click links in text for more info

East Punjab

East Punjab was a province and a state of India from 1947 until 1966, consisting of the parts of the Punjab Province of British India that went to India following the partition of the province between India and Pakistan by the Radcliffe Commission in 1947. The Muslim western parts of the old Punjab became Pakistan's West Punjab renamed as Punjab Province, while the Hindu and Sikh eastern parts went to India. With the partition of the British Indian Empire, the Punjab province was to be divided in two as per the Indian Independence Act passed by the parliament of the United Kingdom; the province as constituted under the Government of India Act 1935 ceased to exist and two new provinces were to be constituted, to be known as West Punjab & East Punjab. The princely states of the Punjab region all acceded to the new Dominion of India and were combined into the Patiala and East Punjab States Union; the northeast Hill States of the Punjab Province banded together and were declared a union territory in 1950 as Himachal Pradesh.

The Constitution of India, which came into effect in 1950, renamed the province of "East Punjab" as the state of "Punjab". In 1956, the PEPSU was merged into an expanded Punjab state. With effect from 1 November 1966, there was yet another reorganisation, this time on linguistic lines, when the state of Punjab as constituted in 1956 was divided into three: the Hindi-speaking part became the present-day Indian state of Haryana and the Punjabi-speaking part became the present-day Punjab, while a new union territory was created, to serve as a capital to both states. At the same time, some parts of the former territory of Patiala and East Punjab States Union, including Solan and Nalagarh, were transferred to Himachal Pradesh. Since it ceased to be the name of a state, "East Punjab" has been used in India to refer to the eastern part of the present Punjab state, while in Pakistan it means the eastern part of Pakistan's Punjab province, although Pakistanis sometimes refer to the current Indian Punjab as "East Punjab".

Terms East and West Punjab are often used in modern India and Pakistan when making a comparison between the two territories. There are 22 districts in the State of Punjab. West Punjab Punjab region

Listed buildings in Manchester-M2

Manchester is a city in Northwest England. The M2 postcode area of the city includes part of the city centre, including the Central Retail District; the postcode area contains 143 listed buildings that are recorded in the National Heritage List for England. Of these, five are listed at Grade I, the highest of the three grades, 16 are at Grade II*, the middle grade, the others are at Grade II, the lowest grade; the area is important not only for retail, but for commercial and civic functions. The majority of the listed buildings date from the early 19th to the early 20th century, many of them are elaborately designed and decorated, reflecting the economic prosperity of the city during this time; the architectural styles employed include Classical, Greek Revival, Gothic, Venetian Gothic, Queen Anne, Edwardian Baroque. Some of the buildings originated as warehouses that have been converted for other uses, a number of these are in the style of an Italian palazzo. Most of the buildings are shops, houses and civic and public buildings, Other buildings include churches, tombs, public houses, clubs, a former railway station now an exhibition centre, a fountain, war memorials, two electricity junction boxes, a pair of telephone kiosks

Orchestra Nova San Diego

Orchestra Nova San Diego known as the San Diego Chamber Orchestra, is a defunct chamber orchestra based in San Diego, California. It operated for 28 years, from 1984 through 2012; the founding director was Donald Barra. The San Diego Chamber Orchestra was formed in 1983 and performed its first concerts in 1984; the ensemble changed its name to Orchestra Nova San Diego in the fall of 2009. The orchestra performed in many different locations; the group had 35 full-time members, with up to 15 additional musicians being added for special occasions and Pops concerts. The group's season ran fall through spring and included five Classics Series concerts, three pops concerts, Handel's Messiah in December; the 2011-2012 season was sold out. However, the 2012-2013 season did not begin as scheduled in October 2012. Two days before the season was scheduled to open, the first three concerts were cancelled due to an impasse in negotiations with the American Federation of Musicians union. Pak wanted the right to hand-pick musicians for individual concerts, while the musicians wanted a season contract.

After the cancellation of the opening concerts Pak resigned abruptly, giving no reason, the rest of the season was cancelled shortly thereafter. In December 2012 the ensemble announced that it had filed for liquidation bankruptcy. There was no provision for refunds to people who had purchased tickets, although some other arts organizations offered exchange privileges. is the Official Website.

