The Servicemen's Readjustment Act of 1944 known as the G. I. Bill, was a law, it was designed by the American Legion, who helped to push it through Congress by mobilizing its chapters. The act avoided the disputed postponed life insurance policy payout for World War I veterans that caused political turmoil for a decade and a half after that war. Benefits included dedicated payments of tuition and living expenses to attend high school, college or vocational/technical school, low-cost mortgages, low-interest loans to start a business, as well as one year of unemployment compensation, it was available to all veterans, on active duty during the war years for at least 90 days and had not been dishonorably discharged—exposure to combat was not required. The recipients did not pay any income tax on the G. I. benefits, since they were not considered earned income. By 1956 7.8 million veterans had used the G. I. Bill education benefits, some 2.2 million to attend colleges or universities and an additional 5.6 million for some kind of training program.
Historians and economists judge the G. I. Bill a major political and economic success—especially in contrast to the treatments of World War I veterans—and a major contribution to America's stock of human capital that encouraged long-term economic growth. Canada operated a similar program for its World War II veterans, with a beneficial economic impact. Since the original U. S. 1944 law, the term has come to include other benefit programs created to assist veterans of subsequent wars as well as peacetime service. During the 1940s, "fly-by-night" for-profit colleges sprang up to collect veterans' education grants, because the program provided limited oversight. Today, for-profit colleges and their lead generators have taken advantage of the post-9/11 G. I. Bill to target veterans for subpar products and services. According to CBS News, about 40 percent of all G. I. Bill education funds go to for-profit colleges; the Department of Veterans Affairs has a G. I. Bill feedback form for recipients to address their complaints against colleges.
In 2012, President Barack Obama signed Executive Order 13607, to ensure that predatory colleges did not aggressively recruit military service members and their families. In 2017, President Donald Trump signed the Forever GI Bill extending the allowable time period for veterans to pursue educational opportunities. On June 22, 1944, the Servicemen's Readjustment Act of 1944 known as the G. I. Bill of Rights, was signed into law. During the war, politicians wanted to avoid the postwar confusion about veterans' benefits that became a political football in the 1920s and 1930s. Veterans' organizations that had formed after the First World War had millions of members. Ortiz says their efforts "entrenched the VFW and the Legion as the twin pillars of the American veterans' lobby for decades."Harry W. Colmery, Republican National Committee chairman and a former National Commander of the American Legion, is credited with writing the first draft of the G. I. Bill, he jotted down his ideas on stationery and a napkin at the Mayflower Hotel in Washington, D.
C. U. S. Senator Ernest McFarland, AZ, National Commander of the American Legion Warren Atherton, CA were involved in the bill's passage and are known the "fathers of the G. I. Bill." One might term Edith Nourse Rogers, MA, who helped write and who co-sponsored the legislation, as the "mother of the G. I. Bill"; as with Colmery, her contribution to writing and passing this legislation has been obscured by time. The bill that President Roosevelt proposed had a means test—only poor veterans would get one year of funding; the American Legion proposal provided full benefits for all veterans, including women and minorities, regardless of their wealth. An important provision of the G. I. Bill was low interest, zero down payment home loans for servicemen, with more favorable terms for new construction compared to existing housing; this encouraged millions of American families to move out of urban apartments and into suburban homes. Another provision was known as the 52–20 clause for unemployment. Unemployed war veterans would receive $20 once a week for 52 weeks for up to one year while they were looking for work.
Less than 20 percent of the money set aside for the 52–20 Club was distributed. Rather, most returning servicemen found jobs or pursued higher education; the original G. I. Bill ended in 1956. A variety of benefits have been available to military veterans since the original bill, these benefits packages are referred to as updates to the G. I. Bill. A greater percentage of Vietnam veterans used G. I. Bill education benefits than Korean War veterans. Although the G. I. Bill did not advocate discrimination, it was interpreted differently for blacks than for whites. Historian Ira Katznelson argued that "the law was deliberately designed to accommodate Jim Crow"; because the programs were directed by local, white officials, many veterans did not benefit. In the New York and northern New Jersey suburbs 67,000 mortgages were insured by the G. I. Bill, but fewer than 100 were taken out by non-whites. By 1946, only one-fifth of the 100,000 blacks who had applied for educational benefits had registered in college.
