2012 United States presidential election
The 2012 United States presidential election was the 57th quadrennial American presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 6, 2012. The Democratic nominee, President Barack Obama, his running mate, Vice President Joe Biden, were elected to a second term, they defeated the Republican ticket of former Governor Mitt Romney of Massachusetts and Representative Paul Ryan of Wisconsin. As the incumbent president, Obama secured the Democratic nomination with no serious opposition; the Republicans experienced a competitive primary. Romney was competitive in the polls and won the support of many party leaders, but he faced challenges from a number of more conservative contenders. Romney clinched his party's nomination in May, defeating Rick Santorum, Newt Gingrich, several other candidates; the campaigns focused on domestic issues, debate centered around sound responses to the Great Recession. Other issues included long-term federal budget issues, the future of social insurance programs, the Affordable Care Act, Obama's marquee legislative program.
Foreign policy was discussed, including the phase-out of the Iraq War, military spending, the Iranian nuclear program, appropriate counteractions to terrorism. The campaign was marked by a sharp rise in fundraising, including from nominally independent Super PACs. Obama defeated Romney, winning a majority of both the Electoral College. Obama won 51.1% of the popular vote compared to Romney's 47.2%. Obama was the first incumbent since Franklin D. Roosevelt in 1944 to win reelection with fewer electoral votes and a lower popular vote percentage than had been won in the previous election, was the first two-term president since Ronald Reagan to win both his presidential bids with a majority of the nationwide popular vote. In 2011, several state legislatures passed new voting laws pertaining to voter identification, with the stated purpose of combating voter fraud. Florida, Ohio and West Virginia's state legislatures approved measures to shorten early voting periods. Florida and Iowa barred all felons from voting.
Kansas, South Carolina, Tennessee and Wisconsin state legislatures passed laws requiring voters to have government-issued IDs before they could cast their ballots. This meant that people without driver's licenses or passports had to gain new forms of ID. Obama, the NAACP, the Democratic Party fought against many of the new state laws. Former President Bill Clinton denounced them, saying, "There has never been in my lifetime, since we got rid of the poll tax and all the Jim Crow burdens on voting, the determined effort to limit the franchise that we see today", he was referring to Jim Crow laws passed in southern states near the turn of the twentieth century that disenfranchised most blacks from voting and excluded them from the political process for more than six decades. Clinton said the moves would disenfranchise core voter blocs that trend liberal, including college students and Latinos. Rolling Stone magazine criticized the American Legislative Exchange Council for lobbying in states to bring about these laws, to "solve" a problem that does not exist.
The Obama campaign fought against the Ohio law, pushing for a petition and statewide referendum to repeal it in time for the 2012 election. In addition, the Pennsylvania legislature proposed a plan to change its representation in the electoral college from the traditional winner-take-all model to a district-by-district model; as the governorship and both houses of its legislature were Republican-controlled, the move was viewed by some as an attempt to reduce Democratic chances. With an incumbent president running for re-election against token opposition, the race for the Democratic nomination was uneventful; the nomination process consisted of primaries and caucuses, held by the 50 states, as well as Guam, Puerto Rico, Washington, D. C. U. S. Virgin Islands, American Samoa, Democrats Abroad. Additionally, high-ranking party members known as superdelegates each received one vote in the convention. A few of the primary challengers surpassed the president's vote total in individual counties in several of the seven contested primaries, though none made a significant impact in the delegate count.
Running unopposed everywhere else, President Obama cemented his status as the Democratic presumptive nominee on April 3, 2012, by securing the minimum number of pledged delegates needed to obtain the nomination. Candidates with considerable name recognition who entered the race for the Republican presidential nomination in the early stages of the primary campaign included Representative and former Libertarian nominee Ron Paul, former Minnesota Governor Tim Pawlenty, who co-chaired John McCain's campaign in 2008, former Massachusetts Governor Mitt Romney, the runner-up for the nomination in the 2008 cycle, former Speaker of the House Newt Gingrich; the first debate took place on May 5, 2011, in Greenville, South Carolina, with businessman Herman Cain, former New Mexico Governor Gary Johnson, Ron Paul, Tim Pawlenty, former Pennsylvania Senator Rick Santorum participating. Another debate took place a month with Newt Gingrich, Mitt Romney, former Utah Governor Jon Huntsman, Rep. Michele Bachmann participating, Gary Johnson excluded.
