Morrow is a city in Clayton County, United States. The population was 6,445 at the 2010 census, up from 4,882 in 2000, it is the home of Clayton State University. The community was named after the original owner of the town site. Morrow was founded in 1846 with the advent of the railroad into the area, it was incorporated as a city in 1943. Morrow is located north of the center of Clayton County at 33°34′43″N 84°20′24″W, it is bordered to the northwest by Forest Park. Downtown Atlanta is 13 miles to the north. Interstate 75 passes through the southern part of the city, with access from Exit 233; the Southlake Mall is in the southwest part of the city near I-75. According to the United States Census Bureau, Morrow has a total area of 3.4 square miles, of which 0.012 square miles, or 0.31%, is water. As of the census of 2000, there were 4,882 people, 1,731 households, 1,166 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,656.9 people per square mile. There were 1,823 housing units at an average density of 618.7 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the city was 44.1% African American, 36.4% White, 0.3% Native American, 12.9% Asian, 4% from other races, 2.3% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 6% of the population. There were 1,731 households out of which 31.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 44.4% were married couples living together, 17.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.6% were non-families. 22.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 6.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.82 and the average family size was 3.26. In the city, the population was spread out with 24.4% under the age of 18, 15.5% from 18 to 24, 29.5% from 25 to 44, 19.7% from 45 to 64, 10.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 30 years. For every 100 females, there were 92.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 87.9 males. The median income for a household in the city was $46,569, the median income for a family was $50,686.
Males had a median income of $31,210 versus $24,886 for females. The per capita income for the city was $17,544. About 3.1% of families and 8.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 5.2% of those under age 18 and 8.6% of those age 65 or over. These are roads with more than four lanes. Interstate 75 passes through the southern part of the city, with access from Exit 233. In addition to a police precinct, three MARTA bus routes serve the city, including: Route 193 - Justice Center/SR 54/East Point Route 194 - Justice Center/Mt. Zion/SR 42-Morel Route 196 - Church/Upper Riverdale/Mt. ZionRoutes 193 and 194 connect the city to the East Point Station. Route 196 connects to the College Park Station. Clayton County Public Schools operates public schools. National Archives at Atlanta is located in Morrow. City of Morrow official website Morrow historical marker
1890 United States Census
The Eleventh United States Census was taken beginning June 2, 1890. It determined the resident population of the United States to be 62,979,766—an increase of 25.5 percent over the 50,189,209 persons enumerated during the 1880 census. The data was tabulated by machine for the first time; the data reported that the distribution of the population had resulted in the disappearance of the American frontier. Most of the 1890 census materials were destroyed in a 1921 fire and fragments of the US census population schedule exist only for the states of Alabama, Illinois, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, South Dakota, Texas, the District of Columbia; this was the first census in which a majority of states recorded populations of over one million, as well as the first in which multiple cities – New York as of 1880, Philadelphia – recorded populations of over one million. The census saw Chicago rank as the nation's second-most populous city, a position it would hold until 1990, in which Los Angeles would supplant it.
The 1890 census collected the following information: The 1890 census was the first to be compiled using methods invented by Herman Hollerith and was overseen by Superintendents Robert P. Porter and Carroll D. Wright. Data was entered on a machine readable medium, punched cards, tabulated by machine; the net effect of the many changes from the 1880 census: the larger population, the number of data items to be collected, the Census Bureau headcount, the volume of scheduled publications, the use of Hollerith's electromechanical tabulators, was to reduce the time required to process the census from eight years for the 1880 census to six years for the 1890 census. The total population of 62,947,714, the family, or rough, was announced after only six weeks of processing; the public reaction to this tabulation was disbelief, as it was believed that the "right answer" was at least 75,000,000. The United States census of 1890 showed a total of 248,253 Native Americans living in the United States, down from 400,764 Native Americans identified in the census of 1850.
The 1890 census announced that the frontier region of the United States no longer existed, that the Census Bureau would no longer track the westward migration of the U. S. population. Up to and including the 1880 census, the country had a frontier of settlement. By 1890, isolated bodies of settlement had broken into the unsettled area to the extent that there was hardly a frontier line; this prompted Frederick Jackson Turner to develop his Frontier Thesis. The original data for the 1890 Census is no longer available. All the population schedules were damaged in a fire in the basement of the Commerce Building in Washington, D. C. in 1921. Some 25 % of the materials were presumed another 50 % damaged by smoke and water; the damage to the records led to an outcry for a permanent National Archives. In December 1932, following standard federal record-keeping procedures, the Chief Clerk of the Bureau of the Census sent the Librarian of Congress a list of papers to be destroyed, including the original 1890 census schedules.
