In Canada, the First Nations are the predominant indigenous peoples in Canada south of the Arctic Circle. Those in the Arctic area are distinct and known as Inuit; the Métis, another distinct ethnicity, developed after European contact and relations between First Nations people and Europeans. There are 634 recognized First Nations governments or bands spread across Canada half of which are in the provinces of Ontario and British Columbia. Under the Employment Equity Act, First Nations are a "designated group", along with women, visible minorities, people with physical or mental disabilities. First Nations are not defined as a visible minority under the Act or by the criteria of Statistics Canada. North American indigenous; some of their oral traditions describe historical events, such as the Cascadia earthquake of 1700 and the 18th-century Tseax Cone eruption. Written records began with the arrival of European explorers and colonists during the Age of Discovery, beginning in the late 15th century.
European accounts by trappers, traders and missionaries give important evidence of early contact culture. In addition and anthropological research, as well as linguistics, have helped scholars piece together an understanding of ancient cultures and historic peoples. Although not without conflict, Euro-Canadians' early interactions with First Nations, Métis, Inuit populations were less combative compared to the violent battles between colonists and native peoples in the United States. Collectively, First Nations, Métis peoples constitute Indigenous peoples in Canada, Indigenous peoples of the Americas, or first peoples. First Nation as a term became used beginning in 1980s to replace the term Indian band in referring to groups of Indians with common government and language; the term had come into common usage in the 1970s to avoid using the word Indian, which some Canadians considered offensive. No legal definition of the term exists; some indigenous peoples in Canada have adopted the term First Nation to replace the word band in the formal name of their community.
A band is a "body of Indians for whose use and benefit in common lands... have been set apart... moneys are held... or declared... to be a band for the purposes of" the Indian Act by the Canadian Crown. The term Indian is a misnomer given to indigenous peoples of North America by European explorers who erroneously thought they had landed on the Indian subcontinent; the use of the term Native Americans, which the US government and others have adopted, is not common in Canada. It refers more to the Indigenous peoples residing within the boundaries of the United States; the parallel term Native Canadian is not used, but Native and autochtone are. Under the Royal Proclamation of 1763 known as the "Indian Magna Carta," the Crown referred to indigenous peoples in British territory as tribes or nations; the term First Nations is capitalized. Bands and nations may have different meanings. Within Canada, First Nations has come into general use for indigenous peoples other than Inuit and Métis. Individuals using the term outside Canada include U.
S. tribes within the Pacific Northwest, as well as supporters of the Cascadian independence movement. The singular used on culturally politicized reserves, is the term First Nations person. A more recent trend is for members of various nations to refer to themselves by their tribal or national identity only, e.g. "I'm Haida". For pre-history, see: Paleo-Indians and Archaic periods First Nations by linguistic-cultural area: List of First Nations peoplesFirst Nations peoples had settled and established trade routes across what is now Canada by 1,000 BC to 500 BC. Communities developed, each with its own culture and character. In the northwest were the Athapaskan-speaking peoples, Slavey, Tłı̨chǫ, Tutchone-speaking peoples, Tlingit. Along the Pacific coast were the Haida, Kwakiutl, Nuu-chah-nulth, Nisga'a and Gitxsan. In the plains were the Blackfoot, Kainai and Northern Peigan. In the northern woodlands were the Chipewyan. Around the Great Lakes were the Anishinaabe, Algonquin and Wyandot. Along the Atlantic coast were the Beothuk, Innu and Micmac.
The Blackfoot Confederacies reside in the Great Plains of Montana and Canadian provinces of Alberta, British Columbia and Saskatchewan. The name "Blackfoot" came from the colour of the peoples' leather footwear, known as moccasins, they had painted the bottoms of their moccasins black. One account claimed that the Blackfoot Confederacies walked through the ashes of prairie fires, which in turn coloured the bottoms of their moccasins black, they had migrated onto the Great Plains from the Plateau area. The Blackfoot may have lived in their homeland since the end of the Pleistocene 11,000 years ago.. For thousands of years, they managed the prairie to support bison herds and cultivated berries and edible roots, they allowed only legitimate traders into their territory, making treaties only when the bison herds were exterminated in the 1870s. The Squamish history is a series of past events, both passed on through oral tradition and recent history, of the Squamish indigenous peoples of the Pacific Northwest Coast.
