The word pā can refer to any Māori village or defensive settlement, but refers to hillforts – fortified settlements with palisades and defensive terraces – and to fortified villages. Pā are in the North Island of New Zealand, north of Lake Taupo. Over 5000 sites have been located and examined although few have been subject to detailed analysis. No pā have been yet located from the early colonization period when early Polynesian-Māori colonizers lived in the lower South Island. Variations similar to pā are found throughout central Polynesia, in the islands of Fiji and the Marquesas Islands. In Māori culture, a great pā represented the mana and strategic ability of an iwi, as personified by a rangatira. Pā are located in various defensible locations around the territory of an iwi to protect fertile plantation sites and food supplies. All pā are found on prominent raised ground volcanic hills; the natural slope of the hill is terraced. Dormant volcanoes were used for pā in Auckland. Pā are multipurpose in function.
Pā that have been extensively studied after the New Zealand Wars and more were found to safeguard food and water storage sites or wells, food storage pits, small integrated plantations, maintained inside the pā. Recent studies have shown that in most cases, few people lived long term in a single pā, that iwi maintained several pā at once under the control of a hapū; the area in between pā were common residential and horticultural sites. A tourist attraction of authentic pā engineering is Auckland's Maungawhau / Mount Eden. Traditional pā took a variety of designs; the simplest pā, the tuwatawata consisted of a single wood palisade around the village stronghold, several elevated stage levels from which to defend and attack. A pā maioro, general construction used multiple ramparts, earthen ditches used as hiding posts for ambush, multiple rows of palisades; the most sophisticated pā was called a pā whakino, which included all the other features plus more food storage areas, water wells, more terraces, palisades, fighting stages, outpost stages, underground dug-posts, mountain or hill summit areas called "tihi", defended by more multiple wall palisades with underground communication passages, escape passages, elaborate traditionally carved entrance ways, artistically carved main posts.
An important feature of pā that set them apart from British forts was their incorporation of food storage pits. Pā locations include volcanoes, headlands, ridges and small islands, including artificial islands. Standard features included a community well for long term supply of water, designated waste areas, an outpost or an elevated stage on a summit on which a pahu would be slung on a frame that when struck would alarm the residents of an attack; the pahu was a large oblong piece of wood with a groove in the middle. A heavy piece of wood was struck from side to side of the groove to sound the alarm; the whare of the rangatira and ariki were built on the summit with a weapons storage. In the 17th and 18th centuries the taiaha was the most common weapon; the chief's stronghold on the summit could be bigger than a normal whare, some measuring 4.5 meters x 4 meters. Pā excavated in Northland have provided numerous clues to Māori tool and weapon manufacturing, including the manufacturing of obsidian and argillite basalt, pounamu chisels, adzes and ivory weapons, an abundance of various hammer tools which had accumulated over hundreds of years.
Chert, a fine-grained worked stone, familiar to Māori from its extensive use in Polynesia, was the most used stone, with thousands of pieces being found in some Northland digs. Chips or flakes of chert were used as drills for pā construction, for the making process of other industrial tools like Polynesian fish hooks. Another find in Northland pā studies was the use of what Māori call "kokowai", or red ochre, a red dye made from red iron or aluminium oxides, finely ground mixed with an oily substance like fish oil or a plant resin. Māori used the chemical compound to keep insects away in pā built in more hazardous platforms in war; the compound is still used on whare and waka, is used as a coating to prevent the wood from drying out. Pā studies showed that on lower pā terraces were semi-underground whare about 2.4m x 2m for housing kūmara. These houses or storage houses were equipped with wide racks to hold hand-woven kūmara baskets at an angle of about 20 degrees, to shed water; these storage whare had internal drains to drain water.
In many pā studies, kūmara were stored in rua. Common or lower rank Māori whare were on the lower or outer land, sometimes sunk into the ground by 300-400mm. On the lower terraces, the ngutu is situated, it had a low fence to force attackers to take an awkward high step. The entrance was overlooked by a raised stage so attackers were vulnerable. Most food was grown outside the pā, though in some higher ranked pā designs there were small terraces areas to grow food within the palisades. Guards were stationed on the summit during times of threat; the blowing of a polished shell trumpet or banging a large wooden gong signaled the alarm. In some pā in rocky terrain, boulders were used as weapons; some iwi such as Ngāi Tūhoe did not construct pā during early periods, but used forest locations for defense and refuge – called pā runanga. Leading British archaeologist, L
Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists. Buddhism encompasses a variety of traditions and spiritual practices based on original teachings attributed to the Buddha and resulting interpreted philosophies. Buddhism originated in ancient India as a Sramana tradition sometime between the 6th and 4th centuries BCE, spreading through much of Asia. Two major extant branches of Buddhism are recognized by scholars: Theravada and Mahayana. Most Buddhist traditions share the goal of overcoming suffering and the cycle of death and rebirth, either by the attainment of Nirvana or through the path of Buddhahood. Buddhist schools vary in their interpretation of the path to liberation, the relative importance and canonicity assigned to the various Buddhist texts, their specific teachings and practices. Observed practices include taking refuge in the Buddha, the Dharma and the Sangha, observance of moral precepts, monasticism and the cultivation of the Paramitas.
