Tai Hang is an area southeast of Causeway Bay located in the mid-north of Hong Kong Island in Hong Kong. The area was a slum, until its redevelopment after the 1990s. Tai Hang is a valley with opening to the reclaimed Causeway Bay in So Kon Po in west, its east are hills. The former coast is marked by Tung Lo Wan Road and the main road Tai Hang Road winds in the hills throughout the area; the area of Tai Hang is divided into hilly south and plain north. The hilly area includes a public housing estate Lai Tak Tsuen and some highrise residential blocks for affluents, such as Illumination Terrace or Grand Deco Tower; the plain south has many old residential blocks, with a number of interesting restaurants along the streets. Its named after a stream from nearby hills. One interesting recent development in the plain north is that many new and special restaurants were opened, making Tai Hang a hot spot for dining and leisure. Lai Tak Tsuen is located in the area; the famous Tiger Balm Garden was located in the area.
The Lin Fa Temple is located at the end of Lin Fa Kung Street. It was built 1863, during the Qing Dynasty, was reconstructed in 1986 and 1999; the original use of the temple was a worship place for the goddess of mercy. For the three nights straddling the Mid-Autumn festival, the spectacular Tai Hang fire dragon dance is held in Tai Hang; the main attraction is a 67-metre-long'fire dragon' that winds its way with much fanfare and smoke through a collection of streets located in Tai Hang, close to Victoria Park in Causeway Bay. Fire dragon dance started in 1880 when Tai Hang was a small Hakka village of farmers and fishermen on the waterfront of Causeway Bay; this custom has been followed every year since 1880, with the exception of the Japanese Occupation and during the 1967 disturbances. According to local legend, over a century ago, a few days before the Mid-Autumn Festival, a typhoon and a plague wreaked havoc on the village. While the villagers were repairing the damage, a python ate their livestock.
According to some villagers, the python was the son of the Dragon King. A soothsayer decreed the only way to stop the chaos was to stage a fire dance for three days and nights during the upcoming mid-autumn festival; the villagers made a huge dragon of straw and covered it with incense sticks, which they lit. Accompanied by drummers and erupting firecrackers, they danced for three days and three nights – and the plague disappeared. Most housing estates in the area are private with the exception of Lai Tak Tsuen. C Court, Carnation Court, Cherry Court, Concord Villas, Dragon Centre, Fontana Gardens, Fook Hing Court, Harvest Moon Villa, Illumination Terrance, Jolly Villa, Lily Villa, Rhenish Mansion, The Jolly Court, Trafalgar Court, Victoria Court, Wun Sha Tower Pok Fu Lam Fire Dragon Dance Image of Tai Hang squatter area after fire, 1966 Squatter huts on the hill, 1969
Standard Chinese known as Modern Standard Mandarin, Standard Mandarin, Modern Standard Mandarin Chinese, or Mandarin, is a standard variety of Chinese, the sole official language of China, the de facto official language of Taiwan and one of the four official languages of Singapore. Its pronunciation is based on the Beijing dialect, its vocabulary on the Mandarin dialects, its grammar is based on written vernacular Chinese. Like other varieties of Chinese, Standard Chinese is a tonal language with topic-prominent organization and subject–verb–object word order, it has more initial consonants but final consonants and tones than southern varieties. Standard Chinese is an analytic language, though with many compound words. There are two standardised forms of the language, namely Putonghua in Mainland China and Guoyu in Taiwan. Aside from a number of differences in pronunciation and vocabulary, Putonghua is written using simplified Chinese characters, Guoyu is written using traditional Chinese characters.
Many characters are identical between the two systems. In Chinese, the standard variety is known as: 普通话 in the People's Republic of China, as well as Hong Kong and Macau. Standard Chinese is commonly referred to by generic names for "Chinese", notably 中文. In total, there have been known over 20 various names for the language; the term Guoyu had been used by non-Han rulers of China to refer to their languages, but in 1909 the Qing education ministry applied it to Mandarin, a lingua franca based on northern Chinese varieties, proclaiming it as the new "national language". The name Putonghua has a long, albeit unofficial, history, it was used as early as 1906 in writings by Zhu Wenxiong to differentiate a modern, standard Chinese from classical Chinese and other varieties of Chinese. For some linguists of the early 20th century, the Putonghua, or "common tongue/speech", was conceptually different from the Guoyu, or "national language"; the former was a national prestige variety. Based on common understandings of the time, the two were, in fact, different.
