.
The Hilux had undergone a major redesign in 1983 for the 1984 model year. Changes included the removal of the panel with integrated rear window from behind the front seats, the addition of rear seats, a removable fiberglass canopy; the implementation was borrowed from both the second generation Ford Bronco, the Chevrolet K5 Blazer, both short-bed trucks with removable fiberglass shells over the rear sections and having bench seats installed in the back. Like the Bronco and the Blazer, the Hilux Surf/4Runner did not have a wall attached to the front section behind front seats as the regular Hilux did. In that sense, all three vehicles were not conventional pickup trucks with a fiberglass shell included. Thus, the first generation is nearly mechanically identical to the Toyota Hilux. All first generation 4Runners had two doors and were indistinguishable from the pickups from the dashboard forward. Nearly all changes were to the latter half of the body. In North America, they were sold from the 1984½ model year from May 1984.
For this first year, all models were equipped with white fiberglass tops. An SR5 trim package was offered that upgraded the interior: additional gauges, better fabrics, a rear seat were standard with the package. All 1984 models were equipped with the carbureted 2.4 L 22R engine and were all available with a four-wheel-drive system that drove the front wheels through a solid front axle. 1985 saw the arrival of the electronically fuel-injected 2.4 L 22R-E I4 engine. This upped the horsepower numbers from 100 hp for the 22R, to 116 hp for the 22R-E Engine, though the carbureted engine remained available until 1988. Additionally, rear seats were available in all 1985 4Runner trim levels, not just the more upscale SR5. In 1986, the Surf/4Runner underwent a major front suspension design change as it was changed from a solid front axle to the Hi-Trac independent front suspension. Track width was increased by three inches; these changes made the trucks more comfortable on-road, improved stability and handling.
The new suspension a
The Ken-O Expressway, or Metropolitan Inter-City Expressway, is a completed ticket system toll expressway in Japan. It is owned and operated by the Central Nippon Expressway Company and East Nippon Expressway Company. In conjunction with the Tokyo Bay Aqua-Line and the Bayshore Route of the Shuto Expressway, the expressway will form a full outer ring road of Tokyo, it is signed as National Route 468 as well as C4 under the "2016 Proposal for Realization of Expressway Numbering."The section owned by the Central Nippon Expressway Company runs from the east end of the Shin-Shōnan Bypass west along the bypass and north to Akiruno Interchange. The rest of the route is owned by the East Nippon Expressway Company; the expressway begins at the west end of the Fujisawa Bypass in Kanagawa. From here the expressway is concurrent with the Shin-Shōnan Bypass, which it splits from as that road turns toward the south at Chigasaki; the Ken-O Expressway heads north, crossing the Tōmei Expressway and Chūō Expressway.
Continuing north east. There are junctions with the Kan-Etsu Expressway, Tōhoku Expressway, Jōban Expressway, it turns southeast, where it meets the Higashi-Kantō Expressway east of Narita Airport, there is gap in the expressway here, planned to be closed. The expressway resumes at Choshu Renraku Road in Tōgane, it crosses the present east end of a two-lane expressway. The Ken-O Expressway continues south, looping west to end at the junction of the Tokyo Bay Aqua-Line and Tateyama Expressway; the Ken-Ō Expressway was linked with the Shin-Tōmei Expressway on January 28, 2018. Portions of the existing Yokohama-Yokosuka Expressway, Shin-Shōnan Bypass and Chiba-Tōgane Road and the planned Yokohama Ring Expressway will be incorporated into the expressway. In Chiba Prefecture, land acquisition is under way for an 18 kilometres gap in the expressway to be filled; the completion of the segment is expected to be complete in 2024. Along with the Japan National Route 16, the Ken-Ō Expressway will connect the entire length of the Technology Advanced Metropolitan Area — an inland industrial region covering an area of 3000 km2, in 74 municipalities, home to over 10 million people of whom 4 million work in the TAMA firms.
In 1998 goods shipped from TAMA had twice the shipment value of the Silicon Valley. Parking areas are appended with PA and smart interchanges are appended with SIC. There are no service areas. Http://www.ktr.mlit.go.jp/honkyoku/road/3kanjo/kenoudo/index.htm illustrations of new and planned segments, June 2015 http://www.e-nexco.co.jp/pressroom/press_release/kanto/h27/0424/pdfs/pdf.pdf
Government of Japan
The government of Japan is a constitutional monarchy in which the power of the Emperor is limited and is relegated to ceremonial duties. As in many other states, the Government is divided into three branches: the Legislative branch, the Executive branch, the Judicial branch; the Government runs under the framework established by the Constitution of Japan, adopted in 1947. It is a unitary state, containing forty-seven administrative divisions, with the Emperor as its head of state, his role is ceremonial and he has no powers related to Government. Instead, it is the Cabinet, comprising the Ministers of State and the Prime Minister, that directs and controls the Government; the Cabinet is the source of power of the Executive branch, is formed by the Prime Minister, the head of government. He or she is appointed to office by the Emperor; the National Diet is the organ of the Legislative branch. It is bicameral, consisting of two houses with the House of Councillors being the upper house, the House of Representatives being the lower house.