The Librarian was asked by the Bureau to identify any records which should be retained for historical purposes, but the Librarian did not accept the census records. Congress authorized destruction of that list of records on February 21, 1933, the surviving original 1890 census records were destroyed by government order by 1934 or 1935; the other censuses for which some information has been lost are the 1810 enumerations. Few sets of microdata from the 1890 census survive, but aggregate data for small areas, together with compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. Mayo-Smith, Richmond, "The Eleventh Census of the United States". In: The Economic Journal, Vol. 1, p. 43 - 58 1891 U. S Census Report Contains 1890 Census results Historical US Census data from the U. S. Census Bureau website Hollerith 1890 Census Tabulator by Columbia University "The Fate of the 1890 Population Census" from the National Archives website
Atlanta metropolitan area
Metro Atlanta, designated by the United States Office of Management and Budget as the Atlanta–Sandy Springs–Roswell, GA Metropolitan Statistical Area, is the most populous metro area in the US state of Georgia and the ninth-largest metropolitan statistical area in the United States. Its economic and demographic center is Atlanta, has an estimated 2017 population of 5,884,736 according to the U. S. Census Bureau; the metro area forms the core of a broader trading area, the Atlanta–Athens-Clarke–Sandy Springs Combined Statistical Area. The Combined Statistical Area spans up to 39 counties in north Georgia and has an estimated 2017 population of 6,555,956. Atlanta is considered a "beta world city." It is the third largest metropolitan region in the Census Bureau's Southeast region behind Greater Washington and Greater Miami. By U. S. Census Bureau standards, the population of the Atlanta region spreads across a metropolitan area of 8,376 square miles – a land area comparable to that of Massachusetts.
Because Georgia contains more counties than any other state except Texas, area residents live under a decentralized collection of governments. As of the 2000 census, fewer than one in ten residents of the metropolitan area lived inside Atlanta city limits. A 2006 survey by the Metro Atlanta Chamber of Commerce counted 140 cities and towns in the 28‑county Metropolitan Statistical Area in mid-2005. Nine cities – Johns Creek, Chattahoochee Hills, Peachtree Corners, Tucker and South Fulton – have incorporated since following the lead of Sandy Springs in 2005; the Atlanta metropolitan area was first defined in 1950 as Fulton, DeKalb, Gwinnett and Clayton counties. Walton, Douglas, Forsyth, Cherokee and Butts counties were added after the 1970 census, with Barrow and Coweta counties joining in 1980 and Bartow, Paulding and Spalding counties in 1990. Atlanta's larger combined statistical area adds the Gainesville, Georgia MSA, Athens-Clarke County, Georgia MSA and the LaGrange, Jefferson and Cedartown micropolitan areas, for a total 2012 population of 6,162,195.
The CSA abuts the Macon and Columbus MSAs. The region is one of the metropolises of the Southeastern United States, is part of the emerging megalopolis known as Piedmont Atlantic MegaRegion along the I-85 Corridor; the counties listed below are included in the Atlanta–Sandy Springs–Gainesville CSA. However, most other entities define a much smaller metropolitan area by including only the counties which have the densest suburban development. Fulton, DeKalb, Gwinnett and Clayton were the five original counties when the Atlanta metropolitan area was first defined in 1950, continue to be the core of the metro area; these five counties along with five more are members of the Atlanta Regional Commission, a weak metropolitan government agency, a regional planning agency. The ten ARC counties and five more form part of the Metropolitan North Georgia Water Planning District, created in 2001; the 12 counties listed above with under 75,000 residents are not included in any other metropolitan definition except the OMB/Census Bureau's MSA and CSA.
Hall County forms the Gainesville, GA Metropolitan Statistical Area, but with astronomical growth to over 190,000 residents, is now part of the Atlanta CSA. The official tourism website of the State of Georgia features a "Metro Atlanta" tourism region that includes only nine counties: Fulton, DeKalb, Cobb, Coweta, Douglas and Henry. Cumberland Perimeter Center Hartsfield-Jackson areaMore than one half of metro Atlanta's population is in unincorporated areas or areas considered a census-designated-place by the census bureau. Metro Atlanta includes the following incorporated and unincorporated suburbs and surrounding cities, sorted by population as of 2010: Principal city Atlanta pop. 472,522 Places with 75,000 to 99,999 inhabitants. 95,158 Sandy Springs pop. 93,853 Roswell pop. 88,346 Johns Creek pop. 76,728Places with 50,000 to 74,999 inhabitants Alpharetta pop. 57,551 Marietta pop. 56,579 Stonecrest pop. 53,490 Smyrna pop. 51,271Places with 25,000 to 49,999 inhabitants Places with 24,999 or fewer inhabitants The area sprawls across the low foothills of the Appalachian Mountains to the north and the Piedmont to the south.