Guoyu was understood as formal vernacular Chinese, close to classical Chinese. By contrast, Putonghua was called "the common speech of the modern man", the spoken language adopted as a national lingua franca by conventional usage; the use of the term Putonghua by left-leaning intellectuals such as Qu Qiubai and Lu Xun influenced the People's Republic of China government to adopt that term to describe Mandarin in 1956. Prior to this, the government used both terms interchangeably. In Taiwan, Guoyu continues to be the official term for Standard Chinese; the term Guoyu however, is less used in the PRC, because declaring a Beijing dialect-based standard to be the national language would be deemed unfair to speakers of other varieties and to the ethnic minorities. The term Putonghua, on the contrary, implies nothing more than the notion of a lingua franca. During the government of a pro-Taiwan independence coalition, Taiwan officials promoted a different reading of Guoyu as all of the "national languages", meaning Hokkien and Formosan as well as Standard Chinese.
Huayu, or "language of the Chinese nation" simply meant "Chinese language", was used in overseas communities to contrast Chinese with foreign languages. Over time, the desire to standardise the variety of Chinese spoken in these communities led to the adoption of the name "Huayu" to refer to Mandarin; this name avoids choosing a side between the alternative names of Putonghua and Guoyu, which came to have political significance after their usages diverged along political lines between the PRC and the ROC. It incorporates the notion that Mandarin is not the national or common language of the areas in which overseas Chinese live. Hanyu, or "language of the Han people", is another umbrella term used for Chinese. However, it has confusingly two different meanings: Standard Chinese; this term, as well as Hànzú, is a modern concept. A related concept is Hànzì; the term "Mandarin" is a translation of Guānhuà, which referred to the lingua franca of the late Chinese empire. The Chinese term is obsolete as a name for the standard language, but is used by linguists to refer to the major group of Mandarin dialects spoken natively across most of northern and southwestern China.
In English, "Mandarin" may refer to the standard language, the dialect group as a whole, or to historic forms such as the late Imperial lingua franca. The name "Modern Standard Mandarin" is sometimes used by linguists who wish to distinguish the current state of the shared language from other northern and historic dialects; the Chinese have different languages in different provinces, to such an extent
In geography, a cape is a headland or a promontory of large size extending into a body of water the sea. A cape represents a marked change in trend of the coastline which makes them prone to natural forms of erosion tidal actions; this results in capes having a short geological lifespan. Capes can be formed by glaciers and changes in sea level. Erosion plays a large role in each of these methods of formation. Extreme points of Africa Extreme points of Asia Extreme points of Europe Extreme points of North America Extreme points of South America
Hong Kong the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China and abbreviated as HK, is a special administrative region on the eastern side of the Pearl River estuary in southern China. With over 7.4 million people of various nationalities in a 1,104-square-kilometre territory, Hong Kong is the world's fourth most densely populated region. Hong Kong became a colony of the British Empire after Qing Empire ceded Hong Kong Island at the end of the First Opium War in 1842; the colony expanded to the Kowloon Peninsula in 1860 after the Second Opium War, was further extended when Britain obtained a 99-year lease of the New Territories in 1898. The entire territory was transferred to China in 1997; as a special administrative region, Hong Kong's system of government is separate from that of mainland China and its people identify more as Hongkongers rather than Chinese. A sparsely populated area of farming and fishing villages, the territory has become one of the world's most significant financial centres and commercial ports.
It is the world's seventh-largest trading entity, its legal tender is the world's 13th-most traded currency. Although the city has one of the highest per capita incomes in the world, it has severe income inequality; the territory has the largest number of skyscrapers in most surrounding Victoria Harbour. Hong Kong ranks seventh on the UN Human Development Index, has the sixth-longest life expectancy in the world. Although over 90 per cent of its population uses public transportation, air pollution from neighbouring industrial areas of mainland China has resulted in a high level of atmospheric particulates; the name of the territory, first spelled "He-Ong-Kong" in 1780 referred to a small inlet between Aberdeen Island and the southern coast of Hong Kong Island. Aberdeen was an initial point of contact between local fishermen. Although the source of the romanised name is unknown, it is believed to be an early phonetic rendering of the Cantonese pronunciation hēung góng; the name translates as "fragrant harbour" or "incense harbour".
