West Germanic languages
The West Germanic languages constitute the largest of the three branches of the Germanic family of languages. The three most prevalent West Germanic languages are English and Dutch; the family includes other High and Low German languages including Afrikaans and Yiddish, in addition to other Franconian languages, like Luxembourgish, Ingvaeonic languages next to English, such as the Frisian languages and Scots. Additionally, several creoles and pidgins are based on Dutch and English as they were languages of colonial empires; the West Germanic languages share many lexemes not existing in North Germanic and/or East Germanic—archaisms as well as common neologisms. Most scholars doubt that there was a Proto-West-Germanic proto-language common to the West Germanic languages and no others, though a few maintain that Proto-West-Germanic existed. Most agree that after East Germanic broke off, the remaining Germanic languages, the Northwest Germanic languages, divided into four main dialects: North Germanic, the three groups conventionally called "West Germanic", namely North Sea Germanic, ancestral to Anglo-Frisian and Old Saxon Weser-Rhine Germanic, ancestral to Low Franconian and the Central German dialects of Old High German) Elbe Germanic, ancestral to the Upper German dialects of Old High German and the extinct Langobardic language.
Although there is quite a bit of knowledge about North Sea Germanic or Anglo-Frisian, linguists know nothing about "Weser-Rhine Germanic" and "Elbe Germanic". In fact, these two terms were coined in the 1940s to refer to groups of archaeological findings rather than linguistic features. Only were these terms applied to hypothetical dialectal differences within both regions. Today, the small number of Migration Period runic inscriptions from this area—many of them illegible, unclear or consisting only of one word a name—is insufficient to identify linguistic features specific to the two supposed dialect groups. Evidence that East Germanic split off before the split between North and West Germanic comes from a number of linguistic innovations common to North and West Germanic, including: The lowering of Proto-Germanic ē to ā; the development of umlaut. The rhotacism of /z/ to /r/; the development of the demonstrative pronoun ancestral to English this. Under this view, the properties that the West Germanic languages have in common separate from the North Germanic languages are not inherited from a "Proto-West-Germanic" language, but may have spread by language contact among the Germanic languages spoken in central Europe, not reaching those spoken in Scandinavia or reaching them much later.
Rhotacism, for example, was complete in West Germanic at a time when North Germanic runic inscriptions still distinguished the two phonemes. There is evidence that the lowering of ē to ā occurred first in West Germanic and spread to North Germanic since word-final ē was lowered before it was shortened in West Germanic, whereas in North Germanic the shortening occurred first, resulting in e that merged with i. However, there are a number of common archaisms in West Germanic shared by neither Old Norse nor Gothic; some authors who support the concept of a West Germanic proto-language claim that not only shared innovations can require the existence of a linguistic clade but that there can be archaisms that cannot be explained as retentions lost in the North and/or East because this assumption can produce contradictions with attested features of these other branches. The debate on the existence of a Proto-West-Germanic clade was summarized: That North Germanic is.. A unitary subgroup is obvious, as all of its dialects shared a long series of innovations, some of them striking.
That the same is true of West Germanic has been denied, but I will argue in vol. ii that all the West Germanic languages share several unusual innovations that force us to posit a West Germanic clade. On the other hand, the internal subgrouping of both North Germanic and West Germanic is messy, it seems clear that each of those subfamilies diversified into a network of dialects that remained in contact for a considerable period of time. Several scholars have published reconstructions of Proto-West-Germanic morphological paradigms and many authors have reconstructed individual Proto-West-Germanic morphological forms or lexemes; the first comprehensive reconstruction of the Proto-West-Germanic language was published in 2013 by Wolfram Euler. If indeed Proto-West-Germanic existed, it must have been between the 4th centuries; until the late 2nd century AD, the language of runic inscriptions found in Scandinavia and in Northern Germany were so similar that Proto-North-Germanic and the Western dialects in the south were still part of one language.