Prior to colonization, they recorded their history through oral tradition as a way to transmit stories and knowledge across generations. This was common among all the peoples; the writing system esta
Peguis First Nation
Peguis First Nation is the largest First Nations community in Manitoba, with a population of 10,255 people. The reserve is located 190 kilometres north of Winnipeg; the members of Peguis are of Cree descent. The First Nation is named after Peguis, the chief who led a band of Saultaux people from present-day Sault Ste. Marie Ontario area to a Cree settlement at Netley Creek Manitoba and to present-day East Selkirk Manitoba; the reserve is located about 170 km northwest of the original reserve. It was moved to its present location in 1907 after an illegal land transfer. Chief Peguis and his Band settled in an area north of present-day Selkirk in the late 1700s, their history is documented in journals of the Hudson's Bay Company, the Lord Selkirk settlers and the Church Missionary Society. Peguis and other chiefs signed the Selkirk Treaty in 1817; the treaty allocated land along the Red and Assiniboine Rivers to Lord Selkirk and his settlers for an annual rent of tobacco. On August 3, 1871, Peguis' son Mis-Koo-Kinew signed Treaty 1 on behalf of the "St. Peter's Band", the name of the Peguis First Nation at the time.
Treaty 1 specified. In 2008, Peguis First Nation announced the finalization of a land claims settlement with the Canadian federal government; the claim is for land, surrendered near Selkirk, Manitoba in 1907. Peguis First Nation consists of nine reserves: Peguis 1B, Peguis 1C, Peguis 1D, Peguis 1E, Peguis 1F, Pegius 1G, Peguis 1H, Peguis 1I and St. Peters Fishing Station 1A; the reserves of Peguis total 30655.7 hectares in area. The largest settlement, which lies on the main reserve, is named Peguis, is located at 51°18′15″N 97°33′50″W; the main reserve lies adjacent to the northern borders of the Rural Municipality of Fisher. The Peguis First Nation operates a First Nations community radio station, CJFN-FM 102.7. On 24 March 2009, Peguis First Nation along with Roseau River First Nation, Sioux Falls, St. Andrews, St. Clements and Selkirk MB experienced a hydrological flood; the total cost of flood in the region was CAD 40,000,000. 3,000 people were evacuated in the region. It was listed on the Canadian Disaster database.
Heavy rain and high winds Interlake Region of Manitoba from 1 to 5 July 2010, caused flooding and evacuation of Peguis First Nation’s 250 residents. 300 homes on-reserve were damaged and several roads washed out. Most residents were temporarily relocated to a few near Fisher River Cree Nation. By February 2011, Peguis First Nation were meeting with Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development officials about controlling mould in the 75 homes damaged by flooding. In March 2011, as community piled sandbags in flood preparations, the Peguis First Nation's emergency measures co-ordinator, said Peguis First Nation experienced two major floods since 2009. In 2013, AANDC invested more than CAD$4 million to Peguis First Nation for long term flood proofing as part of a 2010 commitment to protect 75 homes. Dr. Marcia Anderson DeCouteau, former president of the Indigenous Physicians Association of Canada Amy Clemons, a founding member of the first Indian & Metis Friendship Centre in Canada, recipient of the Order of Canada Trevor Greyeyes, journalist, editor Linden McCorrister, hockey player, Brandon Wheat Kings Cheryl McKenzie, journalist for APTN Renae Morriseau, storyteller, director Nile Expedition boatmen.