Furthermore black colleges an
American Broadcasting Company
The American Broadcasting Company is an American commercial broadcast television network, a flagship property of Walt Disney Television, a subsidiary of the Disney Media Networks division of The Walt Disney Company. The network is headquartered in Burbank, California on Riverside Drive, directly across the street from Walt Disney Studios and adjacent to the Roy E. Disney Animation Building, But the network's second corporate headquarters and News headquarters remains in New York City, New York at their broadcast center on 77 West 66th Street in Lincoln Square in Upper West Side Manhattan. Since 2007, when ABC Radio was sold to Citadel Broadcasting, ABC has reduced its broadcasting operations exclusively to television; the fifth-oldest major broadcasting network in the world and the youngest of the Big Three television networks, ABC is nicknamed as "The Alphabet Network", as its initialism represents the first three letters of the English alphabet, in order. ABC launched as a radio network on October 12, 1943, serving as the successor to the NBC Blue Network, purchased by Edward J. Noble.
It extended its operations to television in 1948, following in the footsteps of established broadcast networks CBS and NBC. In the mid-1950s, ABC merged with United Paramount Theatres, a chain of movie theaters that operated as a subsidiary of Paramount Pictures. Leonard Goldenson, the head of UPT, made the new television network profitable by helping develop and greenlight many successful series. In the 1980s, after purchasing an 80 percent interest in cable sports channel ESPN, the network's corporate parent, American Broadcasting Companies, Inc. merged with Capital Cities Communications, owner of several print publications, television and radio stations. In 1996, most of Capital Cities/ABC's assets were purchased by The Walt Disney Company; the television network has eight owned-and-operated and over 232 affiliated television stations throughout the United States and its territories. Some of the ABC-affiliated stations can be seen in Canada via pay-television providers, certain other affiliates can be received over-the-air in areas within the Canada–United States border.
ABC News provides news and features content for select radio stations owned by Citadel Broadcasting, which purchased the ABC Radio properties in 2007. In the 1930s, radio in the United States was dominated by three companies: the Columbia Broadcasting System, the Mutual Broadcasting System, the National Broadcasting Company; the last was owned by electronics manufacturer Radio Corporation of America, which owned two radio networks that each ran different varieties of programming, NBC Blue and NBC Red. The NBC Blue Network was created in 1927 for the primary purpose of testing new programs on markets of lesser importance than those served by NBC Red, which served the major cities, to test drama series. In 1934, Mutual filed a complaint with the Federal Communications Commission regarding its difficulties in establishing new stations, in a radio market, being saturated by NBC and CBS. In 1938, the FCC began a series of investigations into the practices of radio networks and published its report on the broadcasting of network radio programs in 1940.
The report recommended that RCA give up control of either NBC NBC Blue. At that time, the NBC Red Network was the principal radio network in the United States and, according to the FCC, RCA was using NBC Blue to eliminate any hint of competition. Having no power over the networks themselves, the FCC established a regulation forbidding licenses to be issued for radio stations if they were affiliated with a network which owned multiple networks that provided content of public interest. Once Mutual's appeals against the FCC were rejected, RCA decided to sell NBC Blue in 1941, gave the mandate to do so to Mark Woods. RCA converted the NBC Blue Network into an independent subsidiary, formally divorcing the operations of NBC Red and NBC Blue on January 8, 1942, with the Blue Network being referred to on-air as either "Blue" or "Blue Network"; the newly separated NBC Red and NBC Blue divided their respective corporate assets. Between 1942 and 1943, Woods offered to sell the entire NBC Blue Network, a package that included leases on landlines, three pending television licenses, 60 affiliates, four operations facilities, contracts with actors, the brand associated with the Blue Network.