After that, the split into West and North Germanic occurred. By the 4th and 5th centuries the great migration set in which help diversify the West Germanic family more, it has been argued that, judging by their nearly identical syntax, the West Germanic dialects were enough related to have been mutually intelligible up to the 7th century. Over the course of this period, the dialects diverged successively; the High German consonant shift that occurred during the 7th century AD in what is now southern Germany and Switzerland can be
Espírito Santo is a state in southeastern Brazil. Its capital is Vitória, its largest city is the nearby Vila Velha. With an extensive coastline, the state hosts some of the country's main ports, its beaches are significant tourist attractions; the capital, Vitória, is located on an island, next to Guarapari, which constitutes the state's main metro area. In the northern extremes of Espírito Santo is Itaúnas, in the municipality of Conceição da Barra, a famed tourist location for its sand dunes and forró tradition; the Captaincy of Espírito Santo was carved out of the Captaincy of Bahia in the 18th century, during the colonial rule of Brazil, named after a 16th century captaincy covering the same area of coast. Following the elevation of Brazil to a constituent kingdom of United Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves in 1815, prompted by the transfer of the Portuguese Court to Brazil, Espírito Santo was elevated to a province. After the independence of Brazil in 1822, it became a province of the newly-established Empire of Brazil, after Brazil became a republic in 1889, it was granted statehood.
In the early 20th century, its current state symbols were adopted. Espírito Santo's namesake is the Christian Holy Ghost. There is debate as to the origin of the term capixaba, the unofficial demonym for those born in Espírito Santo. "Capixaba" is Tupi for "corn hair" because the blond hair of the European settlers reminded the Amerindian natives of the golden color of corn. A more mainstream explanation is. A third etymology is from the name of a local tribe, borrowed by the Portuguese during the colonial period. "capixaba" referred only to people from Vitória, but in common parlance it came to refer to those born anywhere in the state. The official state demonym, however, is "espírito-santense". Espírito Santo was first inhabited by Amerindians, whose different tribes were semi-nomadic, but there is no recorded history of pre-colonial Brazil; the area was colonized by the Portuguese starting in the 16th century, received African slaves and European immigrants of various origins. The Captaincy of Espírito Santo, a hereditary fief, was granted to Vasco Coutinho by Manuel I of Portugal around three decades after the Portuguese first landed in Brazil in 1500.
He arrived at the captaincy to serve his term on May 23, 1535, bringing a retinue of 60 soldiers, colonists and servants. They settled around the Bay of Vitória; the capital was at first established in Vila Velha, but due to frequent raids by Amerindians, it was moved to the current capital of Vitória, founded on September 8, 1551, on an island near Vila Velha, named Vitória Island. In 1556, after the arrival of European missionaries, the cities Serra, Nova Almeida and Santa Cruz were founded; the captaincy remained under the influence of Coutinho's family for 140 years. It was elevated to province status in 1821, following the 1815 elevation of Brazil to a constituent kingdom of the United Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves, prompted by the 1808 transfer of the Portuguese Court to Brazil; the Portuguese court were fleeing the Napoleonic Invasion of Portugal. After the Independence of Brazil in 1822, Espírito Santo's provincial status was kept, it was headed by an appointed provincial president.
Emperor Pedro II, on good terms with the provincial President, visited the Espírito Santo in 1860, during one of his tours of Brazil. In 1889, with the advent of the First Brazilian Republic, Espírito Santo was made one of the states of Brazil. Afonso Cláudio de Freitas Rosa was appointed the first governor of the State by the provisional government, he was followed by four other appointed governors until the first elected governor of Espírito Santo, Alfeu Adolfo Monjardim de Andrade e Almeida, was inaugurated on June 7, 1891. During the Vargas Era, state governors were indirectly elected by Congress. A short period of democracy existed during the Second Brazilian Republic. However, after the 1964 coup d'état, governors were once again chosen by the national assembly. After Cristiano Dias Lopes, Arthur Carlos Gerhard Santos, Élcio Álvares and Eurico Rezende were chosen in this fashion, the military government redemocratized, culminating in the adoption of Brazil's current 1988 Constitution. Democratic elections were held for the filling of every term, up to the incumbent, Renato Casagrande.