A total of thirteen debates were held before the Iowa caucuses. The first major event of the campaign was the Ames Straw Poll, which took place in Iowa on August 13, 2011. Michele Bachmann won the straw poll. Pawlenty withdrew from the race after a poor showin
1992 United States presidential election
The 1992 United States presidential election was the 52nd quadrennial presidential election. It was held on Tuesday, November 3, 1992. Democratic Governor Bill Clinton of Arkansas defeated incumbent Republican President George H. W. Bush, independent businessman Ross Perot of Texas, a number of minor candidates. Bush had alienated many of the conservatives in his party by breaking his 1988 campaign pledge against raising taxes, but he fended off a primary challenge from conservative commentator Pat Buchanan. Bush's popularity after his success in the Gulf War dissuaded high-profile Democratic candidates like Mario Cuomo from entering the 1992 Democratic primaries. Clinton, a leader of the centrist Democratic Leadership Council, established himself as the front-runner for the Democratic nomination by sweeping the Super Tuesday primaries, he defeated former & future Governor of California Jerry Brown, former Massachusetts Senator Paul Tsongas, other candidates to win his party's nomination, chose Senator Al Gore as his running mate.
Billionaire Ross Perot launched an independent campaign, emphasizing his opposition to the North American Free Trade Agreement and his plan to reduce the national debt. The economy was in recession and Bush's greatest strength, foreign policy, was regarded as much less important following the dissolution of the Soviet Union and the end of the Cold War and the peaceful climate in the Middle East after the Gulf War. Perot led in several polls taken in June 1992, but damaged his candidacy by temporarily dropping out of the race in July; the Bush campaign criticized Clinton's character and emphasized Bush's foreign policy successes, while Clinton focused on the economy. Clinton won a plurality in the popular vote and a majority of the electoral vote, breaking a streak of three straight Republican victories. Clinton swept the Northeastern United States, marking the start of Democratic dominance in the region in presidential elections, while performing well in the Midwest and the West. Along with Jimmy Carter and Gerald Ford, Bush is one of three incumbent presidents since World War II to be defeated in the general election.
Perot won 18.9% of the popular vote, the highest share of the vote won by a candidate outside of the two major parties since 1912. Although he failed to win any electoral votes, Perot found support in every state, Clinton's home state of Arkansas was the lone state to give a majority of its vote to any candidate. Conservative journalist Pat Buchanan was the primary opponent of President Bush. Buchanan's best showing was in the New Hampshire primary on February 18, 1992—where Bush won by a 53–38% margin. President Bush won 73% of all primary votes, with 9,199,463 votes. Buchanan won 2,899,488 votes. Just over 100,000 votes were cast for all other candidates, half of which were write-in votes for H. Ross Perot. Former Minnesota Governor Harold Stassen who had run for President 9 times since 1944 mounted his final campaign. President George H. W. Bush and Vice President Dan Quayle won renomination by the Republican Party. However, the success of the conservative opposition forced the moderate Bush to move further to the right than in the previous election, to incorporate many conservative planks in the party platform.
Bush allowed Buchanan to give the keynote address at the Republican National Convention in Houston and his culture war speech alienated many moderates. With intense pressure on the Buchanan delegates to relent, the tally for president went as follows: George H. W. Bush 2166 Pat Buchanan 18 former ambassador Alan Keyes 1Vice President Dan Quayle was renominated by voice vote. After the successful performance by U. S. and coalition forces in the Persian Gulf War, President George H. W. Bush's approval ratings were 89%, his re-election was considered likely. As a result, several high-profile candidates, such as Mario Cuomo and Jesse Jackson, refused to seek the Democratic nomination. In addition, Senator Al Gore refused to seek the nomination due to the fact his son was struck by a car and was undergoing extensive surgery as well as physical therapy. However, Tom Harkin, Paul Tsongas, Jerry Brown, Larry Agran, Bob Kerrey, Douglas Wilder and Bill Clinton chose to run as candidates. U. S. Senator Tom Harkin ran as a populist liberal with labor union support.