Winnipeg is the capital and largest city of the province of Manitoba in Canada. Centred on the confluence of the Red and Assiniboine rivers, it is near the longitudinal centre of North America 110 kilometres north of the Canada–United States border; the city is named after the nearby Lake Winnipeg. The region was a trading centre for aboriginal peoples long before the arrival of Europeans. French traders built the first fort on the site in 1738. A settlement was founded by the Selkirk settlers of the Red River Colony in 1812, the nucleus of, incorporated as the City of Winnipeg in 1873; as of 2011, Winnipeg is the seventh most populated municipality in Canada. Being far inland, the local climate is seasonal by Canadian standards with average January lows of around −21 °C and average July highs of 26 °C. Known as the "Gateway to the West", Winnipeg is a railway and transportation hub with a diversified economy; this multicultural city hosts numerous annual festivals, including the Festival du Voyageur, the Winnipeg Folk Festival, the Jazz Winnipeg Festival, the Winnipeg Fringe Theatre Festival, Folklorama.
Winnipeg was the first Canadian host of the Pan American Games. It is home to several professional sports franchises, including the Winnipeg Blue Bombers, the Winnipeg Jets, Manitoba Moose, Valour FC, the Winnipeg Goldeyes. Winnipeg lies at the confluence of the Assiniboine and the Red River of the North, a location now known as "The Forks"; this point was at the crossroads of canoe routes travelled by First Nations before European contact. Winnipeg is named after nearby Lake Winnipeg. Evidence provided by archaeology, rock art and oral history indicates that native peoples used the area in prehistoric times for camping, hunting, tool making, trading and, farther north, for agriculture. Estimates of the date of first settlement in this area range from 11,500 years ago for a site southwest of the present city to 6,000 years ago at The Forks. In 1805, Canadian colonists observed First Nations peoples engaged in farming activity along the Red River; the practice expanded, driven by the demand by traders for provisions.
The rivers provided an extensive transportation network linking northern First Peoples with those to the south along the Missouri and Mississippi rivers. The Ojibwe made some of the first maps on birch bark, which helped fur traders navigate the waterways of the area. Sieur de La Vérendrye built the first fur trading post on the site in 1738, called Fort Rouge. French trading continued at this site for several decades before the arrival of the British Hudson's Bay Company after France ceded the territory following its defeat in the Seven Years' War. Many French men who were trappers married First Nations women, they developed as an ethnicity known as the Métis because of sharing a traditional culture. Lord Selkirk was involved with the first permanent settlement, the purchase of land from the Hudson's Bay Company, a survey of river lots in the early 19th century; the North West Company built Fort Gibraltar in 1809, the Hudson's Bay Company built Fort Douglas in 1812, both in the area of present-day Winnipeg.
The two companies competed fiercely over trade. The Métis and Lord Selkirk's settlers fought at the Battle of Seven Oaks in 1816. In 1821, the Hudson's Bay and North West Companies merged. Fort Gibraltar was renamed Fort Garry in 1822 and became the leading post in the region for the Hudson's Bay Company. A flood destroyed the fort in 1826 and it was not rebuilt until 1835. A rebuilt section of the fort, consisting of the front gate and a section of the wall, is near the modern-day corner of Main Street and Broadway Avenue in downtown Winnipeg. In 1869–70, present-day Winnipeg was the site of the Red River Rebellion, a conflict between the local provisional government of Métis, led by Louis Riel, newcomers from eastern Canada. General Garnet Wolseley was sent to put down the uprising; the Manitoba Act of 1870 made Manitoba the fifth province of the three-year-old Canadian Confederation. Treaty 1, which encompassed the city and much of the surrounding area, was signed on 3 August 1871 by representatives of the Crown and local Indigenous groups, comprising the Brokenhead Ojibway, Long Plain, Roseau River Anishinabe, Sandy Bay and Swan Lake communities.