During the first three centuries of Portuguese colonialism, the main cash crop was sugarcane, until coffee, in high demand in Europe, overtook it in the mid 19th century. During the colonial era, there were periods of gold rush when agriculture was neglected, leading to food shortages, but not much gold was found in Espírito Santo as in the neighbouring states of São Paulo and Minas Gerais. Another reason for the subdued expansion was the colonial administration's prohibition of the laying roads leading into Minas Gerais, as it was feared gold would be smuggled through the state. With 46,180 square kilometers, it is about the size of Estonia, or half the size of Portugal, has a variety of habitats including coastal planes, mountainous forests and many others; the volcanic islands of Trindade and Martim Vaz, 715 kilometers east of Vitória in the southern Atlantic Ocean, are part of Espírito Santo. This Brazilian state is in the east of the southeas
A language family is a group of languages related through descent from a common ancestral language or parental language, called the proto-language of that family. The term "family" reflects the tree model of language origination in historical linguistics, which makes use of a metaphor comparing languages to people in a biological family tree, or in a subsequent modification, to species in a phylogenetic tree of evolutionary taxonomy. Linguists therefore describe the daughter languages within a language family as being genetically related. According to Ethnologue the 7,097 living human languages are distributed in 141 different language families. A "living language" is one, used as the primary form of communication of a group of people. There are many dead and extinct languages, as well as some that are still insufficiently studied to be classified, or are unknown outside their respective speech communities. Membership of languages in a language family is established by comparative linguistics.
Sister languages are said to have a "genetic" or "genealogical" relationship. The latter term is older. Speakers of a language family belong to a common speech community; the divergence of a proto-language into daughter languages occurs through geographical separation, with the original speech community evolving into distinct linguistic units. Individuals belonging to other speech communities may adopt languages from a different language family through the language shift process. Genealogically related languages present shared retentions. Membership in a branch or group within a language family is established by shared innovations. For example, Germanic languages are "Germanic" in that they share vocabulary and grammatical features that are not believed to have been present in the Proto-Indo-European language; these features are believed to be innovations that took place in Proto-Germanic, a descendant of Proto-Indo-European, the source of all Germanic languages. Language families can be divided into smaller phylogenetic units, conventionally referred to as branches of the family because the history of a language family is represented as a tree diagram.
A family is a monophyletic unit. Some taxonomists restrict the term family to a certain level, but there is little consensus in how to do so; those who affix such labels subdivide branches into groups, groups into complexes. A top-level family is called a phylum or stock; the closer the branches are to each other, the closer the languages will be related. This means if a branch off of a proto-language is 4 branches down and there is a sister language to that fourth branch the two sister languages are more related to each other than to that common ancestral proto-language; the term macrofamily or superfamily is sometimes applied to proposed groupings of language families whose status as phylogenetic units is considered to be unsubstantiated by accepted historical linguistic methods. For example, the Celtic, Slavic and Indo-Iranian language families are branches of a larger Indo-European language family. There is a remarkably similar pattern shown by the linguistic tree and the genetic tree of human ancestry, verified statistically.
Languages interpreted in terms of the putative phylogenetic tree of human languages are transmitted to a great extent vertically as opposed to horizontally. Some knit language families, many branches within larger families, take the form of dialect continua in which there are no clear-cut borders that make it possible to unequivocally identify, define, or count individual languages within the family. However, when the differences between the speech of different regions at the extremes of the continuum are so great that there is no mutual intelligibility between them, as occurs in Arabic, the continuum cannot meaningfully be seen as a single language. A speech variety may be considered either a language or a dialect depending on social or political considerations. Thus, different sources over time, can give wildly different numbers of languages within a certain family. Classifications of the Japonic family, for example, range from one language to nearly twenty—until the classification of Ryukyuan as separate languages within a Japonic language family rather than dialects of Japanese, the Japanese language itself was considered a language isolate and therefore the only language in its family.
Most of the world's languages are known to be related to others. Those that have no known relatives are called language isolates language families consisting of a single language. An example is Basque. In general, it is assumed that language isolates have relatives or had relatives at some point in their history but at a time depth too great for linguistic comparison to recover them. A language isolated in its own branch within a family, such as Albanian and Armenian within Indo-European, is also called an isolate, but the meaning of the word "isolate" in such cases is clarified with a modifier. For instance and Armenian may be referred to as an "Indo-European isolate". By contrast, so far as is known, the Basque language is an absolute isolate: it has not been
Germany the Federal Republic of Germany, is a country in Central and Western Europe, lying between the Baltic and North Seas to the north, the Alps to the south. It borders Denmark to the north and the Czech Republic to the east and Switzerland to the south, France to the southwest, Luxembourg and the Netherlands to the west. Germany includes 16 constituent states, covers an area of 357,386 square kilometres, has a temperate seasonal climate. With 83 million inhabitants, it is the second most populous state of Europe after Russia, the most populous state lying in Europe, as well as the most populous member state of the European Union. Germany is a decentralized country, its capital and largest metropolis is Berlin, while Frankfurt serves as its financial capital and has the country's busiest airport. Germany's largest urban area is the Ruhr, with its main centres of Essen; the country's other major cities are Hamburg, Cologne, Stuttgart, Düsseldorf, Dresden, Bremen and Nuremberg. Various Germanic tribes have inhabited the northern parts of modern Germany since classical antiquity.