Investment firm Dillon, Read & Co. offered $7.5 million to purchase the network, but the offer was rejected by Woods and RCA president David Sarnoff. Edward J. Noble, the owner of Life Savers candy, drugstore chain Rexall and New York City radio station WMCA, purchased the network for $8 million. Due to FCC ownership rules, the transaction, to include the purchase of three RCA stations by Noble, would require him to resell his station with the FCC's approval; the Commission authorized the transaction on October 12, 1943. Soon afterward, the Blue Network was purchased by the new company Noble founded, the American Broadcasting System. Noble subsequently acquired the rights to the American Broadcasting Company name from George B. Storer in 1944. Meanwhile, in August 1944, the West Coast division of the Blue Network, which owned San Francisco radio station KGO, bought Los Angeles station KECA f
Sidney Meyers known by the pen name Robert Stebbins was an American film director and editor. Sidney Meyers is best known for two documentary films: The Quiet One, which he wrote and directed, for which he was nominated for an Oscar for Best Original Screenplay. Sidney Meyers was born in New York City on March 9, 1906 and grew up in East Harlem a teeming immigrant neighborhood, he was the eldest child of Abraham and Ida Meyers, who had immigrated from Poland to the United States around the start of the 20th century. Abraham, a paper-hanger and activist in the Painters and Paper-hangers Union, District Council 9, of the AFL, supported the family as best he could, it was noticed early on. During his years at De Witt Clinton High School Meyers played in the school's award-winning orchestra and joined the American Orchestral Society. While at the City College of New York, majoring in English literature, he continued to play the violin, the viola. On completing his studies he spent some three years as a member of the Cincinnati Symphony Orchestra conducted by Maestro Fritz Reiner.
On his return to New York City, where he lived for the rest of his life with his wife Edna and their son Nicholas, Meyers became interested in film-making and began to search for work in the fields of directing and editing, while playing the violin and viola in a Work Projects Administration orchestra. As was the case with many sons and daughters of immigrant families during the seemingly-endless Great Depression, he was drawn to left-wing political ideas. Using the pen-name of Robert Stebbins he wrote on the cinema for the left-wing arts magazine New Theatre. Meyers worked for the Federal Arts Project of the Work Projects Administration. During World War II Meyers served first as the chief American film editor for the British Ministry of Information and worked as a film editor for the US Office of War Information. After the end of the War Meyers established a career as a free-lance film editor, he collaborated with directors and other film artists, all of whom felt that his contribution was not limited to editing, as central as the latter may be to the work.
Indeed he is best remembered for those films which he directed and wrote, for which he served as consultant. Meyers's television editing credits include supervision of the CBS television series East Side, West Side; the Quiet One, which Meyers directed and scripted, established him as one of the leaders in the genre of documentary drama. Meyers collaborated with Ben Maddow and Joseph Strick in the production of The Savage Eye, with Samuel Beckett and Alan Schneider on Film, his contribution to Edge of the City was vital. Meyers continued to work until his untimely death from cancer in 1969: he served as consultant for The Queen, was script consultant for Joseph Strick's film adaptation of James Joyce's Ulysses. Shortly before his death he completed the editing of Joseph Strick's The Tropic of Cancer. Shortly after his death, the Sidney Meyers Memorial Scholarship Fund was established at the City College of New York; until well after Meyers's death the main tool of film editing was the Moviola, a machine in which film was viewed and recombined manually.
Ralph Rosenblum, mentored by Meyers, describes the exhausting process from the editor's point of view: "I sit in a corner at one of the Moviolas piecing together a sequence, shot from five different perspectives. I work long lengths of film flying through my white-gloved right hand. I stop, mark the film with a grease pencil, fly on, make another mark, splice together the desired portions, hang up the trims, pieces of deleted film. … Five film barrels crowd the cutting room, with long trims hanging into them from an overhead rod. There's a lot of film on the floor—not rejected film, as the cliché has it, but film that's in the process of being reviewed or edited or wound". Meyers is arguably best remembered for The Quiet One, a documentary which he directed, for which he was one of the script writers; the documentary tells the story of the rehabilitation of a young disturbed African-American boy. In a 1949 review, Bosley Crowther defined the film: "Out of the tortured experiences of a 10-year-old Harlem Negro boy, cruelly rejected by his loved ones but rescued by the people of the Wiltwyck School, a new group of local film-makers has fashioned a genuine masterpiece in the way of a documentary drama."