"Fragrant" may refer to the sweet taste of the harbour's freshwater influx from the Pearl River or to the odor from incense factories lining the coast of northern Kowloon. The incense was stored near Aberdeen Harbour for export. Sir John Davis offered an alternative origin; the simplified name Hong Kong was used by 1810 written as a single word. Hongkong was common until 1926, when the government adopted the two-word name; some corporations founded during the early colonial era still keep this name, including Hongkong Land, Hongkong Electric and Shanghai Hotels and the Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation. The region is first known to have been occupied by humans during the Neolithic period, about 6,000 years ago. Early Hong Kong settlers were a semi-coastal people who migrated from inland and brought knowledge of rice cultivation; the Qin dynasty incorporated the Hong Kong area into China for the first time in 214 BCE, after conquering the indigenous Baiyue. The region was consolidated under the Nanyue kingdom after the Qin collapse, recaptured by China after the Han conquest.
During the Mongol conquest, the Southern Song court was located in modern-day Kowloon City before its final defeat in the 1279 Battle of Yamen. By the end of the Yuan dynasty, seven large families had settled in the region and owned most of the land. Settlers from nearby provinces migrated to Kowloon throughout the Ming dynasty; the earliest European visitor was Portuguese explorer Jorge Álvares, who arrived in 1513. Portuguese merchants established a trading post called in Hong Kong waters, began regular trade with southern China. Although the traders were expelled after military clashes in the 1520s, Portuguese-Chinese trade relations were reestablished by 1549. Portugal acquired a permanent lease for Macau in 1557. After the Qing conquest, maritime trade was banned under the Haijin policies; the Kangxi Emperor lifted the prohibition, allowing foreigners to enter Chinese ports in 1684. Qing authorities established the Canton System in 1757 to regulate trade more restricting non-Russian ships to the port of Canton.
Although European demand for Chinese commodities like tea and porcelain was high, Chinese interest in European manufactured goods was insignificant. To counter the trade imbalance, the British sold large amounts of Indian opium to China. Faced with a drug crisis, Qing officials pursued ever-more-aggressive actions to halt the opium trade; the Daoguang Emperor rejected proposals to legalise and tax opium, ordering imperial commissioner Lin Zexu to eradicate the opium trade in 1839. The commissioner destroyed opium stockpiles and halted all foreign trade, forcing a British military response and triggering the First Opium War; the Qing ceded Hong Kong Island in the Convention of Chuenpi. However, both countries did not ratify the agreement. After over a year of further hostilities, Hong Kong Island was formally ceded to the United Kingdom in the 1842 Treaty of Nanking. Administrative infrastructure was built up by early 1842, but piracy and hostile Qing policies towards Hong Kong prevented the government from attracting merchants.
The Taiping Rebellion, when many wealthy Chinese fled mainland turbulence and settled in the colon
The Mass Transit Railway is a major public transport network serving Hong Kong. Operated by the MTR Corporation Limited, it consists of heavy rail, light rail, feeder bus service centred on an 11-line rapid transit network serving the urbanised areas of Hong Kong Island and the New Territories; the system includes 218.2 km of rail with 159 stations, including 91 heavy rail stations and 68 light rail stops. The MTR is one of the most profitable metro systems in the world. Under the government's rail-led transport policy, the MTR system is a common mode of public transport in Hong Kong, with over five million trips made in an average weekday, it achieves a 99.9 per cent on-time rate on its train journeys. As of 2014, the MTR has a 48.1 per cent market share of the franchised public transport market, making it the most popular transport option in Hong Kong. The integration of the Octopus smart card fare-payment technology into the MTR system in September 1997 has further enhanced the ease of commuting on the MTR.
Construction of the MTR was prompted by a study, released in 1967, commissioned by the Hong Kong Government in order to find solutions to the increasing road congestion problem caused by the territory's fast-growing economy. Construction started soon after the release of the study, the first line opened in 1979; the MTR was popular with residents of Hong Kong. There are continual debates regarding where to expand the MTR network; as a successful railway operation, the MTR has served as a model for other newly built systems in the world urban rail transit in China. During the 1960s, the government of Hong Kong saw a need to accommodate increasing road traffic as Hong Kong's economy continued to grow strongly. In 1966, British transportation consultants Freeman, Wilbur Smith & Associates were appointed to study the transportation system of Hong Kong; the study was based on the projection of the population of Hong Kong for 1986, estimated at 6,868,000. On 1 September 1967, the consultants submitted the Hong Kong Mass Transport Study to the government, which recommended the construction of a 40-mile rapid transit rail system in Hong Kong.
