The KK100, formerly known as Kingkey 100 and Kingkey Finance Tower, is a supertall skyscraper in Shenzhen, Guangdong province, China. It is located on Shennan East Road and within Caiwuwei, an area described as the financial district of Shenzhen. It belongs to Shenzhens Luohu District and is situated east of Lizhi Park, the mixed-use building rises 441.8 metres and contains 100 floors for office space and a hotel. Adjacent to KK100 is the KK Mall, which opened its doors November 26,2010, and contains luxury brand stores, the KK Mall hosts Shenzhens first IMAX cinema. The St. Regis Hotel occupies floors 75 to 98 of the main tower and it is currently the second tallest building in Shenzhen as well as being the 14th tallest building in the world. It is the tallest building designed by a British architect. There is a fountain in front of the building. In December 2011, the Emporis Skyscraper Award awarded the building a fourth place, the building has a height-width ratio of 9.5,1, thus becoming one of Chinas slimmest buildings.
List of tallest buildings in Shenzhen List of tallest buildings in the Peoples Republic of China List of buildings with 100 floors or more Kingkey 100 on CTBUH Skyscraper Center
JPMorgan Chase Tower (Houston)
The JPMorgan Chase Tower, formerly Texas Commerce Tower, is a 305.4 m, 75-story,2,243,013 sq. ft skyscraper at 600 Travis Street in Downtown Houston, Texas. The tower was built between 1979 and 1981 as the Texas Commerce Tower and it was designed by noted architects I. M. Pei & Partners. In some early plans, the building reached up to 80 stories, nonetheless, when it was completed, it was the eighth tallest building in the world. The building was developed as part of a partnership between Texas Commerce Bank and Khalid bin Mahfouz and it was built on the site where the Uptown Theatre, demolished in 1965, once stood. S. Bank Tower, was built in 1990, JPMorgan Chase Tower is not currently connected to the Houston Downtown Tunnel System. This system forms a network of subterranean, climate-controlled, pedestrian walkways that link twenty-five full city blocks, the Tower includes 22,000 square feet of retail space. The sky lobby observation deck is located on the 60th floor, one can take the express elevator, providing a panoramic view of the city of Houston thanks to the use of wide glass spans and thirteen-foot ceilings.
While the towers name reflects the bank JPMorgan Chase, the space designated to Chase is a single branch office on the bottom floor. The tower is owned by Prime Asset Management and managed by its original owner, police were forced to cordon off the area due to the amount of debris in the streets. At first, it was speculated that the glass came off the building due to impact from debris or due to high-speed winds in the confined spaces, flying glass debris must be entirely governed by drag and lift forces that overcome gravity for a considerable time period. This theory was proposed because an increase in speed produces a drop in external pressure. List of tallest buildings in Houston List of tallest buildings by U. S
A skyscraper is a tall, continuously habitable building having multiple floors. When the term was used in the 1880s it described a building of 10 to 20 floors. Mostly designed for office and residential uses, a skyscraper can be called a high-rise, for buildings above a height of 300 m, the term supertall can be used, while skyscrapers reaching beyond 600 m are classified as megatall. One common feature of skyscrapers is having a steel framework that supports curtain walls and these curtain walls either bear on the framework below or are suspended from the framework above, rather than resting on load-bearing walls of conventional construction. Some early skyscrapers have a frame that enables the construction of load-bearing walls taller than of those made of reinforced concrete. Modern skyscrapers walls are not load-bearing, and most skyscrapers are characterized by surface areas of windows made possible by steel frames. However, skyscrapers can have curtain walls that mimic conventional walls with a surface area of windows.
Modern skyscrapers often have a structure, and are designed to act like a hollow cylinder to resist wind, seismic. To appear more slender, allow less wind exposure, and transmit more daylight to the ground, many skyscrapers have a design with setbacks, a relatively big building may be considered a skyscraper if it protrudes well above its built environment and changes the overall skyline. The maximum height of structures has progressed historically with building methods and technologies, the Burj Khalifa is currently the tallest building in the world. High-rise buildings are considered shorter than skyscrapers, the first steel-frame skyscraper was the Home Insurance Building in Chicago, Illinois in 1885. Even the scholars making the argument find it to be purely academic and this definition was based on the steel skeleton—as opposed to constructions of load-bearing masonry, which passed their practical limit in 1891 with Chicagos Monadnock Building. What is the characteristic of the tall office building.