Vice Chief of the Defence Force (Australia)

The Vice Chief of the Defence Force is the military deputy to the Chief of the Defence Force of Australia, acts as the CDF in his absence under standing acting arrangements. Vice Admiral David Johnston, the incumbent VCDF, has held the position since 5 July 2018. Created in 1986, the VCDF is a three-star officer in the Australian Defence Force; the position's standing responsibilities include: Joint Doctrine, Education and Evaluation. When acting as Chief of the Defence Force, the VCDF attends the National Security Committee of Cabinet and Secretary’s Committee on National Security; until September 2007, the VCDF was "double hatted" as the Chief of Joint Operations. In this role he commanded Australian Defence Force operations on behalf of the Chief of the Defence Force. In September 2007, the Minister of Defence, Brendan Nelson announced the formation of a separate three-star CJOPS position based at the Headquarters Joint Operations Command facility at Bungendore, New South Wales; the appointment is made by the Governor General on the advice of his/her ministers under Section 9AA of the Defence Act and is for a fixed term of four years, nominally rotated between the three services, Navy and Air Force.

The role is politically neutral, as are all military positions, is not affected by a change of government. The Vice Chief of the Defence Force Group is responsible for the provision of military strategic effects and commitments advice and planning, joint military professional education and training, logistics support, health support, ADF cadet and reserve policy, joint capability coordination, preparedness management, joint and combined ADF doctrine; the Military Strategic Commitments Division provides and coordinates ADF tri-service and joint strategic advice across the Australian Government and situational awareness for current and potential ADF commitments. The Head Military Strategic Commitments is responsible for the Australian Defence Force Investigative Service, strategic communications, strategic crisis response, the Australian Defence Force Parliamentary Program, engagement with the United Nations and other coalition partners; the Military Strategic Plans Division provides strategic planning linking policy and operational arrangements.

The Force Integration Division is responsible for the design, development and coordination of ADF joint warfare capabilities, including information systems, effects-based operations, counter-IED efforts. The Force Design Division is responsible for the provision of guidance and planning for future joint force design and capabilities of the ADF; the following list chronologically records those who have held the post of Vice Chief of the Defence Force. Rank and honours are as at the completion of the individual's term

Honus Craig

John Livingston "Honus" Craig was an American college football player and coach. John Livingston Craig was born on November 30, 1881 in Culleoka, Tennessee to Thompson Sloan Craig and Ella Cline. Craig was a prominent halfback for Dan McGugin's Vanderbilt Commodores football teams which won four SIAA titles, he was selected All-Southern four times. McGugin once called him Vanderbilt's greatest halfback. One report says "When Craig was confronted with the above formidable title yesterday by a reporter whose business it is to know such things, he blushed like a girl and tried to show why Dan McGugin's judgment is not always to be trusted." In Craig's opinion, Bob Blake was the South's greatest player. Craig weighed 165 pounds, he was nominated. Vanderbilt had a major intersection for the first time when it defeated Carlisle in 1906 by a single Bob Blake drop kick, "the crowning feat of the Southern Intercollegiate Athletic Association season." Craig called this his hardest game, giving special praise to Albert Exendine as "the fastest end I saw."

Craig went over for the touchdown to beat Sewanee in 1907, after the play which Grantland Rice called the greatest thrill he witnessed in his years of watching sports, the double-pass play ending with a pass from Bob Blake to Stein Stone. Earlier in the game Craig caught a 35-yard touchdown pass from Blake. Craig once coached at the Columbia Military Academy. Craig was coach and athletic director at Texas Wesleyan University. Craig died on April 1942 in Maury County, Tennessee while on a fishing trip. At the time of his death he was safety director for the Tennessee State Highway Department

Women's Suffrage League

The Women's Suffrage League, founded in 1888, spearheaded the campaign for women's right to vote in South Australia. In 1894 South Australia became the first Australian colony and the fourth place in the world to grant women's suffrage. At the same time women were granted the right to stand for election to Parliament, the first place in the world; the Women's Suffrage League evolved from the Social Purity Society, an organisation, concerned about the social and economic difficulties many women faced. The Society campaigned for fairer treatment of women by the law, greater legal protection for young women. Thanks to the Society the age of consent for girls was raised to 16 and the age of young people in brothels was regulated. Members of the Society and similar movements of the period, notably temperance advocates including the W. C. T. U. Realised that the key to affecting social change was parliamentary representation; this led the establishment of the Women's Suffrage League of South Australia with the view of initiating a movement for the enfranchisement of women.

Those key to the suffrage movement in South Australia included: Mary Colton, President Mary Lee, Secretary Rosetta Jane Birks, Treasurer Serena Lake Elizabeth Webb Nicholls Catherine Helen Spence Augusta ZadowThe nature of society at the time meant that the role of men was vital for the success of the campaign for women's suffrage. Key men included: Sir Edward Stirling, President until 1892 Hector McLennan Co-secretary with Mary Lee Robert Caldwell MHA Sylvanus James Magarey Joseph Coles Kirby. C. Louise Boehringer Women's suffrage in Australia Temperance movement in Australia