Former U. S. Senator Paul Tsongas highlighted his political independence and fiscal conservatism. Former California Governor Jerry Brown, who had run for the Democratic nomination in 1976 and 1980 while he was still Governor, declared a significant reform agenda, including Congressional term limits, campaign finance reform, the adoption of a flat income tax. Nebraska Senator Bob Kerrey was an attractive candidate based on his business and military background, but made several gaffes on the campaign trail. Arkansas Governor Bill Clinton positioned himself as New Democrat, he was still unknown nationally before the primary season. That changed however, when a woman named Gennifer Flowers appeared in the press to reveal allegations of an affair. Clinton rebutted the story by appearing on 60 Minutes with Hillary Clinton; the primary season began with U. S. Senator Tom Harkin winning his native Iowa as expected. Paul Tsongas of Massachusetts won the New Hampshire primary on February 18, but Clinton's second-place finish, helped by his speech labeling himself "The Comeback Kid," energized his campaign.
Jerry Brown won the Maine
Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. It is applied to living organisms, most of the time to humans, it is a key geographical term. In simple terms population density refers to the number of people living in an area per kilometer square. Population density is population divided by total land water volume, as appropriate. Low densities may lead to further reduced fertility; this is called the Allee effect after the scientist. Examples of the causes in low population densities include: Increased problems with locating sexual mates Increased inbreeding For humans, population density is the number of people per unit of area quoted per square kilometer or square mile; this may be calculated for a county, country, another territory or the entire world. The world's population is around 7,500,000,000 and Earth's total area is 510,000,000 square kilometers. Therefore, the worldwide human population density is around 7,500,000,000 ÷ 510,000,000 = 14.7 per km2. If only the Earth's land area of 150,000,000 km2 is taken into account human population density is 50 per km2.
This includes all continental and island land area, including Antarctica. If Antarctica is excluded population density rises to over 55 people per km2. However, over half of the Earth's land mass consists of areas inhospitable to human habitation, such as deserts and high mountains, population tends to cluster around seaports and fresh-water sources. Thus, this number by itself does not give any helpful measurement of human population density. Several of the most densely populated territories in the world are city-states and dependencies; these territories have a small area and a high urbanization level, with an economically specialized city population drawing on rural resources outside the area, illustrating the difference between high population density and overpopulation The potential to maintain the agricultural aspects of deserts is limited as there is not enough precipitation to support a sustainable land. The population in these areas are low. Therefore, cities in the Middle East, such as Dubai, have been increasing in population and infrastructure growth at a fast pace.
Cities with high population densities are, by some, considered to be overpopulated, though this will depend on factors like quality of housing and infrastructure and access to resources. Most of the most densely populated cities are in Southeast Asia, though Cairo and Lagos in Africa fall into this category. City population and area are, however dependent on the definition of "urban area" used: densities are invariably higher for the central city area than when suburban settlements and the intervening rural areas are included, as in the areas of agglomeration or metropolitan area, the latter sometimes including neighboring cities. For instance, Milwaukee has a greater population density when just the inner city is measured, the surrounding suburbs excluded. In comparison, based on a world population of seven billion, the world's inhabitants, as a loose crowd taking up ten square feet per person, would occupy a space a little larger than Delaware's land area; the Gaza Strip has a population density of 5,046 pop/km.
Although arithmetic density is the most common way of measuring population density, several other methods have been developed to provide a more accurate measure of population density over a specific area. Arithmetic density: The total number of people / area of land Physiological density: The total population / area of arable land Agricultural density: The total rural population / area of arable land Residential density: The number of people living in an urban area / area of residential land Urban density: The number of people inhabiting an urban area / total area of urban land Ecological optimum: The density of population that can be supported by the natural resources Demography Human geography Idealized population Optimum population Population genetics Population health Population momentum Population pyramid Rural transport problem Small population size Distance sampling List of population concern organizations List of countries by population density List of cities by population density List of city districts by population density List of English districts by population density List of European cities proper by population density List of United States cities by population density List of islands by population density List of U.
S. states by population density List of Australian suburbs by population density Selected Current and Historic City, Ward & Neighborhood Density Duncan Smith / UCL Centre for Advanced Spatial Analysis. "World Population Density". Exploratory map shows data from the Global Human Settlement Layer produced by the European Commission JRC and the CIESIN Columbia University
Norristown is a borough in and the county seat of Montgomery County, United States. Located along the Schuylkill River six miles from the Philadelphia city limits, Norristown has a population of 34,324 as of the 2010 U. S. Census, it is the fourth most populous municipality in the county and second most populous borough in Pennsylvania. The area where Norristown sits was owned by the family of Isaac Norris, who purchased the land from William Penn in 1704. Named the county seat in 1784 when Montgomery County was formed, Norristown was incorporated as a borough in 1812 and subsequently enlarged in 1853. About 500 people lived there at the time of its incorporation. Growing after the Civil War, it swelled to 22,265 people by 1900 and by 1940 it was home to 38,181 Norristonians, making it the most populous borough in Pennsylvania before declining in the decades after World War II. At its height, Norristown was an industrial, retail and government center. Breweries, cigar factories, textile mills, foundries, rolling mills, lumber yards provided ample employment for skilled laborers and artisans.