The force and power of altitude must be in it, the glory and it must be every inch a proud and soaring thing, rising in sheer exaltation that from bottom to top it is a unit without a single dissenting line. Some structural engineers define a highrise as any vertical construction for which wind is a significant load factor than earthquake or weight. Note that this criterion fits not only high-rises but some other tall structures, the word skyscraper often carries a connotation of pride and achievement. A loose convention of some in the United States and Europe draws the limit of a skyscraper at 150 m or 490 ft. The tallest building in ancient times was the 146 m Great Pyramid of Giza in ancient Egypt and it was not surpassed in height for thousands of years, the 14th century AD Lincoln Cathedral being conjectured by many to have exceeded it
Bank of America Tower (Manhattan)
The Bank of America Tower at One Bryant Park is a 1,200 ft skyscraper in the Midtown area of Manhattan in New York City. It is located on Avenue of the Americas, between 42nd and 43rd Streets, opposite Bryant Park, the US$1 billion project was designed by COOKFOX Architects, and advertised to be one of the most efficient and ecologically friendly buildings in the world. It is the fourth tallest building in New York City, after One World Trade Center,432 Park Avenue, and the Empire State Building, the buildings Urban Garden Room at 43rd Street and 6th Avenue is open to the public. The towers architectural spire is 255.5 ft tall and was placed on December 15,2007, several buildings were demolished to make way for the tower. Among them was the Hotel Diplomat, a 13-story structure which occupied the site at 108 West 43rd Street since 1911, and Henry Millers Theatre, the Bank of America Tower is considered a worldwide model for green architecture in skyscrapers. The tower features a system, which captures rainwater for reuse.
Bank of America states that the building is largely of recycled. Air entering the building is filtered, as is common, Bank of America Tower is the first skyscraper designed to attain a Platinum LEED Certification. The Bank of America Tower is constructed using a concrete manufactured with slag, the mixture used in the tower concrete is 55% cement and 45% slag. Each ton of cement produced creates about one ton of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Temperature control and the production of some of its energy are accomplished in a friendly manner for the tower. Insulated glazing reduces thermal loss, lowering energy consumption and increasing transparency, carbon dioxide sensors signal increased fresh air ventilation when elevated levels of carbon dioxide are detected in the building. Conditioned air for the occupants is provided by multiple air column units located in the tenant space that deliver 50 °F air into a raised access floor plenum and this underfloor air system provides users with the ability to control their own space temperature as well as improving the ventilation effectiveness.
When building churn occurs, workstation moves can be performed easily with lower cost. Ice batteries have been used since absorption chillers first made ice commercially available 150 years ago, before the invention of the electric light bulb. Water conservation features in the tower include waterless urinals, which are estimated to save 8,000,000 US gal of water per year, the tower has a 4. 6-megawatt cogeneration plant, which provides part of the base-load energy requirements. In summer 2013, the Durst Organization employed Brooklyn Grange Rooftop Farm to install, when comparing building height, only the structural height is used according to rules and regulations of the World Council on Tall Buildings. Currently, the New York Times Building and the Chrysler Building are tied for the position of the third tallest buildings in New York City
Upon completion in 2014, it stood at 1,005 feet tall, making it the tallest residential building in the city for a few months until the completion of 432 Park Avenue. The building has 92 condominium units on top of a new Park Hyatt Hotel with 210 rooms, Extell Development Company’s founder and President, Gary Barnett, spent 15 years assembling the property and air rights on 57th Street. At first, he said he wanted to build a 300,000 square-foot building, foundation work started in January 2010. In May 2012, it was announced a buyer had agreed to pay a price in New York of more than $90 million for the 10. Just two months later, the Prime Minister of Qatar, Sheikh Hamad bin Jassim bin Jaber Al Thani, after the sales offices had been open for six months, Extell announced One57 was 50% sold with $1 billion in transactions. On June 20,2012, it was announced that framework for the top floor had been completed, shortly after, it was revealed the 13, 550-square-foot “Winter Garden” duplex penthouse, located on the 75th and 76th floors, had gone into contract for an undisclosed amount.