The northern and some western suburbs tend to be higher and more hilly than the southern and eastern suburbs. The average elevation is around 1,000 feet; the highest point in the immediate area is Kennesaw Mountain at 1,808 ft, followed by Stone Mountain at 1,686 ft, Sweat Mountain at 1,640 ft, Little Kennesaw Mountain at 1,600 ft. Others include Blackjack Mountain, Lost Mountain, Brushy Mountain, Pine Mountain, Mount Wilkinson. Many of these play prominently in the various battles of the Atlanta Campaign during the American Civil War. If the further-north counties are included, Bear Mountain is highest, followed by Pine Log Mountain, Sawnee Mountain, Hanging Mountain, followed by the others listed above. Stone, Sweat and Sawnee are all home to some of the area's broadcast stations; the area's subsoil is colored rusty by the iron oxide present in it. It becomes muddy and sticky when wet, hard when dry, stains light-colored carpets and c
Georgia (U.S. state)
Georgia is a state in the Southeastern United States. It began as a British colony in 1733, the last and southernmost of the original Thirteen Colonies to be established. Named after King George II of Great Britain, the Province of Georgia covered the area from South Carolina south to Spanish Florida and west to French Louisiana at the Mississippi River. Georgia was the fourth state to ratify the United States Constitution, on January 2, 1788. In 1802–1804, western Georgia was split to the Mississippi Territory, which split to form Alabama with part of former West Florida in 1819. Georgia declared its secession from the Union on January 19, 1861, was one of the original seven Confederate states, it was the last state to be restored to the Union, on July 15, 1870. Georgia is the 8th most populous of the 50 United States. From 2007 to 2008, 14 of Georgia's counties ranked among the nation's 100 fastest-growing, second only to Texas. Georgia is known as the Empire State of the South. Atlanta, the state's capital and most populous city, has been named a global city.
Atlanta's metropolitan area contains about 55% of the population of the entire state. Georgia is bordered to the north by Tennessee and North Carolina, to the northeast by South Carolina, to the southeast by the Atlantic Ocean, to the south by Florida, to the west by Alabama; the state's northernmost part is in the Blue Ridge Mountains, part of the Appalachian Mountains system. The Piedmont extends through the central part of the state from the foothills of the Blue Ridge to the Fall Line, where the rivers cascade down in elevation to the coastal plain of the state's southern part. Georgia's highest point is Brasstown Bald at 4,784 feet above sea level. Of the states east of the Mississippi River, Georgia is the largest in land area. Before settlement by Europeans, Georgia was inhabited by the mound building cultures; the British colony of Georgia was founded by James Oglethorpe on February 12, 1733. The colony was administered by the Trustees for the Establishment of the Colony of Georgia in America under a charter issued by King George II.
The Trustees implemented an elaborate plan for the colony's settlement, known as the Oglethorpe Plan, which envisioned an agrarian society of yeoman farmers and prohibited slavery. The colony was invaded by the Spanish during the War of Jenkins' Ear. In 1752, after the government failed to renew subsidies that had helped support the colony, the Trustees turned over control to the crown. Georgia became a crown colony, with a governor appointed by the king; the Province of Georgia was one of the Thirteen Colonies that revolted against British rule in the American Revolution by signing the 1776 Declaration of Independence. The State of Georgia's first constitution was ratified in February 1777. Georgia was the 10th state to ratify the Articles of Confederation on July 24, 1778, was the 4th state to ratify the United States Constitution on January 2, 1788. In 1829, gold was discovered in the North Georgia mountains leading to the Georgia Gold Rush and establishment of a federal mint in Dahlonega, which continued in operation until 1861.