The still photographer Helen Levitt was one of the film's cinematographers and writers, along with the painter Janice Loeb. Ulysses Kay wrote the score for the film; the film's three writers - Meyers and Levitt - were nominated for the Best Writing and Screenplay Academy Award. The National Board of Review named The Quiet One the second best film of 1949. Edge of the City, which Meyers edited, was directed by Martin Ritt and starred John Cassavetes, Sidney Poitier, Jack Warden, Kathleen Maguire and Ruby Dee; the score was composed by Leonard Rosenman. Edge of the City
The term "inner city" has been used as a euphemism for lower-income residential districts in the city center and nearby areas. Sociologists sometimes turn this euphemism into a formal designation, applying the term "inner city" to such residential areas, rather than to geographically more central commercial districts; some inner city areas of American cities have undergone gentrification since the 1990s. Bid rent theory Black flight and white flight Central business district Concentric zone model Downtown Ghetto Industrial deconcentration Inner City Press Skid row Suburban colonization Urban sprawl Urban structure Harrison, P. Inside the Inner City: Life Under the Cutting Edge. Penguin: Harmondsworth; this book takes Hackney in London as a case study of inner city urban deprivation
CBS is an American English language commercial broadcast television and radio network, a flagship property of CBS Corporation. The company is headquartered at the CBS Building in New York City with major production facilities and operations in New York City and Los Angeles. CBS is sometimes referred to as the Eye Network, in reference to the company's iconic symbol, in use since 1951, it has been called the "Tiffany Network", alluding to the perceived high quality of CBS programming during the tenure of William S. Paley, it can refer to some of CBS's first demonstrations of color television, which were held in a former Tiffany & Co. building in New York City in 1950. The network has its origins in United Independent Broadcasters Inc. a collection of 16 radio stations, purchased by Paley in 1928 and renamed the Columbia Broadcasting System. Under Paley's guidance, CBS would first become one of the largest radio networks in the United States, one of the Big Three American broadcast television networks.
In 1974, CBS dropped its former full name and became known as CBS, Inc. The Westinghouse Electric Corporation acquired the network in 1995, renamed its corporate entity to the current CBS Broadcasting, Inc. in 1997, adopted the name of the company it had acquired to become CBS Corporation. In 2000, CBS came under the control of Viacom, formed as a spin-off of CBS in 1971. In late 2005, Viacom split itself into two separate companies and re-established CBS Corporation – through the spin-off of its broadcast television and select cable television and non-broadcasting assets – with the CBS television network at its core. CBS Corporation is controlled by Sumner Redstone through National Amusements, which controls the current Viacom. CBS operated the CBS Radio network until 2017, when it merged its radio division with Entercom. Prior to CBS Radio provided news and features content for its portfolio owned-and-operated radio stations in large and mid-sized markets, affiliated radio stations in various other markets.
While CBS Corporation owns a 72% stake in Entercom, it no longer owns or operates any radio stations directly, though CBS still provides radio news broadcasts to its radio affiliates and the new owners of its former radio stations. The television network has more than 240 owned-and-operated and affiliated television stations throughout the United States; the company ranked 197th on the 2018 Fortune 500 of the largest United States corporations by revenue. The origins of CBS date back to January 27, 1927, with the creation of the "United Independent Broadcasters" network in Chicago by New York City talent-agent Arthur Judson; the fledgling network soon needed additional investors though, the Columbia Phonograph Company, manufacturers of Columbia Records, rescued it in April 1927. Columbia Phonographic went on the air on September 18, 1927, with a presentation by the Howard L. Barlow Orchestra from flagship station WOR in Newark, New Jersey, fifteen affiliates. Operational costs were steep the payments to AT&T for use of its land lines, by the end of 1927, Columbia Phonograph wanted out.
In early 1928 Judson sold the network to brothers Isaac and Leon Levy, owners of the network's Philadelphia affiliate WCAU, their partner Jerome Louchheim. None of the three were interested in assuming day-to-day management of the network, so they installed wealthy 26-year-old William S. Paley, son of a Philadelphia cigar family and in-law of the Levys, as president. With the record company out of the picture, Paley streamlined the corporate name to "Columbia Broadcasting System", he believed in the power of radio advertising since his family's "La Palina" cigars had doubled their sales after young William convinced his elders to advertise on radio. By September 1928, Paley bought out the Louchhheim share of CBS and became its majority owner with 51% of the business. During Louchheim's brief regime, Columbia paid $410,000 to A. H. Grebe's Atlantic Broadcasting Company for a small Brooklyn station, WABC, which would become the network's flagship station. WABC was upgraded, the signal relocated to 860 kHz.