In October 2012, entrepreneur Michael Hirtenstein and One57 developer Gary Barnett had a public clash regarding a unit Hirtenstein agreed to purchase in the building. Hirtenstein claimed he would not spend $16 million for a unit without seeing it, by November 5, the crane was secured and through traffic in the surrounding area was allowed. The New York City Department of Buildings stated they had received complaints about the work site. However, the crane was inspected a week earlier and considered in good shape, City officials called the failure of the boom a freakish occurrence. In May 2013, Extell announced plans to hoist a new crane on May 10–11, the plans endorsed by the New York City Buildings Department involved a mandatory evacuation of the neighboring Alwyn Court as well as the Briarcliff Apartment Building during the process. The residents of the building would receive up to $1,500. The coop board at Alwyn Court announced that it would seek an order against the forced evacuation. The crane was hoisted on May 11 as planned after Extell and its tasks completed, the replacement crane was removed on November 11,2013.
Neither Extell nor Lend Lease has ever offered any explanation of the fire, the cause of the fire remains a mystery. The tower was designed by Pritzker Prize-winning French architect Christian de Portzamparc, the interiors are by New York-based designer Thomas Juul-Hansen. The use of dark and light glass on the building’s exterior creates vertical stripes, while manipulating sunlight, the tower is characterized by its rippled canopies and numerous setbacks on 57th Street, its mottled fenestration, curved tops and accentuated verticality. One57 is currently the tallest mid-block building in New York City, having succeeded 40 Wall Street, One57 was named Worst Building of the Year in 2014 by Curbed. com, whose review said, Pretty much everyone agrees that its wavy blue facade is ugly
Wells Fargo Plaza (Houston)
The Wells Fargo Plaza, formerly the Allied Bank Plaza and First Interstate Bank Plaza, is a skyscraper located at 1000 Louisiana Street in Downtown Houston, Texas in the United States. It is the tallest building named for Wells Fargo, from street level, the building is 302.4 meters tall and contains 71 floors. It extends four more stories below street level, Wells Fargo Plaza features a wide variety of fine amenities for its tenants including The Houstonian Lite Health Club located on the 14th floor. Sky lobbies on the 34/35th and 58/59th floors are not publicly accessible and these sky lobbies are served by double-decker elevators and primarily serve as transfer floors to local elevators. It was designed by Richard Keating, FAIA while a partner of Skidmore, in 1983 the building lost a large number of windows during Hurricane Alicia. Originally named the Allied Bank Plaza, it was renamed to the First Interstate Bank Plaza in 1988, First Interstate Bancorp was taken over in 1996 by Wells Fargo.
In 1993, the Consulate-General of the United Kingdom in Houston leased 9,707 square feet in the First Interstate Plaza, in 1995 Koll Real Estate lost the management contract for the First Interstate Plaza. In 1996 NGC Corp. leased 260,000 square feet in the First Interstate Plaza, the company moved over 700 jobs from a suburban office building along U. S. Route 290 to the Wells Fargo Plaza. In 2012, the company moved out of the building as part of downsizing initiatives while undergoing bankruptcy procedures, in 2006, Targa Resources signed an 11-year lease to occupy 101,600 square feet of space in the Wells Fargo Plaza. Targa expanded from its space and began to occupy floors 43 through 46. In 2007 CB Richard Ellis became the leasing agent for Wells Fargo Plaza. As of October of that year the building was 91% leased, the leased space consists mostly of large tenants, with some mid-sized tenants occupying space. In December 2014, PwC moved into the formerly occupied by Dynegy. The Houston office of PwC is primarily located in Suite 5800, Targa Resources is located in Suite 4300.