The resulting influx of white settlers put pressure on the government to take land from the Cherokee Nation. In 1830, President Andrew Jackson signed the Indian Removal Act, sending many eastern Native American nations to reservations in present-day Oklahoma, including all of Georgia's tribes. Despite the Supreme Court's ruling in Worcester v. Georgia that U. S. states were not permitted to redraw Indian boundaries, President Jackson and the state of Georgia ignored the ruling. In 1838, his successor, Martin Van Buren, dispatched federal troops to gather the tribes and deport them west of the Mississippi; this forced relocation, known as the Trail of Tears, led to the death of over 4,000 Cherokees. In early 1861, Georgia became a major theater of the Civil War. Major battles took place at Chickamauga, Kennesaw Mountain, Atlanta. In December 1864, a large swath of the state from Atlanta to Savannah was destroyed during General William Tecumseh Sherman's March to the Sea. 18,253 Georgian soldiers died in service one of every five who served.
In 1870, following the Reconstruction Era, Georgia became the last Confederate state to be restored to the Union. With white Democrats having regained power in the state legislature, they passed a poll tax in 1877, which disenfranchised many poor blacks and whites, preventing them from registering. In 1908, the state established a white primary, they constituted 46.7% of the state's population in 1900, but the proportion of Georgia's population, African American dropped thereafter to 28% due to tens of thousands leaving the state during the Great Migration. According to the Equal Justice Institute's 2015 report on lynching in the United States, Georgia had 531 deaths, the second-highest total of these extralegal executions of any state in the South; the overwhelming number of victims were male. Political disfranchisement persisted through the mid-1960s, until after Congress passed the Voting Rights Act of 1965. An Atlanta-born Baptist minister, part of the educated middle class that had developed in Atlanta's African-American community, Martin Luther King, Jr. emerged as a national leader in the civil rights movement.
King joining with others to form the Southern Christian Leadership Conference in Atlanta in 1957 to provide political leadership for the Civil Rights Movement across the South. By the 1960s, the proportion of
Atlanta and West Point Railroad
The Atlanta and West Point Rail Road was a railroad in the U. S. state of Georgia, forming the east portion of the Atlanta-Selma West Point Route. The company was chartered in 1847 as the Atlanta and LaGrange Rail Road and renamed in 1857. A large minority interest owned by the Georgia Railroad and Banking Company passed under the control of the Atlantic Coast Line Railroad, which acquired a majority of the stock. In the late 20th century restructuring, through the Seaboard Coast Line Railroad, successor to the ACL, the A&WP came under the Family Lines System banner in 1972. Years in June 1986, it was merged into the Seaboard System Railroad, successor to the SCL; the former A&WP property is now owned by CSX Transportation. In 1967 A&WP reported 232 million revenue ton-miles of freight and 3 million passenger-miles on 93 miles of road operated; the AWP and the Western Railway of Alabama had financial backing from the parent company of the Georgia Railroad and Banking Company. From 1886 onward the AWP and the Western operated as one railroad under the name "West Point Route".
In the 19th and early 20th centuries, the three were controlled through joint lease by the Central of Georgia Railroad and the Louisville and Nashville Railroad. The CofG sold its interest in 1944; the lines fell under the control of the Seaboard Coast Line Railroad, as a result of a merger between the Atlantic Coast Line and the Seaboard Air Line. All of these lines, plus the Clinchfield Railroad, became the Family Lines System in the 1970s, though all the lines maintained separate corporate identities; those identities became "fallen flags". In 1986 SBD merged with Chessie System to form CSX Transportation; the former AWP line remains in full service today, although passenger service ended on January 7, 1970. This was 16 months before Congress authorized Amtrak in order to serve the nation's long-distance passenger trains; the Atlanta & West Point name ended in June 1986, when the railroad company was absorbed by the Seaboard System. One of AWP's most notable steam locomotives, heavy Pacific AWP 290, survived and was restored to operational status in 1989.
The 290 pulled steam excursions around Atlanta from 1989 to 1992 for the "New Georgia Railroad," including a special excursion from Atlanta to Montgomery along the original West Point Route. These stations existed as of 1867. Trains departed from Atlanta at 12:15PM and arrived there at 8:37AM. West Point was the connecting point further west via the West Point Railroad. Lemuel P. Grant Atlanta and West Point 290 Middleton, William D.. Encyclopedia of North American Railroads. Indiana University Press. Pp. 153–54. Railga.com Railroads and the Battle of West Point Old Alabama Rails — West Point Route Atlanta and West Point Railroad, Passenger Depot, Georgia, one of many drawings related to the Atlanta and West Point Railroad in the Georgia State Archives. "Steam Locomotion at High Tide!" Historical marker, Georgia Info
Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit Authority
The Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit Authority is the principal public transport operator in the Atlanta metropolitan area. Formed in 1971 as a bus system, MARTA operates a network of bus routes linked to a rapid transit system consisting of 48 miles of rail track with 38 train stations, it is the eighth-largest rapid transit system in the United States by ridership. MARTA operates exclusively in Fulton, DeKalb counties, although they maintain bus service to two destinations in neighboring Cobb County. MARTA operates Mobility, a separate paratransit service for disabled customers; as of 2014, the average total daily ridership for the system was 432,900 passengers. MARTA was proposed as a rapid transit agency for DeKalb, Clayton and Cobb counties; these were the five original counties in the Atlanta metropolitan area, to this day are the five largest counties in the region and state. MARTA was formed by an act of the Georgia General Assembly in 1965. In the same year, four of the five metropolitan area counties and the City of Atlanta passed a referendum authorizing participation in the system, but the referendum failed in Cobb.