On 8 November 1873, Winnipeg was incorporated with the Selkirk settlement as its nucleus. Métis legislator and interpreter James McKay named the city. Winnipeg's mandate was to govern and provide municipal services to citizens attracted to trade expansion between Upper Fort Garry / Lower Fort Garry and Saint Paul, Minnesota. Winnipeg developed after the coming of the Canadian Pacific Railway in 1881; the railway divided the North End, which housed Eastern Europeans, from the richer Anglo-Saxon southern part of the city. It contributed to a demographic shift beginning shortly after Confederation that saw the francophone population decrease from a majority to a small minority group; this shift resulted in Premier Thomas Greenway controversially ending legislative bilingualism and removing funding for French Catholic Schools in 1890. By 1911, Winnipeg was Canada's third-largest city. However, the city faced financial difficulty when the Panama Canal opened in 1914; the canal reduced reliance on Canada's rail system for international trade.
Rural Municipality of St. Andrews
St. Andrews is a rural municipality in Manitoba, Canada, it lies West Red River and the Southern border is 8 kilometres North of Winnipeg. St. Andrews contains the communities of Petersfield as well as half of Lockport, it is part of Manitoba census division 13. The city of Selkirk, the town of Winnipeg Beach, the village of Dunnottar are located within St. Andrews, however they are independently governed; the name St. Andrews was derived from the Anglican parish of St. Andrews, which existed for several decades prior to the formation of the municipality in February 1880. In addition to the St. Andrews church, the municipality contains many historical and significant buildings and establishments include the St. Andrews Rectory, Captain Kennedy House, Lower Fort Garry, St. Andrews Locks and Dam, Little Britain United Church and Cemetery, Twin Oaks, St. John's Cathedral Boys' School in Breezy Point; these and several others have been recognized as national, provincial, or municipal historic sites.
Other noteworthy establishments include the St. Andrews airport, St. Andrews school, the municipal office, Larter's golf course, Oak Hammock Marsh. Notable people born in St. Andrews include Darren Helm, a professional ice hockey player for the Detroit Red Wings of the National Hockey League. St. Andrews is a municipal government, led by 6 councillors. Since 2012, the mayor of St. Andrews has come under some scrutiny for being the highest-paid mayor of the Winnipeg capital region; the municipal office for St. Andrews is located in Clandeboye. Since the Red River was an important means of transportation in the early settlement and parish, much of St. Andrews' history can be seen along River Road; the parish of St. Andrews was situated between two major fur trading centers of the Hudson's Bay Company, Lower Fort Garry and Upper Fort Garry St. Andrews Anglican Church is one of the most well known historical sites. Built in 1849, it served a centre of Anglican missionary activity in Rupert's Land.
It is the oldest surviving stone church in Western Canada and was designated a national historic site in 1970. Its distinctive steeple and Gothic Revival architecture make it recognizable and the building is used as symbol for both the community as well as the nearby St. Andrews elementary school. Captain William Kennedy House is located along the Red River about 200 meters north of the St. Andrews church. Built in 1866 by Captain William Kennedy it is now used as a tea house, its nearby flower garden is well known among locals and is used for wedding photos. It was recognized as a provincial heritage site in 1984. Twin Oaks and Miss Davis' School Residence was a girls school and boarding house built in the 1850s by the Red River Settlement and the Hudson's Bay Company, it became a National Historic site in 1962. Rural Municipality of St Andrews, Manitoba website Manitoba Historical Society - Rural Municipality of St. Andrews Map of St. Andrews R. M. at Statcan Media related to St. Andrews, Manitoba at Wikimedia Commons
Manitoba is a province at the longitudinal centre of Canada. It is considered one of the three prairie provinces and is Canada's fifth-most populous province with its estimated 1.3 million people. Manitoba covers 649,950 square kilometres with a varied landscape, stretching from the northern oceanic coastline to the southern border with the United States; the province is bordered by the provinces of Ontario to the east and Saskatchewan to the west, the territories of Nunavut to the north, Northwest Territories to the northwest, the U. S. states of North Minnesota to the south. Aboriginal peoples have inhabited. In the late 17th century, fur traders arrived on two major river systems, what is now called the Nelson in northern Manitoba and in the southeast along the Winnipeg River system. A Royal Charter in 1670 granted all the lands draining into Hudson's Bay to the British company and they administered trade in what was called Rupert's Land. During the next 200 years, communities continued to grow and evolve, with a significant settlement of Michif in what is now Winnipeg.