Theravada Buddhism has a widespread following in Sri Lanka and Southeast Asia such as Myanmar and Thailand. Mahayana, which includes the traditions of Pure Land, Nichiren Buddhism and Tiantai, is found throughout East Asia. Vajrayana, a body of teachings attributed to Indian adepts, may be viewed as a separate branch or as an aspect of Mahayana Buddhism. Tibetan Buddhism, which preserves the Vajrayana teachings of eighth-century India, is practiced in the countries of the Himalayan region and Kalmykia. Buddhism is an Indian religion attributed to the teachings of the Buddha born Siddhārtha Gautama, known as the Tathāgata and Sakyamuni. Early texts have his personal name as "Gautama" or "Gotama" without any mention of "Siddhārtha," which appears to have been a kind of honorific title when it does appear; the details of Buddha's life are mentioned in many Early Buddhist Texts but are inconsistent, his social background and life details are difficult to prove, the precise dates uncertain. The evidence of the early texts suggests that he was born as Siddhārtha Gautama in Lumbini and grew up in Kapilavasthu, a town in the plains region of the modern Nepal-India border, that he spent his life in what is now modern Bihar and Uttar Pradesh.
Some hagiographic legends state that his father was a king named Suddhodana, his mother was Queen Maya, he was born in Lumbini gardens. However, scholars such as Richard Gombrich consider this a dubious claim because a combination of evidence suggests he was born in the Shakyas community – one that gave him the title Shakyamuni, the Shakya community was governed by a small oligarchy or republic-like council where there were no ranks but where seniority mattered instead; some of the stories about Buddha, his life, his teachings, claims about the society he grew up in may have been invented and interpolated at a time into the Buddhist texts. According to the Buddhist sutras, Gautama was moved by the innate suffering of humanity and its endless repetition due to rebirth, he set out on a quest to end this repeated suffering. Early Buddhist canonical texts and early biographies of Gautama state that Gautama first studied under Vedic teachers, namely Alara Kalama and Uddaka Ramaputta, learning meditation and ancient philosophies the concept of "nothingness, emptiness" from the former, "what is neither seen nor unseen" from the latter.
Finding these teachings to be insufficient to attain his goal, he turned to the practice of asceticism. This too fell short of attaining his goal, he turned to the practice of dhyana, which he had discovered in his youth, he famously sat in meditation under a Ficus religiosa tree now called the Bodhi Tree in the town of Bodh Gaya in the Gangetic plains region of South Asia. He gained insight into the workings of karma and his former lives, attained enlightenment, certainty about the Middle Way as the right path of spiritual practice to end suffering from rebirths in Saṃsāra; as a enlightened Buddha, he attracted followers and founded a Sangha. Now, as the Buddha, he spent the rest of his life teaching the Dharma he had discovered, died at the age of 80 in Kushinagar, India. Buddha's teachings were propagated by his followers, which in the last centuries of the 1st millennium BCE became over 18 Buddhist sub-schools of thought, each with its own basket of texts containing different interpretations and authentic teachings of the Buddha.
The Four Truths express the basic orientation of Buddhism: we crave and cling to impermanent states and things, dukkha, "incapable of satisfying" and painful. This keeps us caught in saṃsāra, the endless cycle of repeated rebirth and dying again, but there is a way to liberation from this endless cycle to the state of nirvana, namely following the Noble Eightfold Path. The truth of dukkha is the basic insight that life in this mundane world, with its clinging and craving to impermanent states and things is dukkha, unsatisfactory. Dukkha can be translated as "incapable of satisfying," "the unsatisfactory nature and the general insecurity of all conditioned phenomena". Dukkha is most translated as "suffering," but this is inaccurate, since it refers not to episodic suffering, but to the intrinsically unsat
A suburb is a mixed-use or residential area, existing either as part of a city or urban area or as a separate residential community within commuting distance of a city. In most English-speaking countries, suburban areas are defined in contrast to central or inner-city areas, but in Australian English and South African English, suburb has become synonymous with what is called a "neighborhood" in other countries and the term extends to inner-city areas. In some areas, such as Australia, China, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, a few U. S. states, new suburbs are annexed by adjacent cities. In others, such as Saudi Arabia, Canada and much of the United States, many suburbs remain separate municipalities or are governed as part of a larger local government area such as a county. Suburbs first emerged on a large scale in the 19th and 20th centuries as a result of improved rail and road transport, which led to an increase in commuting. In general, they have lower population densities than inner city neighborhoods within a metropolitan area, most residents commute to central cities or other business districts.