Although a 1968 referendum to fund MARTA failed, in 1971, voters in Fulton and DeKalb counties passed a 1% sales tax increase to pay for MARTA operations, while Clayton and Gwinnett counties overwhelmingly rejected the tax in the referendum, fearing the introduction of crime and supposed "undesirable elements" in an era of white flight to the suburbs. Gwinnett County remains outside of the MARTA system. In 1971, the agency agreed to purchase the existing, bus-only Atlanta Transit Company. Construction began on MARTA's heavy rail system in 1975, with the first rail service commencing on June 30, 1979; the system has since built most of the proposed rail lines, as well as stations in Dunwoody, Sandy Springs, North Springs which were not included in the original plan. The missing rail segments from the original plan include a Tucker-North DeKalb line with service to Emory University and North Druid Hills, a Northwest line with service to Brookwood and Northside Drive, extension of the West line to Brownlee-Boulder Park near Fairburn Road, extension of the Proctor Creek line to West Highlands, a branch off the south line to Hapeville and Clayton County.
MARTA is composed of a heavy rail rapid transit system, a light rail system, a bus system, all of which operate within the boundaries of Fulton, Clayton and DeKalb counties. In addition to Atlanta itself, the transit agency serves various suburbs within its service area, including Alpharetta, Avondale Estates, Chamblee, College Park, Doraville, East Point, Fairburn, Forest Park, Jonesboro, Lake City, Lithonia, Palmetto, Roswell, Sandy Springs, Stone Mountain, Union City. MARTA serves the airport via a station located next to the main terminal. Although Cobb County is not part of the MARTA system, the agency operates one limited bus route to the Cumberland Boulevard Transfer Center and another to Six Flags Over Georgia. MARTA allows bicycles on its trains, buses have room for two bicycles on racks mounted on the front of the bus. At the airport, bicycles can be locked up in all of the parking decks, so long as they are not obstructing either pedestrian or vehicular traffic. In 2007, MARTA had 4,729 full and part-time employees, of whom 1,719 were bus drivers or train operators.
Rail and bus operators, station agents, rail maintenance workers, many other employees of MARTA are represented in negotiations by the Amalgamated Transit Union's Local 732. MARTA has its own police department with 300 badge-wearing officers, making it the ninth-largest police department in Georgia. MARTA's rapid transit system has 47.6 miles of route and 38 rail stations located on four lines: the Red Line, Gold Line, Blue Line, Green Line. The tracks for this system are a combination of elevated, ground-level, underground tracks; the deepest station in the MARTA system is the Peachtree Center station, located in a hard-rock tunnel, 120 feet beneath downtown Atlanta, where the highest hills in Atlanta are 1,100 feet above sea level. No tunnel lining was installed in the adjacent tunnels; the architects and civil engineers decided to leave these with their rugged gneiss rock walls. The highest station in the MARTA system is the King Memorial station, it rises 90 feet over an active CSX rail yard.
MARTA switched to a color-based identification system in October 2009. The lines were named based upon their terminal stations, namely: Airport, North Springs, H. E. Holmes, King Memorial, Candler Park, Indian Creek. During the transition between the two naming systems, all stations on the Red and Gold lines used their original orange signs, all stations on the Blue and Green lines used their original blue signs. All rapid transit lines have an ultimate nexus at the Five Points station, located in downtown Atlanta. MARTA trains are operated using the Automatic Train Control system, with one human op
Downtown Atlanta is the central business district of Atlanta, United States. The largest of the city's three commercial districts, it is the location of many corporate or regional headquarters, it measures four square miles, had 26,700 residents as of 2010. Similar to other central business districts in the United States, it has undergone a transformation that included the construction of new condos and lofts, renovation of historic buildings, arrival of new residents and businesses. Downtown is bound by North Avenue to the north, Boulevard to the east, Interstate 20 to the south, Northside Drive to the west; this definition of Downtown includes central areas like Five Points, the Hotel District and Fairlie-Poplar and outlying inner city neighborhoods such as SoNo and Castleberry Hill. The Atlanta Downtown Improvement District organization, defines a much smaller downtown area measuring just one and two tenths square miles; this area is bound by North Avenue to the north, Piedmont Avenue and the Downtown Connector to the east, Martin Luther King Junior Drive, Courtland Street, Edgewood Avenue to the south, the railroad tracks to the west.