A region named Germania was documented before 100 AD. During the Migration Period, the Germanic tribes expanded southward. Beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire. During the 16th century, northern German regions became the centre of the Protestant Reformation. After the collapse of the Holy Roman Empire, the German Confederation was formed in 1815; the German revolutions of 1848–49 resulted in the Frankfurt Parliament establishing major democratic rights. In 1871, Germany became a nation state when most of the German states unified into the Prussian-dominated German Empire. After World War I and the revolution of 1918–19, the Empire was replaced by the parliamentary Weimar Republic; the Nazi seizure of power in 1933 led to the establishment of a dictatorship, the annexation of Austria, World War II, the Holocaust. After the end of World War II in Europe and a period of Allied occupation, Austria was re-established as an independent country and two new German states were founded: West Germany, formed from the American and French occupation zones, East Germany, formed from the Soviet occupation zone.
Following the Revolutions of 1989 that ended communist rule in Central and Eastern Europe, the country was reunified on 3 October 1990. Today, the sovereign state of Germany is a federal parliamentary republic led by a chancellor, it is a great power with a strong economy. As a global leader in several industrial and technological sectors, it is both the world's third-largest exporter and importer of goods; as a developed country with a high standard of living, it upholds a social security and universal health care system, environmental protection, a tuition-free university education. The Federal Republic of Germany was a founding member of the European Economic Community in 1957 and the European Union in 1993, it is part of the Schengen Area and became a co-founder of the Eurozone in 1999. Germany is a member of the United Nations, NATO, the G7, the G20, the OECD. Known for its rich cultural history, Germany has been continuously the home of influential and successful artists, musicians, film people, entrepreneurs, scientists and inventors.
Germany has a large number of World Heritage sites and is among the top tourism destinations in the world. The English word Germany derives from the Latin Germania, which came into use after Julius Caesar adopted it for the peoples east of the Rhine; the German term Deutschland diutisciu land is derived from deutsch, descended from Old High German diutisc "popular" used to distinguish the language of the common people from Latin and its Romance descendants. This in turn descends from Proto-Germanic *þiudiskaz "popular", derived from *þeudō, descended from Proto-Indo-European *tewtéh₂- "people", from which the word Teutons originates; the discovery of the Mauer 1 mandible shows that ancient humans were present in Germany at least 600,000 years ago. The oldest complete hunting weapons found anywhere in the world were discovered in a coal mine in Schöningen between 1994 and 1998 where eight 380,000-year-old wooden javelins of 1.82 to 2.25 m length were unearthed. The Neander Valley was the location where the first non-modern human fossil was discovered.
The Neanderthal 1 fossils are known to be 40,000 years old. Evidence of modern humans dated, has been found in caves in the Swabian Jura near Ulm; the finds included 42,000-year-old bird bone and mammoth ivory flutes which are the oldest musical instruments found, the 40,000-year-old Ice Age Lion Man, the oldest uncontested figurative art discovered, the 35,000-year-old Venus of Hohle Fels, the oldest uncontested human figurative art discovered. The Nebra sky disk is a bronze artefact created during the European Bronze Age attributed to a site near Nebra, Saxony-Anhalt, it is part of UNESCO's Memory of the World Programme. The Germanic tribes are thought to date from the Pre-Roman Iron Age. From southern Scandinavia and north Germany, they expanded south and west from the 1st century BC, coming into contact with the Celtic tribes of Gaul as well
Pomerelia referred to as Eastern Pomerania or as Danzig Pomerania, is a historical region in northern Poland. Pomerelia lay on the southern shore of the Baltic Sea, west of the Vistula river and east of the Łeba river, its biggest city was Gdańsk. Since 1999 the region has formed the core of the Pomeranian Voivodeship. Gdańsk Pomerania is traditionally divided into Kociewie. In its early history, the territory which became known as Pomerelia was the site of the Pomeranian Culture, the Oksywie culture, the Wielbark Culture. In the mid-6th century Jordanes mentioned the Vistula estuary as the home of the Vidivarii. Pomerelia was settled by West Slavic tribes in the 8th centuries. In the tenth century, Pomerelia was settled by Slavic Pomeranians; the area was conquered and incorporated into early medieval Poland either by Duke Mieszko I – the first historical Polish ruler - in the second half of the tenth century or earlier, by his father, in the 940s or 950s – the date of incorporation is unknown.