The downtown featured two department stores, several theaters, enough goods and services that residents never had to leave town to find anything they needed. Although settled by the English and a handful of Germans, Scots and Swedes, in the mid-1800s the Irish began arriving in large numbers, followed by waves of Italians at the turn of the century. With the opening of new malls in nearby King of Prussia and Plymouth Meeting, the downtown declined in the decades after World War II. Industry soon followed, as many companies closed or relocated into new industrial parks throughout Montgomery County. Efforts to revitalize and reshape itself as a 21st-century community have produced minimal results. Norristown is located in southeastern Pennsylvania 6 mi ) northwest of Philadelphia. Totaling 3.519 square miles in land area, the municipality sits along the Schuylkill River. Two major tributaries, the Stony Creek and the Saw Mill Run, bisect the town into thirds and empty directly into the Schuylkill.
The town’s terrain is hilly in the areas closest to downtown, which itself sits on a plateau surrounded by all three major waterways. Norristown has four distinct neighborhoods: the West End, the East End, the North End, the downtown, it is bounded by West Norriton, East Norriton, Plymouth Townships, as well as Bridgeport Borough. As of the 2010 census, Norristown's population is 34,324, which represents a 9.7% increase since 2000. The municipality's population was 40.9% White, 35.9% Black or African American, 0.4% Native American, 2.1% Asian, 0.1% Native Hawaiian, 4.6% were two or more races. 28.3% of the population were of Hispanic or Latino ancestry, triple the Hispanic population in 2000. There were 7,498 families residing in the municipality; the population density was 9,753.9 people per square mile. There were 13,420 housing units at an average density of 3,813.5 per square mile. Of the 11,963 households, 62.7% were family households and 37.3% were non-family households. Of the 7,498 families, 58.2% had their own and related children under the age of 18 living with them.
The average household size was 2.79 and the average family size was 3.41. The median age of all residents is 31.2 years, with an age distribution of 26.2% under the age of 18, 43.5% between ages 18 and 44, 21.2% between ages 45 and 64, 9.1% ages 65 and above. According to the U. S. Census Bureau's 2012 American Community Survey, the median household income was $42,764. Males had a median income of $34,214 versus $34,086 for females; the per capita income was $21,204. About 17.3% of families and 19.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 28.3% of those under the age of 18 and 11.8% of those 65 and older. 76.0% of all persons 25 and older have a high school diploma or higher, while 16.7% have a college degree. Norristown’s economy is based on institutions in the government, healthcare and social services sectors; the Montgomery County government is the municipality’s largest employer. Other major Norristown employers with a considerable presence are the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection, the Montgomery County Intermediate Unit, USM, U.
S. Roofing Corporation, BartonPartners Architects+Planners, Chandler Bats, the Norristown Area School District. Norristown is home to the corporate headquarters of both USM and U. S. Roofing. In addition to major employers, there are numerous small professional, manufacturing and distribution firms operating in the municipality, as well as law offices and local realty companies. Norristown has been a home rule municipality since 1986 when voters adopted a charter with a manager/council form of government and a seven-member municipal council; the office of mayor was abolished in July 2004 after a public referendum amended the municipal charter. Executive and administrative authority is now delegated to a council appointed Municipal Manager; the municipality is part of the Fourth Congressional District, the 70th State House Districts and the 17th State Senate District. Norristown sits at the junction of several major roads in the Philadelphia region. Main Street and Airy Street run east–west through the downtown leading to interchanges for I-476 and th
Genuardi's Family Markets L. P. was a chain of supermarkets located in the Northeastern United States. Family-owned until purchased by Safeway in 2000, Genuardi's had its headquarters in the Bentwood Executive Campus in East Norriton Township, Pennsylvania in Greater Philadelphia. After many of its remaining stores were sold or closed, there was a Safeway-owned store under the former chain's name located in Audubon, Pennsylvania that remained open until May 2015. In 1920, Gaspare and Josephine Genuardi owned a farm near Norristown and grew fruits and vegetables; the couple went around to their neighbors delivering produce to them. Gaspare and Josephine were the parents of nine children. Of the nine were Charlie, Tom and Jim who helped out with the business; the five sons soon became known as the "Genuardi brothers" by the customers. The Genuardi family opened its first supermarket in Norristown in 1954, which until its closure was the oldest surviving Genuardi's in operation; the Genuardi family maintains a nursery and florist in Norristown.