The Houstonian Lite club is located in a 12, 000-square-foot area on the 14th floor and it includes group exercise studio space, locker rooms, a private Pilates studio, and exercise equipment. The club, operated by The Redstone Cos. operators of The Houstonian Hotel, was the third Houstonian Lite club in Greater Houston and it had been under construction since December 2005. The owner of the Wells Fargo building, Metropolitan Life Insurance Co. and Metropolitan Tower Realty Company Inc. the Consulate-General of the United Kingdom in Houston is located in Suite 1900. At one point the Consulate-General of Japan in Houston was located in Suite 5300 and Suite 2300, at one point the Consulate-General of Switzerland in Houston resided in Suite 5670, the mission, which at a point moved to Two Allen Center, no longer exists
85 Sky Tower
85 Sky Tower, formerly known as the T & C Tower or Tuntex Sky Tower, is an 85-story skyscraper located in Lingya District, Taiwan. The structure is 347.5 m high, an antenna increases the pinnacle height to 378 m. Constructed from 1994 to 1997, it is the tallest skyscraper in Kaohsiung, there is no 44th floor in the building, the 43rd floor connects directly to the 45th floor. The pyramid shaped crown is the equivalent of 3 stories high, there is no elevator access to floors above 80. The columns and foundation are made of steel since at 85th storey the 21MPa Ultimate compressive strength of concrete collapses, the building was designed by C. Y. Lee & Partners and Hellmuth, Obata & Kassabaum, and has an unusual design with two separate 39-floor sections, which merge into a single central tower rising to a spire. This unique design leaves a space below the central part of the tower. The design was inspired by the first Kanji and Chinese character of the citys name, john W. Milton was Project Director on behalf of Turner International Inc, a subsidiary of Turner Construction.
The building was owned by the now defunct Tuntex Group, and is mainly offices, but includes residential space, a department store, office space and studio apartment occupy each side of the lower floors. There is an Atrium that extends from Level 45s Shimmer Ballroom to 83, List of tallest buildings in Taiwan List of tallest buildings in the world Tuntex Sky Tower on CTBUH Skyscraper Center Emporis Tuntex & Chien-Tai Tower at Structurae
Shenzhen Stock Exchange
The Shenzhen Stock Exchange is one of Chinas three stock exchanges, alongside the Shanghai Stock Exchange and Hong Kong Stock Exchange. It is based in the Futian district of Shenzhen, with a market capitalization of its listed companies around US$2.285 trillion in 2015, it is the 8th largest stock exchange in the world, and 4th largest in East Asia and Asia. Many of the companies within this market are subsidiaries of companies in which the Chinese government maintains controlling interest, the exchange opened the ChiNext board, a NASDAQ-type exchange for high-growth, high-tech start-ups, on October 23,2009. Listed companies,1700 Market capitalization, RMB3521745,3 million The Shenzhen Stock Exchange building is a skyscraper with a height of 245.8 metres and 49 floors. Its construction started in 2008 and was finished in 2013. The building was designed by Rem Koolhaass firm, the building is located at 2012 Shennan Blvd
At 1,046 feet, the structure was the worlds tallest building for 11 months before it was surpassed by the Empire State Building in 1931. It is the tallest brick building in the world, with a steel structure, in addition, The New York Times Building, which opened in 2007, is exactly level with the Chrysler Building in height. The Chrysler Building is an example of Art Deco architecture. In 2007, it was ranked ninth on the List of Americas Favorite Architecture by the American Institute of Architects and it was the headquarters of the Chrysler Corporation from 1930 until the mid-1950s. Although the building was built and designed specifically for the car manufacturer, Chrysler decided to pay for it himself, so that his children could inherit it. The Chrysler Building was designed by architect William Van Alen for a project of Walter P. Chrysler, when the ground breaking occurred on September 19,1928, there was an intense competition in New York City to build the worlds tallest skyscraper. Despite a frantic pace, no workers died during the construction of this skyscraper, Van Alens original design for the skyscraper called for a decorative jewel-like glass crown.