Mieszko founded Gdańsk to control the mouth of the Vistula between 970 and 980. According to Józef Spors, despite some cultural differences the inhabitants of the whole of Pomerania had close ties with residents of other Piast provinces, from which Pomerelia was separated by large stretches of woodlands and swamps; the Piasts introduced Christianity to pagan Pomerelia, though it is disputed to what extent the conversion materialized. In the eleventh century the region had loosened its close connections with the kingdom of Poland and subsequently for some years formed an independent duchy. Most scholars suggest that Pomerelia was still part of Poland during the reign of king Bolesław I of Poland and his son Mieszko II Lambert. However, there are different opinions e.g. Peter Oliver Loew suggests the Slavs in Pomerelia severed their ties with the Piasts and reverted the Piasts' introduction of Christianity in the first years of the 11th century; the exact date of separation is however unknown.
It was suggested that the inhabitants of Pomerelia participated in the Pagan reaction in Poland supported Miecław who intended to detach Masovia from the power of the rulers of Poland, but after the defeat of Miecław in 1047 accepted the rule of duke Casimir I the Restorer and that the province remained a part of Poland till the 1060s, when Pomerelian troops took part in the expedition of the Polish king Bolesław II the Generous against Bohemia in 1061 or 1068. Duke Bolesław had to retreat to Poland. Soon after Pomerelia separated from his realm. A campaign by Piast duke Władysław I Herman to conquer Pomerelia in 1090–91 was unsuccessful, but resulted in the burning of many Pomerelian forts during the retreat. In 1116 direct control over Pomerelia was reestablished by Bolesław III Wrymouth of Poland, who by 1122 had conquered the central and western parts of Pomerania. While the latter regions regained independence Pomerelia remained within the Polish realm, it was administered by governors of a local dynasty, the Samborides, subordinated to the bishopric of Włocławek.
In 1138, following the death of Bolesław III, Poland was fragmented into several semi-independent principalities. The principes in Pomerelia gained more local power, evolving into semi-independent entities, much like other fragmented Polish territories, with the difference that the other parts of the realm were governed by Piast descendants of Bolesław III; the Christian centre became Oliva Abbey near Gdańsk. Two Samborides administering Pomerelia in the 12th century are known by name: Sobieslaw I and his son, Sambor I. In 1210, king Valdemar II of Denmark invaded Pomerelia; the Danish suzerainty did however not last long. Mestwin had gained more independence from Poland and expanded southward, his son Swietopelk II, who succeeded him in 1217, gained full independence in 1227. After Mestwin I's death, Pomerelia was internally divided among his sons Swietopelk II, Sambor II and Ratibor. Swietopelk II, who took his seat in Gdańsk, assumed a leading position over his brothers: Sambor II, who received the castellany of Lubieszewo, Ratibor, who received the Białogard area, were under his tutelage.
The fourth brother, took his seat in Świecie, thus controlling the second important area besides Gdańsk. Wartislaw died before 27 December 1229, his share was to be given to Oliva Abbey by his brothers; the remaining brothers engaged in a civil war: Sambor II and Ratibor allied with the Teutonic Order and the Duke of Kuyavia against Swietopelk, who in turn allied with the Old Prussians, took Ratibor prisoner and temporarily assumed control over the latter's share. The revolt of the Old Prussians against the Teutonic Order in 1242 took place in the context of these alliances. Peace was restored only in the Treaty of Christburg in 1249, mediated by the pope Urban IV papal legate and archidiacone of Lüttich. In the west, the Pomerelian dukes' claim to the lands of Schlawe and Stolp, where the last Ratiboride duke Ratibor II had died after 1223, was challenged by the Griffin dukes of Pomerania, Barnim I and Wartislaw III. In this conflict, Swietopelk II won the upper hand, but could not force a final decision.
Swietopelk II, who styled himself dux. since 1227, chartered the town of Gdańsk with Lübeck law and invited