The five Genuardi brothers expanded their supermarkets throughout the western Philadelphia suburbs, spanning Bucks, Delaware and Montgomery counties. The company has never had any stores within Philadelphia city limits. In 1975, it acquired some former Pantry Pride and A&P stores, more ex-A&P properties rejected by Super Fresh in 1985; the chain's first surviving stores outside Norristown opened in the 1980s. As the 1990s approached, the five brothers decided to transfer ownership of the stores to a third generation of family, which consisted of Jim Jr. Joe Jr. Charles A. Larry, Tom Jr. Michael, Anthony and David Genuardi. Charles A. was named President/CEO of Genuardi's Family Markets. During this time, it owned a discount grocery chain called Mad Grocer. In the late 1990s, the company expanded into New Jersey. In December 2000, news spread. In the summer of 2004, all Genuardi's stores in Delaware were converted to the Safeway banner when they were unionized. Safeway had stores of its own in southern Delaware.
There were issues and local outrage over the Safeway takeover due to claims of price increases, the changeover of many products to Safeway's own brands, the use of a loyalty card, not needed under Genuardi's previous ownership. Except for the Safeway conversions, Genuardi's remained non-union, despite heavy unionization in Safeway's other chains. In 2005, grocery delivery was added to select Genuardi's stores; this allowed customers to order groceries via the Genuardi's/Safeway websites and have it delivered by truck in a set time frame. During 2010, underperforming Genuardi's stores did not have their leases renewed and Safeway closed store locations in Newtown Square, Glen Mills and Lansdale in Pennsylvania, Voorhees in New Jersey. In September 2011, Food Trade News reported that Safeway was looking to sell all or part of Genuardi's; that month, Supermarket News reported that a sale of a number of Genuardi's locations to Giant Food Stores appeared to be imminent. On January 5, 2012, Giant announced its deal to acquire 15 Genuardi's Family Markets across the Philadelphia area in a $106 million deal.
For three weeks in July 2012, Giant opened 5 of the former Genuardi's stores each week. Weis Markets announced on February 13, 2012 the purchase of 3 stores in Montgomery and Bucks counties; the three Weis stores opened on June 16, 2012. Although it was to be acquired by Giant, it was announced on June 6, 2012 that the Newtown store would instead become a McCaffrey's store; the Newtown store became a McCaffrey's on July 15. After failing to find a buyer for the location, the Cherry Hill store closed on August 4, 2012 and became Whole Foods Market; the Barnegat and Egg Harbor Township/Northfield stores closed on December 12, 2012, the Barnegat store will re-open as Safeway's sister chain Acme in 2016 and the Egg Harbor Township/Northfield store became JR's Fresh Market in 2015 but that closed in 2018. The Marlton store closed on February 12, 2013; the Audubon store, the last remaining store, closed on May 27, 2015. Acme Markets, the chain's long-time rival, announced in late 2015 it would reopen the closed Barnegat location as an Acme.
The store reopened as an Acme on February 5, 2016. Official website Genuardi Family Markets Employee Handbook, 1995
Safeway, Inc. is an American supermarket chain founded in 1915 by Marion Barton Skaggs. It is a subsidiary of Albertsons after being acquired by private equity investors led by Cerberus Capital Management in January 2015. Safeway's primary base of operations is in the western and central United States, with some stores located in the Mid-Atlantic region of the Eastern Seaboard; the subsidiary is headquartered in Pleasanton, Alameda County, with its parent company headquartered in Boise, Idaho. Safeway stores operate under the logo of a stylized white "S" inside a rounded red square with the slogan "Ingredients for life". Following the organics trend, the stores have expanded the number of organic fruits and vegetables in the produce section and offer other items under the "O Organics" label. Stores may have a deli counter, a meat department, a produce section, a flower department, a bakery, a pharmacy, a liquor section, and/or many aisles of nonperishable items; the stores offer many in-house private label brands as well as name brands across all product categories.
