Mandurah Road is the name given to two roads in the cities of Perth and Mandurah, Western Australia, which link together at Stakehill Road, Karnup. The northern part starts in the Kwinana Beach industrial area. After 2 km and reaching the City of Rockingham boundary, it becomes a semi-rural single carriageway road which runs past wetlands east of Rockingham such as Lake Cooloongup and Lake Walyungup, it provides access to the residential and rural-residential sections of the suburb of Baldivis. The southern part starts at Stakehill Road and is a dual carriageway and part of National Highway 1, it is a continuation of Ennis Avenue coming from Rockingham. It continues to Mandurah, where it intersects with Mandjoogoordap Drive at a roundabout before crossing Pinjarra Road and heading west to meet Old Coast Road, the main road to Bunbury and South West of Western Australia; until 2005, the road changed name at the City of Mandurah boundary line to "Fremantle Road", but this was changed by a decision of the City of Mandurah in September 2005.
This change has been recognised by the Government in the 2007 Streetsmart street directory. Wellard Road - to Leda and Wellard. Dixon Road west / Gilmore Avenue east: West to Rockingham Trade Centre and Murdoch University Rockingham Campus East to Wellard and Kwinana Kulija Road to the Kwinana Freeway intersection with Mundijong Road. Safety Bay Road: West to Safety Bay East to Baldivis and Kwinana Freeway Stakehill Road - to Karnup Nature Reserve. Anstey Road - to Secret Harbour Dampier Drive - to Golden Bay, Secret Harbour and Warnbro Paganoni Road Singleton Beach Road - to SingletonFormer Fremantle Road: Madora Beach Road - to Madora Bay Meadow Springs Drive - to Meadow Springs Mandurah Terrace - to Mandurah Foreshore Gordon Road - to Greenfields and South Western Highway at North Dandalup Mandjoogoordap Drive north / Exchequer Avenue east North to Stake Hill, direct link to the Kwinana Freeway to Perth/Bunbury. East to Peel Education Campus, Greenfields. Allnutt Street/Murdoch Drive - Mandurah railway station, Peel Health Campus Pinjarra Road: West to Mandurah Foreshore and Halls Head East to Greenfields and Pinjarra Australian Roads portal
Electorates of the Australian states and territories
A State Electoral District is an electorate within the Lower House or Legislative Assembly of Australian states and territories. Most state electoral districts send a single member to a state or territory's parliament using the preferential method of voting; the area of a state electoral district is dependent upon the Electoral Acts in the various states and vary in area between them. At present, there are 409 state electoral districts in Australia. State electoral districts do not apply to the Upper House, or Legislative Council, in those states that have one. In New South Wales and South Australia, MLCs represent the entire state, in Tasmania they represent single-member districts, in Victoria and Western Australia they represent a region formed by grouping electoral districts together. There are five electorates for the Legislative Assembly, each with five members each, making up 25 members in total. There are 93 electoral districts in New South Wales. There are 25 single-member electoral divisions in the Northern Territory, 17 former divisions.
There are 93 electoral districts in Queensland, for the Legislative Assembly of Queensland. Information about the QLD electoral districts for the 2006 elections can be obtained from the Electoral Commission of Queensland website. There are 47 single-member electoral districts in South Australia, for the South Australian House of Assembly. There are 15 electoral divisions in Tasmania for the upper house Legislative Council. In the lower house the five federal divisions are used, but electing 5 members each There are 88 electoral districts in Victoria, for the Victorian Legislative Assembly. There are 59 single-member electoral districts in Western Australia for the Western Australian Legislative Assembly. 42 are in the Perth metropolitan area and 17 are in the rest of the state. Divisions of the Australian House of Representatives Local government in Australia Parliaments of the Australian states and territories
Electoral district of Rockingham
Rockingham is an electoral district of the Legislative Assembly in the Australian state of Western Australia. The district is located in the outer south-western suburbs of Perth. Rockingham has been held at all times by the Labor Party; the electorate is a compact, urban district centred on the coastal community of Rockingham, a satellite suburb to the south-west of Perth. The district takes in the neighbouring suburbs of Peron, Safety Bay, as well as parts of Cooloongup, East Rockingham and Waikiki; the district includes Garden Island
Western Australia is a state occupying the entire western third of Australia. It is bounded by the Indian Ocean to the north and west, the Southern Ocean to the south, the Northern Territory to the north-east, South Australia to the south-east. Western Australia is Australia's largest state, with a total land area of 2,529,875 square kilometres, the second-largest country subdivision in the world, surpassed only by Russia's Sakha Republic; the state has about 2.6 million inhabitants – around 11 percent of the national total – of whom the vast majority live in the south-west corner, 79 per cent of the population living in the Perth area, leaving the remainder of the state sparsely populated. The first European visitor to Western Australia was the Dutch explorer Dirk Hartog, who visited the Western Australian coast in 1616; the first European settlement of Western Australia occurred following the landing by Major Edmund Lockyer on 26 December 1826 of an expedition on behalf of the New South Wales colonial government.