It featured a base in which the windows were tripled in height and topped by 12 stories with glass-wrapped corners. The height of the skyscraper was originally designed to be 246 meters. However, the proved to be too advanced and costly for building contractor William H. Reynolds. The design and lease were sold to Walter P. Chrysler, construction commenced on September 19,1928. In total,391,881 rivets were used and approximately 3,826,000 bricks were manually laid, contractors and engineers were joined by other building-services experts to coordinate construction. Prior to its completion, the building stood about even with a project at 40 Wall Street. Severance increased the height of his project and claimed the title of the worlds tallest building. In response, Van Alen obtained permission for a 38-meter long spire and had it secretly constructed inside the frame of the building, the spire was delivered to the site in four different sections. On October 23,1929, the section of the spire was hoisted to the top of the buildings dome.
The other remaining sections of the spire were hoisted and riveted to the first one in order in just 90 minutes. It was the first man-made structure to stand taller than 1,000 feet, Van Alens satisfaction in these accomplishments was likely muted by Walter Chryslers refusal to pay the balance of his architectural fee
Shun Hing Square
Shun Hing Square, known as Di Wang Tower is a 384-metre-tall skyscraper in Shenzhen, Guangdong province, China. The building was built at a pace of four floors in nine days, on the top floor is the Meridian View Centre, an observation deck. Its common nickname Diwang Building derives from the price for the piece of land it stands being the most expensive in Shenzhen at the time. 24,500 tonnes of steel were used in construction, the tallest building in China from 1996 to the completion of CITIC Plaza in Guangzhou in 1997. The first skyscraper in China to be one of the ten tallest in the world, tallest building constructed in Shenzhen in the 1990s. Tallest building in Shenzhen from 1996 to September 2011 until surpassed by the nearby 441. 8-metre-tall Kingkey 100
Wilshire Grand Center
Wilshire Grand Center is a 1, 100-foot skyscraper under construction in the Financial District of Downtown Los Angeles, California. It is the tallest building in Los Angeles and the tallest building in California, the building will be part of a mixed-use hotel, observation decks, shopping malls and office complex, expected to revitalize downtown Los Angeles and the area surrounding the building. The development of the complex is estimated to cost $1.2 billion, the plans include 67,000 square feet of retail,677,000 square feet of Class A office space and 900 hotel rooms. InterContinental is the hotel component, comprising 900 rooms and suites occupying the 38th to the 70th floors. Floors basement to 2, Podium building with retail and InterContinental Los Angeles Downtown meeting rooms, the original Wilshire Grand Hotel opened in 1952 as the Hotel Statler, on the site of the new Wilshire Grand. In 1950, the City of Los Angeles issued the largest single building permit at the time for the construction of the hotel, which cost over $15 million.
The hotel quickly became a landmark of downtown Los Angeles, and over its 59-year lifespan attracted famous guests including President John F. Kennedy, in 1954, two years after its opening, Hilton Hotels & Resorts purchased the Statler Hotels chain, renaming the hotel the Statler Hilton. In 1968 Hilton completed a $2.5 million renovation of the hotel, Reliance Group purchased the hotel in 1983 and invested $30 million in renovations. Korean Air purchased the Los Angeles Hilton from Reliance in 1989 and they changed the hotels management and it became the Omni Los Angeles Hotel in 1995 and later the Wilshire Grand Hotel in 1999. It is part of a development effort to revitalize the Figueroa Street corridor of downtown Los Angeles as a vibrant light-and-sign district. The Los Angeles-based architectural firm, A. C. Martin Partners is overseeing the project and they took over from Thomas Properties, who managed the early proposals, but the owners became dissatisfied with their approach. A distinctive feature of the building is its sail-shaped crown which will be illuminated with LED lighting at night, the tower will spearhead part of a new planned light and sign district that will extend along the Figueroa Corridor down to L. A.
Live. According to recent renderings, it is however to what extent LED lighting and advertising will be applied. Lead designer David C. Martin said that the spire and the exterior skin of the tower will be filled with programmable LED lighting. The spire weighs 200,000 pounds and adds 294 foot in height to the building, land use entitlements and construction staking services were provided by Psomas. The foundation is set on bedrock known as the Fernando Formation, on March 8,2016, the topping out ceremony was held. On March 17,2016, a worker died by suicide after jumping from the 53rd floor. On September 3,2016, the Wilshire Grand became the tallest building in Los Angeles at 1,100 feet, the supertall building set to open Late April/ early May 2017