In April 1915, Marion Barton Skaggs purchased his father's 576-square-foot grocery store in American Falls, for $1,089. The chain, which operated as two separate businesses, Skaggs Cash Stores and Skaggs United Stores and Skaggs enlisted the help of his five brothers to grow the network of stores. M. B.'s business strategy, to give his customers value and to expand by keeping a narrow profit margin, proved spectacularly successful. By 1926, he had opened 428 Skaggs stores in 10 states. M. B. doubled the size of his business that year when he merged his company with 322 Safeway stores and incorporated as Safeway, Inc. The original slogan was "an invitation" to "Drive the Safeway; the point of the name was that the grocery operated on a cash-and-carry basis — it did not offer credit, as grocers traditionally had done. It was the "safe way". In 1926, Charles E. Merrill, the founder of the Merrill Lynch brokerage firm, saw an opportunity to consolidate the West Coast grocery industry. Towards this end, he purchased the 322-store Safeway chain of W.
R. H. Weldon, who wished to exit retailing and concentrate on wholesale. In June 1926, Merrill offered Skaggs either $7 million outright or $1.5 million plus 30,000 shares in the merged firm. Skaggs took the latter. On July 1, 1926, Safeway merged with the 673 stores from Skaggs United Stores of Idaho and Skaggs Cash Stores of California. On completion of the Skaggs/Safeway merger, M. B. Skaggs became the Chief Executive of the business. Two years Skaggs listed Safeway on the New York Stock Exchange. In the 1930s, Safeway introduced produce pricing by the pound, adding "sell by" dates on perishables, nutritional labeling, some of the first parking lots; the merger created the largest chain of grocery stores west of the Mississippi. In the 1930s, Charles E. Merrill temporarily left Merrill Lynch to help manage Safeway. At the time of the merger, the company was headquartered in Nevada. In 1929, it was relocated to a former grocery warehouse in California. Safeway headquarters remained there until the move to Pleasanton, California in 1996.
The initial public offering price of Safeway stock was $226 in 1927. A five for one split in 1928 brought the price down to under $50. Over the next few years, Charles Merrill, with financing supplied by Merrill Lynch began aggressively acquiring numerous regional grocery store chains for Safeway in a rollup strategy. Early acquisitions included significant parts of Piggly Wiggly chain as part of the breakup of that company by Merrill Lynch and Wall Street. Most transactions involved the swap of stock certificates, with little cash changing hands. Most acquired chains retained their own names until the mid-1930s. In 1929, there were rumors of a Safeway-Kroger merger; the number of stores peaked at 3,400 in 1932. The Great Depression had impacted the chain, which began to focus on cost control. In addition, numerous smaller grocery stores were being replaced with larger supermarket stores. By 1933, the chain ranked second in the grocery industry behind The Great Atlantic & Pacific Tea Company and ahead of Kroger.
In 1935, Safeway sold its nine stores in Honolulu, Hawaii "...because of the inconvenience of proper supervision." In 1935, independent groceries in California convinced the California legislature to enact a progressive tax on chain stores. Before the act took effect, Safeway filed a petition to have the law put to a referendum. In 1936, the California electorate voted to repeal the law. In 1936, Safeway introduced; the company expanded into Canada in 1929 with 127 stores. The company has operations in Saudi Arabia and Kuwait in a licensing and management agreement with the Tamimi Group during the 1980s. In 1981, it acquired 49% of Mexican retailer Casa Ley. Safeway achieved international expansion by acquiring one or more small chains in a given country, it expanded into Saudi Arabia and Kuwait, through a joint venture. This initial nucleus of stores received Safeway systems and technology and expanded organically. International chains acquired include: In 1941, Marion B. Skaggs retired from the Safeway board of directors.
In 1947, the company's sales exceeded $1 billion for the first time. By 1951, total sales had reached nearly
Old Norriton Presbyterian Church
Old Norriton Presbyterian Church is a historic Presbyterian church located in East Norriton Township, Montgomery County, Pennsylvania. It was built in 1698, is a one-story brownstone structure measuring 37 feet, 6 inches, by 27 feet, or three bays by two bays, it has round-arch windows. The interior features a barrel vault ceiling, it was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1979. Lower Providence Presbyterian Church website