He established a convict-supported military garrison at King George III Sound, at present-day Albany, on 21 January 1827 formally took possession of the western third of the continent for the British Crown. This was followed by the establishment of the Swan River Colony in 1829, including the site of the present-day capital, Perth. York was the first inland settlement in Western Australia. Situated 97 kilometres east of Perth, it was settled on 16 September 1831. Western Australia achieved responsible government in 1890 and federated with the other British colonies in Australia in 1901. Today, its economy relies on mining, agriculture and tourism; the state produces 46 per cent of Australia's exports. Western Australia is the second-largest iron ore producer in the world. Western Australia is bounded to the east by longitude 129°E, the meridian 129 degrees east of Greenwich, which defines the border with South Australia and the Northern Territory, bounded by the Indian Ocean to the west and north.
The International Hydrographic Organization designates the body of water south of the continent as part of the Indian Ocean. The total length of the state's eastern border is 1,862 km. There are 20,781 km including 7,892 km of island coastline; the total land area occupied by the state is 2.5 million km2. The bulk of Western Australia consists of the old Yilgarn craton and Pilbara craton which merged with the Deccan Plateau of India and the Karoo and Zimbabwe cratons of Southern Africa, in the Archean Eon to form Ur, one of the oldest supercontinents on Earth. In May 2017, evidence of the earliest known life on land may have been found in 3.48-billion-year-old geyserite and other related mineral deposits uncovered in the Pilbara craton. Because the only mountain-building since has been of the Stirling Range with the rifting from Antarctica, the land is eroded and ancient, with no part of the state above 1,245 metres AHD. Most of the state is a low plateau with an average elevation of about 400 metres low relief, no surface runoff.
This descends sharply to the coastal plains, in some cases forming a sharp escarpment. The extreme age of the landscape has meant that the soils are remarkably infertile and laterised. Soils derived from granitic bedrock contain an order of magnitude less available phosphorus and only half as much nitrogen as soils in comparable climates in other continents. Soils derived from extensive sandplains or ironstone are less fertile, nearly devoid of soluble phosphate and deficient in zinc, copper and sometimes potassium and calcium; the infertility of most of the soils has required heavy application by farmers of fertilizers. These have resulted in damage to bacterial populations; the grazing and use of hoofed mammals and heavy machinery through the years have resulted in compaction of soils and great damage to the fragile soils. Large-scale land clearing for agriculture has damaged habitats for native fauna; as a result, the South West region of the state has a higher concentration of rare, threatened or endangered flora and fauna than many areas of Australia, making it one of the world's biodiversity "hot spots".
Large areas of the state's wheatbelt region have problems with dryland salinity and the loss of fresh water. The southwest coastal area has a Mediterranean climate, it was heavily forested, including large stands of karri, one of the tallest trees in the world. This agricultural region is one of the nine most bio-diverse terrestrial habitats, with a higher proportion of endemic species than most other equivalent regions. Thanks to the offshore Leeuwin Current, the area is one of the top six regions for marine biodiversity and contains the most southerly coral reefs in the world. Average annual rainfall varies from 300 millimetres at the edge of the Wheatbelt region to 1,400 millimetres in the wettest areas near Northcliffe, but from November to March, evaporation exceeds rainfall, it is very dry. Plants are adapted to this as well as the extreme poverty of all soils; the central two-thirds of the state is sparsely inhabited. The only significant economic activity is mining. Annual rainfall averages less than 300 millimetres, most of which occurs in sporadic torrential falls related to cyclone events in summer.
An exception to this is
Rockingham, Western Australia
Rockingham is a city and primary centre in Western Australia south-west of the Perth city centre and south of Fremantle. It has a beachside location at the southern extremity of Cockburn Sound. To its north stretches the maritime and resource-industry installations of Kwinana and Henderson. Offshore to the north-west is Australia's largest naval fleet and submarine base, Garden Island, connected to the mainland by an all-weather causeway. To the south lies the Shoalwater Islands Marine Park. Rockingham received its name from the sailing ship Rockingham, one of the three vessels that Thomas Peel had chartered to carry settlers to Western Australia. Rockingham arrived on 14 May 1830. Rockingham was blown ashore and abandoned after failed attempts to refloat her, she broke up, having sunk in shallow waters. Settlers camped near the wreck used the name "Rockingham Town" as their address; the region had been inhabited for several thousand years by tribes of the Noongar people whose leader at that time was Galyute.