The study suggested that four rail lines be developed in six stages, with a completion date set between December 1973 and December 1984. Detailed positions of lines and stations were presented in the study; these four lines were the Kwun Tong line, Tsuen Wan line, Island line, Shatin line. The study was submitted to the Legislative Council on 14 February 1968; the consultants received new data from the 1966 by-census on 6 March 1968. A short supplementary report was submitted on 22 March 1968 and amended in June 1968; the by-census indicated that the projected 1986 population was reduced by more than one million from the previous estimate to 5,647,000. The dramatic reduction affected town planning; the population distribution was different from the original study. The projected 1986 populations of Castle Peak New Town, Sha Tin New Town, and, to a lesser extent, Tsuen Wan New Town, were revised downward, the plan of a new town in Tseung Kwan O was shelved. In this updated scenario, the consultants reduced the scale of the recommended system.
The supplementary report stated that the suggested four tracks between Admiralty station and Mong Kok station should be reduced to two, only parts of the Island line, Tsuen Wan line, Kwun Tong line should be constructed for the initial system. The other lines would be placed in the list of extensions; this report led to the final study in 1970. In 1970, a system with four lines was laid out and planned as part of the British consultants' new report, Hong Kong Mass Transit: Further Studies; the four lines were to be the Kwun Tong line, Tsuen Wan line, Island line, East Kowloon line. However, the lines that were constructed were somewhat different compared to the lines that were proposed by the Hong Kong Mass Transport Study. In 1972, the Hong Kong government authorised construction of the Initial System, a 20-kilometre system that translates to today's Kwun Tong line between Kwun Tong and Prince Edward, Tsuen Wan line between Prince Edward and Admiralty, Island line between Sheung Wan and Admiralty.
The Mass Transit Steering Committee, chaired by the Financial Secretary Philip Haddon-Cave, began negotiations with four major construction consortia in 1973. The government's intention was to tender the entire project, based on the British design, as a single tender at a fixed price. A consortium from Japan, led by Mitsubishi, submitted the only proposal within the government's $5 billion price ceiling, they signed an agreement to construct the system in early 1974, but in December of the same year, pulled out of the agreement for reasons stemming from fears of the oil crisis. Several weeks in early 1975, the Mass Transit Steering Group was replaced by the Mass Transport Provisional Authority, which held more executive powers, it announced that the Initial System would be reduced to 15.6 kilometres and renamed the "Modified Initial System". Plans for a single contract were abandoned in favour of 25 engineering contracts and 10 electrical and mechanical contracts. On 7 May 1975 the Legislative Council passed legislation setting up the government-owned Mass Transit Railway Corporation to replace the Mass Transport Provisional Authority.
Construction of the Modified Initial System (now part of
Hanyu Pinyin abbreviated to pinyin, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese in mainland China and to some extent in Taiwan. It is used to teach Standard Mandarin Chinese, written using Chinese characters; the system includes four diacritics denoting tones. Pinyin without tone marks is used to spell Chinese names and words in languages written with the Latin alphabet, in certain computer input methods to enter Chinese characters; the pinyin system was developed in the 1950s by many linguists, including Zhou Youguang, based on earlier forms of romanizations of Chinese. It was published by revised several times; the International Organization for Standardization adopted pinyin as an international standard in 1982, was followed by the United Nations in 1986. The system was adopted as the official standard in Taiwan in 2009, where it is used for international events rather than for educational or computer-input purposes, but "some cities and organizations, notably in the south of Taiwan, did not accept this", so it remains one of several rival romanization systems in use.
The word Hànyǔ means'the spoken language of the Han people', while Pīnyīn means'spelled sounds'. In 1605, the Jesuit missionary Matteo Ricci published Xizi Qiji in Beijing; this was the first book to use the Roman alphabet to write the Chinese language. Twenty years another Jesuit in China, Nicolas Trigault, issued his Xi Ru Ermu Zi at Hangzhou. Neither book had much immediate impact on the way in which Chinese thought about their writing system, the romanizations they described were intended more for Westerners than for the Chinese. One of the earliest Chinese thinkers to relate Western alphabets to Chinese was late Ming to early Qing dynasty scholar-official, Fang Yizhi; the first late Qing reformer to propose that China adopt a system of spelling was Song Shu. A student of the great scholars Yu Yue and Zhang Taiyan, Song had been to Japan and observed the stunning effect of the kana syllabaries and Western learning there; this galvanized him into activity on a number of fronts, one of the most important being reform of the script.