The physical plant was relocated – to Steinway Hall on West 57th Street in Manhattan, where much of CBS's programming would originate. By the turn of 1929, the network could boast to sponsors of having 47 affiliates. Paley moved right away to put his network on a firmer financial footing. In the fall of 1928, he entered into talks with Adolph Zukor of Paramount Pictures, who planned to move into radio in response to RCA's forays into motion pictures with the advent of talkies; the deal came to fruition in September 1929: Paramount acquired 49% of CBS in return for a block of its stock worth $3.8 million at the time. The agreement specified that Paramount would buy that same stock back by March 1, 1932 for a flat $5 million, provided CBS had earned $2 million during 1931 and 1932. For a brief time there was talk that the network might be renamed "Paramount Radio", but it only lasted a month – the 1929 stock market crash sent all stock value tumbling, it galvanized Paley and his troops, who "had no alternative but to turn the network around and earn the $2,000,000 in two years....
This is the atmosphere in which the CBS of today was born." The near-bankrupt movie studio sold its CBS shares back to CBS in 1932. In the first year of Paley's wa
Assassination of John F. Kennedy
John Fitzgerald Kennedy, the 35th President of the United States, was assassinated on November 22, 1963, at 12:30 p.m. Central Standard Time in Dallas, while riding in a presidential motorcade through Dealey Plaza. Kennedy was riding with his wife Jacqueline, Texas Governor John Connally, Connally's wife Nellie when he was fatally shot by former U. S. Marine Lee Harvey Oswald firing in ambush from a nearby building. Governor Connally was wounded in the attack; the motorcade rushed to Parkland Memorial Hospital where President Kennedy was pronounced dead about thirty minutes after the shooting. Oswald was arrested by the Dallas Police Department 70 minutes after the initial shooting. Oswald was charged under Texas state law with the murder of Kennedy as well as that of Dallas policeman J. D. Tippit, fatally shot a short time after the assassination. At 11:21 a.m. November 24, 1963, as live television cameras were covering his transfer from the city jail to the county jail, Oswald was fatally shot in the basement of Dallas Police Headquarters by Dallas nightclub operator Jack Ruby.
Oswald was taken to Parkland Memorial Hospital. Ruby was convicted of Oswald's murder, though it was overturned on appeal, Ruby died in prison in 1967 while awaiting a new trial. After a ten-month investigation, the Warren Commission concluded that Oswald assassinated Kennedy, that Oswald had acted alone, that Ruby had acted alone in killing Oswald. Kennedy was the eighth US President to die in the fourth to be assassinated. Vice President Lyndon B. Johnson automatically assumed the Presidency upon Kennedy's death. A investigation, the United States House Select Committee on Assassinations agreed with the Warren Commission that the injuries that Kennedy and Connally sustained were caused by Oswald's three rifle shots, but they concluded that Kennedy was "probably assassinated as a result of a conspiracy" as analysis of a dictabelt audio recording pointed to the existence of an additional gunshot and therefore "... a high probability that two gunmen fired at President." The Committee was not able to identify any individuals or groups involved with the possible conspiracy.
In addition, the HSCA found that the original federal investigations were "seriously flawed" with respect to information-sharing and the possibility of conspiracy. As recommended by the HSCA, the acoustic evidence indicating conspiracy was subsequently re-examined and rejected. In light of the investigative reports determining that "reliable acoustic data do not support a conclusion that there was a second gunman," the U. S. Justice Department concluded active investigations and stated "that no persuasive evidence can be identified to support the theory of a conspiracy in... the assassination of President Kennedy." However, Kennedy's assassination is still the subject of widespread debate and has spawned numerous conspiracy theories and alternative scenarios. Polls conducted from 1966 to 2004 found that up to 80 percent of Americans suspected that there was a plot or cover-up. President John F. Kennedy chose to travel to Texas to smooth over frictions in the Democratic Party between liberals Ralph Yarborough and Don Yarborough and conservative John Connally.
A presidential visit to Texas was first agreed upon by Kennedy, Vice President Lyndon B. Johnson, Texas Governor John Connally while all three men were together in a meeting in El Paso on June 5, 1963. President Kennedy decided to embark on the trip with three basic goals in mind: 1.) to help raise more Democratic Party presidential campaign fund contributions. Begin his quest for reelection in November 1964. President Kennedy's trip to Dallas was first announced to the public in September 1963; the exact motorcade route was finalized on November 18 and publicly announced a few days before November 22. Kennedy's motorcade route through Dallas with Johnson and Connally was planned to give the president maximum exposure to local crowds before his arrival for a luncheon at the Trade Mart, where he would meet with civic and business leaders; the White House staff informed the Secret Service that the President would arrive at Dallas Love Field via a short flight from Carswell Air Force Base in Fort Worth.