Rockingham was first surveyed and lots offered for sale in 1847. However, few lots were sold until the development of a railway and jetty in 1872 to transport jarrah timber and sandalwood from Jarrahdale overseas. Rockingham prospered until the construction of the Inner Harbour of Fremantle in 1897, which caused Rockingham as a timber port to decline. Another factor that contributed, albeit to the decline of the port's importance for timber export was the opening in 1893 of the South Western Railway, the line of which intersected the Jarrahdale-Rockingham line and created the possibility of trucking timber north to Fremantle or south to Bunbury where the ports were capable of taking larger ships with deeper draughts. By the turn of the century, the international timber trade was being handled by larger ships and when the timber merchants determined that they could not justify the expense of dredging to enhance access to the port of Rockingham timber exports shifted to Fremantle. After 1908 the port saw no further use for timber exports.
The ending of the port coincided with the arrival of the motor car, this new mode of transport gave impetus to the rapid development of the little coastal settlement into a seaside resort town. It was a comfortable day trip by motor car from Fremantle and Perth, a sufficient distance from those centres for the'travellers' to purchase alcoholic beverages at the Rockingham hotel on Sundays during an era when such sales were regulated to protect the sanctity of that day. Holidaymakers had the use of the old port's jetties while they remained, but by 1947 they were gone, destroyed through the effects of decay and storms. From the earliest years of the 20th Century, holiday shacks were developed in the town, by the 1970s Rockingham had become a desirable locale for retirement villas - of a modest scale. In recent decades Rockingham has become a satellite city in Perth's southwest, together with Mandurah, is among Australia's fastest-growing residential districts; the maritime tradition has been strengthened by steady growth of the Royal Australian Navy's main fleet base HMAS Stirling and by the development of major shipbuilding and marine support services at nearby Henderson.
Since the nineteenth century, abundant sightseeing and recreational attributes have been the basis of a tourism industry. Visitors can launch small boats or board ferries to view dolphins, seals and penguins in the adjacent Marine Park; the coast at nearby Safety Bay is ideal for kitesurfing. Rockingham Centre is the regional centre which attracts significant non-local business, having a licence to trade on Sundays during public and school holidays. On 7 May 2009, a boundary realignment of Cooloongup and Hillman approved by the Minister for Lands incorporated the Rockingham Train Station into Rockingham. Rockingham is topographically flat, has coastal vegetation, it has a northern aspect from Rockingham Beach and Palm Beach. High-frequency passenger services are acccessible at the Rockingham Railway Station and Warnbro railway station on the Mandurah Line. A bus network operates throughout Rockingham with multiple routes terminating at the railway stations; the "Rockingham Shuttle Bus 555" is a frequent service which connects the train station with the Rockingham Beach foreshore.
Frequent services connect Rockingham with Fremantle via the bus service 549 running at 15-minute intervals Monday to Friday and the 548. All three of these routes service the primary centre via dedicated bus lanes. Local heavy industry is serviced by branches of the Kwinana freight railway which has a number of level crossings within the City of Rockingham. A Rockingham Light Rail service is proposed to connect the railway station with the city centre and foreshore; the Kwinana Freeway is about 15 minutes' drive from the primary centre via Kulija Road or via Safety Bay Road, giving fast access to Perth and Bunbury. National Highway 1 provides alternative road connection with Perth and Mandurah. Perth Bicycle Network route SW38 links Rockingham Beach with Waikiki Beach in Safety Bay. Rockingham Beach Primary School was founded in 1895 and is supplemented by Bungaree, East Waikiki, Safety Bay and Waikiki primary schools. Public secondary schools are Safety Bay Senior High School. Private schools in the district include the Roman Catholic Star of the Sea Primary School, Kolbe Catholic College, Rockingham Montessori School, South Coast Baptist College, Living Waters Luthe
Kwinana Beach, Western Australia
Kwinana Beach is an industrial suburb of Perth, Western Australia within the City of Kwinana. Kwinana is a local indigenous Australian word meaning either "young woman" or "pretty maiden"; the ship SS Kwinana was wrecked on Cockburn Sound in 1922, blown on to the beach. The nearby area acquired the name Kwinana Beach when the local postmistress, Clara Wells started labeling the mail sacks "Kwinana Wreck", to distinguish the settlement there from Rockingham, to the south. Kwinana Beach was adopted as a township in 1937. With the new industrial developments at Kwinana Beach in the 1950s, led by BP's Kwinana Refinery, a large new workers settlement – Kwinana Townsite – was purpose-built inland. Other industries followed – Alcoa, CSBP, CBH, Coogee Chemicals, others; the original village at Kwinana Beach was rezoned'industrial', scheduled for resumption and compulsory purchase as early as 1953 – unbeknown to the residents. Confirmed in the Stephenson Plan, this was ratified by State Parliament in the 1963 Perth Metropolitan Region Scheme.