This area only includes the core central business district neighborhoods of Fairlie-Poplar, Five Points, the Hotel District, Centennial Hill, South Downtown. The history of downtown began in 1826 with Wilson Lumpkin and Hamilton Fulton surveying a possible railroad route between Chattanooga and Milledgeville, Georgia's capital at the time. In 1833, who had become governor, requested that the state legislature charter three railroad lines. By 1836, the state-financed Western and Atlantic Railroad, linking the middle of Georgia to the other states north and west, was founded by the legislature and signed into law by Lumpkin; as a result, the town named. Terminus received a name change in 1842 when the town's 30 inhabitants voted to change the town's name to Marthasville, in honor of Governor Lumpkin's daughter. By 1845, John Edgar Thomson, chief engineer of the Georgia Railroad, suggested that Marthasville's name be changed; the first suggestion was "Atlantica-Pacifica,", shortened to "Atlanta."
In 1847, Atlanta was incorporated, with the town limits extending in a one-mile radius from the mile marker at the railroad depot. By the outbreak of the Civil War, Atlanta was a major railroad hub and manufacturing center, making it a target for the Union Army. In 1864, General William T. Sherman burned Atlanta to the ground during his "March to the Sea," making Atlanta the only major American city to be destroyed by war. Atlanta's first resurgence began during Reconstruction. In 1868, Georgia's state capital was moved to the city from Milledgeville. By the 1920s, a downtown business sector ringed by residential districts had emerged. Professional sports came to Atlanta in 1965 with the construction of Atlanta–Fulton County Stadium and the relocation of the Braves from Milwaukee; the National Football League awarded the city the Falcons expansion team in 1966. The Hawks arrived in 1968 though Omni Coliseum, the city's basketball arena, did not open until 1972. Two of the teams continue to play their home games downtown at Mercedes-Benz Stadium and Philips Arena.
Business growth in the 1970s resulted in significant development in Downtown, most notably in Peachtree Center and the Hotel District. Economic development in these areas shifted the commercial center of the city to an area along Peachtree Street, north of Five Points, despite the construction of the MARTA central station there in 1975. By the mid-1980s, Peachtree Center had become the core of a dedicated hotel-convention district that lay at the heart of the Downtown economy as the remainder of Downtown Atlanta deteriorated markedly; the closure of Underground Atlanta in 1979 due to an increase in crime contributed to perceptions that Downtown was dangerous, the 1980s saw a significant decline in population. By 1990, Five Points was a "vacant shell of its former self," while Downtown as a whole was an "archepelagic assemblage of fortified enclaves inhabited in the daylight hours by government office workers and college students, in the night by a substantial population of homeless persons."The 1996 Olympic Games, along with the transformation of Georgia State University from a commuter school to a traditional college, initiated a resurgence of Downtown that continues today.
They resulted in Centennial Olympic Park, built as a physical memorial to the games in the former industrial area west of Five Points. In the following decade, Centennial Olympic Park spurred the creation of a Downtown tourist district anchored by the World of Coca-Cola, the Georgia Aquarium, the CNN Center, the Center for Civil and Human Rights, the College Football Hall of Fame. Following the 1996 games, Georgia State University president Carl Patton, an urban planner, initiated a University-led transformation of Downtown that sought to make Georgia State "a part of the city, not apart from the city." Dubbed the Main Street Master Plan, Patton's vision has been executed through billions of dollars of urban construction, boosting Downtown's economy and population. On March 14, 2008, at 9:40 PM Eastern Daylight Time, a category EF2 tornado hit Downtown with winds up to 135 miles per hour, it caused damage to Philips Arena, the Georgia Dome, Centennial Olympic Park, the Westin Peachtree Plaza Hotel, the CNN Center, the Georgia World Congress Center.
This was the first time a tornado touched grou