The Dallas Trade Mart was preliminarily selected as the place for the luncheon, Kenneth O'Donnell, President Kennedy's friend and appointments secretary, had selected it as the final destination on the motorcade route. Leaving from Dallas Love Field, the motorcade had been allotted 45 minutes to reach the Trade Mart at a planned arrival time of 12:15 p.m. The itinerary was designed to serve as a meandering 10-mile route between the two places, the motorcade vehicles could be driven within the allotted time. Special Agent Winston G. Lawson, a member of the White House detail who acted as the advance Secret Service Agent, Secret Service Agent Forrest V. Sorrels, Special Agent in charge of the Dallas office, were the most active in planning the actual motorcade route. On November 14, both men attended a meeting at Love Field and drove over the route that Sorrels believed was best suited for the motorcade. From Love Field, the route passed through a suburban section of Dallas, through Downtown along Main Street, to the Trade Mart via a short segment of the Stemmons Freeway.
The President had planned to return to Love Field to depart for a fundraising dinner in Austin that day. For the return
Elizabeth Welter Wilson was an American actress whose career spanned nearly 70 years, including memorable roles in film and television. Wilson was inducted into the American Theatre Hall of Fame in 2006. Wilson was born in Grand Rapids, the daughter of insurance agent Henry Dunning Wilson and Marie Ethel Wilson, her maternal grandfather was a wealthy German immigrant, Wilson was raised in a large mansion. She attended the Barter Theatre in Abingdon, Virginia studied with Sanford Meisner at The Neighborhood Playhouse School of the Theatre in New York City. Wilson was a character actress, appearing in over many Broadway plays; the Los Angeles Times noted: "Tall and elegant, Wilson played women who had or sought authority."Wilson made her Broadway debut in Picnic in 1953. Her stage credits include Desk Set, The Good Woman of Szechuan and Bones, Uncle Vanya, Threepenny Opera, The Importance of Being Earnest, Morning's at Seven, You Can't Take It with You, Ah, Wilderness!, A Delicate Balance. Wilson made her screen debut reprising her stage role in the 1955 film adaptation of Picnic as Christine Schoenwalder.
Additional films include Patterns, The Goddess, The Tunnel of Love, A Child Is Waiting (1963, The Birds, The Graduate, Catch-22 Little Murders, The Day of the Dolphin, The Prisoner of Second Avenue, 9 to 5, Grace Quigley, Regarding Henry, The Addams Family, Quiz Show. Her last film role was as Sara Delano Roosevelt in Hyde Park on Hudson. Wilson's television credits include early anthology series such as Kraft Television Theatre, The United States Steel Hour, Armstrong Circle Theatre, she was a regular on the primetime drama East Side/West Side and sitcom Doc and she appeared in Dark Shadows, Another World, All in the Family, She Wrote, Law & Order: Criminal Intent. She appeared in television movies, including The Boys Next Door, she appeared in the miniseries Nutcracker: Money and Murder in March 1987 as the mother of Frances Schreuder, as well as the miniseries Alex Haley's Queen. On May 9, 2015, at age 94, Wilson died at her home in Connecticut. Awards1972 Tony Award for Best Performance by a Featured Actress in a Play for Sticks and Bones 1980 Drama Desk Award for Outstanding Ensemble Performance for Morning's at SevenNominations1957 BAFTA Film Award for Most Promising Newcomer for Patterns 1976 Drama Desk Award for Outstanding Actress in a Musical for Threepenny Opera 1985 Drama Desk Award for Outstanding Actress in a Play for Salonika 1987 Emmy Award for Outstanding Supporting Actress in a Miniseries or a Special for Nutcracker: Money, Madness & Murder Elizabeth Wilson on IMDb Elizabeth Wilson at the Internet Broadway Database Elizabeth Wilson at the Internet Off-Broadway Database Obituary, HollywoodReporter.com Elizabeth Wilson at Find a Grave