While Song did not himself create a system for spelling Sinitic languages, his discussion proved fertile and led to a proliferation of schemes for phonetic scripts. The Wade–Giles system was produced by Thomas Wade in 1859, further improved by Herbert Giles in the Chinese–English Dictionary of 1892, it was popular and used in English-language publications outside China until 1979. In the early 1930s, Communist Party of China leaders trained in Moscow introduced a phonetic alphabet using Roman letters, developed in the Soviet Oriental Institute of Leningrad and was intended to improve literacy in the Russian Far East; this Sin Wenz or "New Writing" was much more linguistically sophisticated than earlier alphabets, but with the major exception that it did not indicate tones of Chinese. In 1940, several thousand members attended a Border Region Sin Wenz Society convention. Mao Zedong and Zhu De, head of the army, both contributed their calligraphy for the masthead of the Sin Wenz Society's new journal.
Outside the CCP, other prominent supporters included Sun Fo. Over thirty journals soon appeared written in Sin Wenz, plus large numbers of translations, some contemporary Chinese literature, a spectrum of textbooks. In 1940, the movement reached an apex when Mao's Border Region Government declared that the Sin Wenz had the same legal status as traditional characters in government and public documents. Many educators and political leaders looked forward to the day when they would be universally accepted and replace Chinese characters. Opposition arose, because the system was less well adapted to writing regional languages, therefore would require learning Mandarin. Sin Wenz fell into relative disuse during the following years. In 1943, the U. S. military engaged Yale University to develop a romanization of Mandarin Chinese for its pilots flying over China. The resulting system is close to pinyin, but does not use English letters in unfamiliar ways. Medial semivowels are written with y and w, apical vowels with r or z.
Accent marks are used to indicate tone. Pinyin was created by Chinese linguists, including Zhou Youguang, as part of a Chinese government project in the 1950s. Zhou is called "the father of pinyin," Zhou worked as a banker in New York when he decided to return to China to help rebuild the country after the establishment of the People's Republic of China in 1949, he became an economics professor in Shanghai, in 1955, when China's Ministry of Education created a Committee for the Reform of the Chinese Written Language, Premier Zhou Enlai assigned Zhou Youguang the task of developing a new romanization system, despite the fact that he was not a professional linguist. Hanyu Pinyin was based on several existing systems: Gwoyeu Romatzyh of 1928, Latinxua Sin Wenz of 1931, the diacritic markings from zhuyin. "I'm not the father of pinyin," Zhou said years later. It's a lo
Tin Hau station
Tin Hau is a station on the Island Line of the Hong Kong MTR rapid transit system. Like all other Island Line stations, Tin Hau is located along the northern shore of Hong Kong Island. Named after the nearby Tin Hau Temple, the station is within the Causeway Bay neighbourhood; the station lies with the Citicorp Centre to the north. The Hong Kong Central Library and Lin Fa Kung Garden are to the south of the station, as is the Causeway Bay Sports Ground. Tin Hau station was part of the original plan for the MTR, dating back to the Hong Kong Mass Transport Study in 1967, it was not, however, in the Modified Initial System, which laid out the first few phases of the MTR system. Construction on the Island Line began in 1981, with the first section of the line, which included Tin Hau, opening on 31 May 1985; the Causeway Bay Magistracy was demolished to make way for the station. From 2000, MTR retrofitted platform screen doors at thirty underground stations, one of them being Tin Hau. Due to the limited space beneath Causeway Road and Hennessy Road, under which the Island Line runs, Tin Hau utilises a stacked platform layout.
Eastbound trains using platform 1 stop on the upper level, while westbound trains using platform 2 stop on the lower level. In addition, there are two underground levels above the platforms: the concourse containing faregates and shops and the walkway which connects Exits A1-A2 and B. A1: King's Road A2: Victoria Park B: Hong Kong Central Library Tin Hau station acts as an interchange between MTR rapid transit and local buses