However, building applications were still being approved throughout the 1960s, beyond – with a vague warning that the land was earmarked for "potential industrial development". There was no real public comment until 1968, following increased pollution and health problems from the growing industrial development just north of the village; this led to a rather lively Council meeting at the Kwinana Beach Hall in September, 1969. The dangers of property resumption were played down by the Kwinana Mayor, Cr. F. Baker, who advised residents to stay put and see what happened; the Air Pollution consultant, Mr A. Keil, informed them that, though there were no immediate plans to use the land for industry, it was a definite possibility – and pollution problems were "unavoidable", would only get worse. Residents responded that they didn't mind moving, so long as the compensation was fair, enabled them to purchase a property of at least equal value – rather than leaving them in debt. A committee was formed to look into the issues.
Matters remained in limbo throughout the 1970s, with residents accepting resumption of their properties as conditions became intolerable. With the exception of the huge CBH grain silos and jetty little of this land was actually used by industry. Today, rail lines connect local industries to their supplies, snaking through the ruins of the houses and gardens which line the original Kwinana Beach Road. To the north of the Kwinana Beach area, enormous jetties jut out into the deep-water harbour of Cockburn Sound. Starting with the Kwinana wreck at Wells Park, the Kwinana Beach coastline down to Rockingham is now used as beach and recreation areas; the Kwinana wreck itself is now an unrecognisable, short concreted line-fishing jetty. Kwinana Beach is home to the Perth Motorplex which incorporates an international standard drag racing strip, a 520 metres dirt track speedway; the Motorplex opened in 2000, replacing the old Ravenswood Raceway Drag Racing strip, the Claremont Speedway which had operated from 1927 until 2000 and is recognised as the longest running speedway in Australia
Division of Brand
The Division of Brand is an Australian electoral division in the state of Western Australia. The division was named after the longest-serving Premier of Western Australia. According to the 2006 census, Brand is the electorate with the lowest proportion of residents with a university qualification; the seat was created for the 1984 federal election from parts of the Divisions of Fremantle and Canning to cater for substantial population growth in the Rockingham–Mandurah coastal area south of the state capital Perth. It included country areas to the south and southeast, such as agricultural regions in the Shires of Murray and Harvey and the mining town of Collie, was more marginal for Labor—made abundantly clear by Labor's near-defeat in the seat at the 1996 federal election; the redistribution for the 1998 election saw the electorate become an urban seat, retreating north of the Peel Estuary to its present boundaries, the seat has been safe Labor since. Brand has had four members —two of whom had been sitting members for other seats.
Wendy Fatin had been the member for Canning for a single term prior to the creation of Brand, went on to win in four successive elections, becoming Minister for the Arts in the early 1990s. Upon her retirement from politics, Kim Beazley, Minister for Defence in the Hawke Government until 1990 and had several portfolios before becoming Deputy Prime Minister to Paul Keating in 1995, was preselected for the seat following 16 years as member for the marginal seat of Swan which polling suggested the party was certain to lose. At the 1996 election, Beazley won by just 387 votes against Liberal candidate Penny Hearne, to quit the party and run as an independent against Court minister Doug Shave in the 1996 state election for the seat of Alfred Cove; the third member was Gary Gray, from 2007 to 2016. On 25 March 2013, Gray was appointed to the Australian Cabinet as the Minister for Resources and Energy, the Minister for Tourism, the Minister for Small Business. From 2010 until 2013, Gray served as the Special Minister of State and the Minister for the Public Service and Integrity.
The redistribution for the 2010 federal election made the seat more secure for Labor by transferring some 12,000 Mandurah voters to the neighbouring Division of Canning. A redistribution ahead of the 2016 election removed the seat's share of Mandurah altogether, increasing the Labor majority from 52 percent to 54 percent. Gray retired in 2016, Madeleine King retained the seat for Labor on a swing just under 8 percent. Since the 2016 election, the division has consisted of enrolled voters resident in the City of Kwinana and the City of Rockingham. Suburbs presently included are: Division of Brand - Australian Electoral Commission