Its members are directly elected from the people. The Supreme Court and other inferior courts make up the Judicial branch, they are independent from the executive and the legislative branches. Prior to the Meiji Restoration, Japan was ruled by successive military shōguns. During this period, effective power of the government resided in the Shōgun, who ruled the country in the name of the Emperor; the Shoguns were the hereditary military governors, with their modern rank equivalent to a generalissimo. Although the Emperor was the sovereign who appointed the Shōgun, his roles were ceremonial and he took no part in governing the country; this is compared to the present role of the Emperor, whose official role is to appoint the Prime Minister. The Meiji Restoration in 1868 led to the resignation of Shōgun Tokugawa Yoshinobu, agreeing to "be the instrument for carrying out" the Emperor's orders; this event restored the country to the proclamation of the Empire of Japan. In 1889, the Meiji Constitution was adopted in a move to strengthen Japan to the level of western nations, resulting in the first parliamentary system in Asia.
It provided a form of mixed constitutional-absolute monarchy, with an independent judiciary, based on the Prussian model of the time. A new aristocracy known as the kazoku was established, it merged the ancient court nobility of the Heian period, the kuge, the former daimyōs, feudal lords subordinate to the shōgun. It established the Imperial Diet, consisting of the House of Representatives and the House of Peers. Members of the House of Peers were made up of the Imperial Family, the Kazoku, those nominated by the Emperor, while members of the House of Representatives were elected by direct male suffrage. Despite clear distinctions between powers of the executive branch and the Emperor in the Meiji Constitution and contradictions in the Constitution led to a political crisis, it devalued the notion of civilian control over the military, which meant that the military could develop and exercise a great influence on politics. Following the end of World War II, the Constitution of Japan was adopted as an intention to replace the previous Imperial rule with a form of Western-style liberal democracy.
The Emperor of Japan is the ceremonial head of state. He is defined by the Constitution to be "the symbol of the State and of the unity of the people". However, he is not the nominal Chief Executive and he possesses only certain ceremonially important powers, he has no real powers related to the Government as stated in article 4 of the Constitution. Article 6 of the Constitution of Japan delegates the Emperor the following ceremonial roles: Appointment of the Prime Minister as designated by the Diet. Appointment of the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court as designated by the Cabinet. While the Cabinet is the source of executive power and most of its power is exercised directly by the Prime Minister, several of its powers are exercised by the Emperor; the powers exercised via the Emperor, as stipulated by Article 7 of the Constitution, are: Promulgation of amendments of the constitution, cabinet orders and treaties. Convocation of the Diet. Dissolution of the House of Representatives. Proclamation of general election of members of the Diet.
Attestation of the appointment and dismissal of Ministers of State and other officials as provided for by law, of full powers and credentials of Ambassadors and Ministers. Attestation of general and special amnesty, commutation of punishment and restoration of rights. Awarding of honors. Attestation of instruments of ratification and other diplomatic documents as provided for by law. Receiving foreign ambassadors and ministers. Performance of ceremonial functions; the Emperor is known to hold the nominal ceremonial authority. For example, the Emperor is the only person that has the authority to appoint the Prime Minister though the Diet has the power to designate the person fitted for the position. One such example can be prominently seen in the 2009 Dissolution of the House of Representatives; the House was expected to be dissolved on the advice of the Prime Minister, but was temporarily unable to do so for the next general election, as both the Emperor and Empress were visiting Canada. In this manner, the Emperor's modern role is compared to those of the Shogunate period and much of Japan's history, whereby the Emperor held great symbolic authority but had little political power.
Today, a legacy has somewhat continued for a retired Prime Minister who still wields considerabl
The Aomori Expressway is a two-lane national expressway spur route in Aomori, Aomori Prefecture, Japan. It is owned and operated by East Nippon Expressway Company and is signed E4A as a direct extension and spur route of the Tōhoku Expressway; the expressway is referred to as the Tōhoku Jūkan Expressway Hachinohe Route. The expressway serves as an extension to the Tōhoku Expressway and runs through southern areas of the city of Aomori. From Aomori Interchange, it runs east. Soon after the expressway meets National Route 7, which serves for several kilometers from here as a frontage road to the expressway; the two roads have are linked by the Aomori-chūō Interchange where tolls are collected for the entire expressway, including any tolls accrued from travelling from the Tōhoku Expressway. The expressway continues east and splits from National Route 7 before it comes to its end at Aomori-higashi Interchange near the western terminus of the Michinoku Toll Road; the speed limit is 70 km/h for the entire route.
Construction on Aomori Expressway began in 1999 and was opened to traffic on September 28, 2003. The completion of the expressway reduced travel times from the Tōhoku Expressway to Central Aomori by 11 minutes and reduced congestion along the Aomori West Bypass. Though the Aomori Expressway terminates at Aomori-higashi Interchange, it is planned to connect with the northern terminus of the Hachinohe Expressway in the town of Oirase via a series of toll roads; the entire expressway is in Aomori Prefecture. It is to be noted that the expressway is a direct extension of the Tōhoku Expressway. Therefore, the distance and exit numbers continue from the sequence of the Tōhoku Expressway, starting at 677.2 kilometres. East Nippon Expressway Company