The assertion of Métis identity and self-rule culminated in negotiations for the creation of the province of Manitoba. There are many factors that led to an armed uprising of the Métis people against the Government of Canada, a conflict known as the Red River Rebellion aka Resistance; the resolution of the assertion of the right to representation led to the Parliament of Canada passing the Manitoba Act in 1870 that created the province. Manitoba's capital and largest city, Winnipeg, is the eighth-largest census metropolitan area in Canada. Other census agglomerations in the province are Brandon, Portage la Prairie, Thompson; the name Manitoba is believed to be derived from the Ojibwe or Assiniboine languages. The name derives from Cree manitou-wapow or Ojibwa manidoobaa, both meaning "straits of Manitou, the Great Spirit", a place referring to what are now called The Narrows in the centre of Lake Manitoba, it may be from the Assiniboine for "Lake of the Prairie". The lake was known to French explorers as Lac des Prairies.
Thomas Spence chose the name to refer to a new republic he proposed for the area south of the lake. Métis leader Louis Riel chose the name, it was accepted in Ottawa under the Manitoba Act of 1870. Manitoba is bordered by the provinces of Ontario to the east and Saskatchewan to the west, the territories of Nunavut to the north, the US states of North Dakota and Minnesota to the south; the province meets the Northwest Territories at the four corners quadripoint to the extreme northwest, though surveys have not been completed and laws are unclear about the exact location of the Nunavut–NWT boundary. Manitoba adjoins Hudson Bay to the northeast, is the only prairie province to have a saltwater coastline; the Port of Churchill is Canada's only Arctic deep-water port. Lake Winnipeg is the tenth-largest freshwater lake in the world. Hudson Bay is the world's second-largest bay by area. Manitoba is at the heart of the giant Hudson Bay watershed, once known as Rupert's Land, it was a vital area of the Hudson's Bay Company, with many rivers and lakes that provided excellent opportunities for the lucrative fur trade.
The province has a saltwater coastline bordering Hudson Bay and more than 110,000 lakes, covering 15.6 percent or 101,593 square kilometres of its surface area. Manitoba's major lakes are Lake Manitoba, Lake Winnipegosis, Lake Winnipeg, the tenth-largest freshwater lake in the world; some traditional Native lands and boreal forest on Lake Winnipeg's east side are a proposed UNESCO World Heritage Site. Manitoba is at the centre of the Hudson Bay drainage basin, with a high volume of the water draining into Lake Winnipeg and north down the Nelson River into Hudson Bay; this basin's rivers reach far west to the mountains, far south into the United States, east into Ontario. Major watercourses include the Red, Nelson, Hayes and Churchill rivers. Most of Manitoba's inhabited south has developed in the prehistoric bed of Glacial Lake Agassiz; this region the Red River Valley, is flat and fertile. Baldy Mountain is the province's highest point at 832 metres above sea level, the Hudson Bay coast is the lowest at sea level.
Riding Mountain, the Pembina Hills, Sandilands Provincial Forest, the Canadian Shield are upland regions. Much of the province's sparsely inhabited north and east lie on the irregular granite Canadian Shield, including Whiteshell and Nopiming Provincial Parks. Extensive agriculture is found only in the province's southern areas, although there is grain farming in the Carrot Valley Region; the most common agricultural activity is cattle husbandry, followed by assorted grains and oilseed. Around 12 percent of Canada's farmland is in Manitoba. Manitoba has an extreme continental climate. Temperatures and precipitation decrease from south to north and increase from east to west. Manitoba is far from the moderating large bodies of water; because of the flat landscape, it is exposed to cold Arctic high-pressure air masses from the northwest during January and February. In the summer, air masses sometimes come out of the Southern United States, as warm humid air is drawn northward from the Gulf of Mexico.
Temperatures exceed 30 °C numerous times each summer, the combination of heat and humidity can bring the humidex value to the mid-40s. Carman, Manitoba recorded the second-highest humidex in Canada in 2007, with
Pequis was a Saulteaux chief, who moved from the Great Lakes area to Red Lake arriving in what is now southern Manitoba in the 1790s. In 1817 he signed the first treaty with Lord Selkirk, granting land along the Red River to the Selkirk settlers. In 1840 he was one of the early western First Nations converts to Christianity and was given the baptized name William King, he and his people had helped both the Selkirk settlers. However, by the 1850s he had become concerned at illegal settlement by European migrants on traditional lands, he was sometimes called "Cut Nose" since his nose had been injured in a fight in 1802. His name is commemorated in the name of Peguis First Nation, Winnipeg Route 17 known as the Chief Peguis Trail, many organizations, place names, institutions of Manitoba. Chief Peguis Junior High Tommy Prince Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online, retrieved 2010 August 27
Rural Municipality of West St. Paul
West St. Paul is a rural municipality in Manitoba, Canada, it lies adjacent to the north side of Winnipeg, directly west of the Red River. It is part of the Winnipeg Capital Region, had a population of 4,932 at the 2011 census, it was formed on 3 November 1915 when the municipality of St. Paul was subdivided into West St. Paul and East St. Paul, it contains two communities and Rivercrest. Middlechurch is the larger of the two communities and includes the municipal hall, curling club, fire station, St. Paul's church, the Middlechurch Home of Winnipeg, Grassmere Creek and lies at the Southern portion of the municipality; the community of Rivercrest lies to the North and contains the West St. Paul School and Royal Manitoba Yacht Club; the two story municipal Hall was built in 1917 and expanded with a North and South addition in 1989. It is considered a municipally designated historic landmark of Manitoba and the only official historic site within West St. Paul; the West St. Paul Fire Dept. is not a full-time fire department, but rather a paid-on-call department, meaning firefighters are paid only for the emergency calls and training that they attend.
The department's fire coverage area encompasses the entire municipality of West St. Paul or 87.66 square kilometers. The department responds to a variety of emergency situations including but not limited to fire response, medical response, motor vehicle collisions, Carbon Monoxide alarms, downed power lines and water rescue response; the department responded to a total of 264 calls for service in 2013. The West St. Paul Fire Department's current organizational structure consists of 1 Fire Chief, 1 Deputy Fire Chief, 3 Captains, 2 Lieutenants, 1 training officer and 18 firefighters; the department has 26 total members. The department has 6 vehicles and 1 boat it uses to respond to calls for service including 2 pumper engines, 2 water tankers, 1 rescue/command truck, 1 squad and 1 zodiac boat for water rescue response; the West St. Paul curling club was built and has been in operation since 1963, it received some notoriety in 2015, when team Reid Carruthers, from the West St. Paul club, won the Men's Manitoba Curling Provincials and placed third in the Men's National Brier Established in January 1825, St. Paul's Anglican church was built in order to keep up with the growing population along the Red River.
The structure of the church was rebuilt in 1844 and again in 1878 as result of damage due to flooding. The Historic Sites Advisory Board of Manitoba erected a plaque in 1975 owing to its historical importance, however it is not yet listed as a historic site in Manitoba. Prior to becoming a municipality, the region surrounding the church was known as the parish of St. Paul's or parish of the middle church (middle owing to its being situated between the older St. John’s Cathedral and St. Andrews-on-the-Red, thus the church and parish provided a name to both the municipality as well as the nearby community. West St. Paul has one school is a kindergarten to grade 8 school, built in 1947, expanded in 1953 and expanded again in 1959. Prior to building the school, classes were held at a local church as well as the municipal hall. In 1959, it joined the newly formed Seven Oaks School Division, its current capacity is 600 students. "Population and dwelling counts, for Canada and territories, census subdivisions, 2011 and 2006 censuses".
Statistics Canada. May 28, 2012. Retrieved December 23, 2012 Rural Municipality of West St. Paul, Manitoba Map of West St. Paul R. M. at Statcan