Suburbs tend to proliferate around cities that have an abundance of adjacent flat land. The English word is derived from the Old French subburbe, in turn derived from the Latin suburbium, formed from sub and urbs; the first recorded usage of the term in English, was made by John Wycliffe in 1380, where the form subarbis was used, according to the Oxford English Dictionary. In Australia and New Zealand, suburbs have become formalised as geographic subdivisions of a city and are used by postal services in addressing. In rural areas in both countries, their equivalents are called localities; the terms inner suburb and outer suburb are used to differentiate between the higher-density areas in proximity to the city center, the lower-density suburbs on the outskirts of the urban area. The term'middle suburbs' is used. Inner suburbs, such as Te Aro in Wellington, Eden Terrace in Auckland, Prahran in Melbourne and Ultimo in Sydney, are characterised by higher density apartment housing and greater integration between commercial and residential areas.
In New Zealand, most suburbs are not defined which can lead to confusion as to where they may begin and end. Although there is a geospatial file defining suburbs for use by emergency services developed and maintained by Fire and Emergency New Zealand, in collaboration with other government agencies, to date this file has not been released publicly. New Zealand company Koordinates Limited requested access to the geospatial file under the Official Information Act 1982 but this request was rejected by the New Zealand Fire Service on the basis that it would prejudice the health & safety of, or cause material loss, to the public. In September 2014 a decision was made by the Ombudsman of New Zealand ruling that the New Zealand Fire Service refusal to release the geospatial file without agreeing to terms which included, among other restrictions, a prohibition on redistribution of the geospatial file, was reasonable. In the United Kingdom and in Ireland, suburb refers to a residential area outside the city centre, regardless of administrative boundaries.
Suburbs, in this sense, can range from areas that seem more like residential areas of a city proper to areas separated by open countryside from the city centre. In large cities such as London and Leeds, suburbs include separate towns and villages that have been absorbed during a city's growth and expansion, such as Ealing and Guiseley. In the United States and Canada, suburb can refer either to an outlying residential area of a city or town or to a separate municipality or unincorporated area outside a town or city; the earliest appearance of suburbs coincided with the spread of the first urban settlements. Large walled towns tended to be the focus around which smaller villages grew up in a symbiotic relationship with the market town; the word'suburbani' was first used by the Roman statesman Cicero in reference to the large villas and estates built by the wealthy patricians of Rome on the city's outskirts. Towards the end of the Eastern Han Dynasty, the capital, was occupied by the emperor and important officials.
As populations grew during the Early Modern Period in Europe, urban towns swelled with a steady influx of people from the countryside. In some places, nearby settlements were swallowed up as the main city expanded; the peripheral areas on the outskirts of the city were inhabited by the poorest. Due to the rapid migration of the rural poor to the industrialising cities of England in the late 18th century, a trend in the opposite direction began to develop; this trend accelerated through the 19th century in cities like London and Manchester that were growing and the first suburban districts sprung up around the city centres to accommodate those who wanted to escape the squalid conditions of the industrial towns. Toward the end of the century, with the development of public transit systems such as the underground railways and buses, it became possible for the majority of the city's population to reside outside the city and to commute into the
Otara is a suburb of South Auckland, New Zealand, situated 18 kilometres to the southeast of the Auckland CBD. Otara lies near the head of the Tamaki River. Contemporary Otara is surrounded by the suburbs of Papatoetoe, East Tamaki, Clover Park and Flat Bush; the suburb is noted for its proportion of Pacific Islander residents, who make up 68% of the Otara population and its unusually low number of European New Zealanders residents. In the Māori language, Ō-Tara means ‘the place of Tara’ or ‘territory belonging to Tara’, a Rangatira of the area.'Otara' is in turn the shortened form of Te Puke o Tara. Te Puke o Tara was one of Otara's prominent volcanic cones, prior to European settlement in the area was the site of a scoria cone pā. Like most of Auckland, the Otara landscape is volcanic in origin and forms a part of what is known as the East Tamaki volcanic field, with Te Puke o Tara and Mātanginui having been the dominant cones of Otara. A third cone called Highbrook by pakeha settlers and in Maori Te Puke Ariki nui or Te Maunga/mountain of the Great/paramount chief.
Mātangi nui was a pā site, not too far from Puke I Āki Rangi which connected the Mangemangeroa valley, the areas surrounding all three cones were thought to represent the densest area of pre-European settlement in East Tamaki, favoured rich volcanic gardening soils and fresh water springs. The Mana whenua of Te Rohe o Tara are the local Iwi/Maori people known as Ngai Tai called Ngāti Tai. Ngāi Tai are said to have originated as a distinct iwi identity on the eastern coastline of Auckland shortly after the Tainui canoe/waka called there in about the mid-14th Century. According to Ngāi Tai tradition, Te Puke o Tara and Otara are named after the Ariki of Ngāi Tai known as Tara Te Irirangi, who lived from the late 18th Century until 1852. An earlier name applied to the area was Ngā Kopi o Toi, named for a Karaka grove said by tradition to have been brought to Tamaki from the Chatham Islands and planted in the vicinity of Greenmount by Toi-te-huatahi. Over time, with the emergence and expansion of hapū/sub group of Iwi and iwi identities, Ngāti Tai occupying the area of Tara became interlinked by marriages with Te Akitai, Ngāti Tamaoho and Ngāti Kahu of the Tāmaki Makaurau confederation of tribes known collectively as Te Wai ō Hua, with the Hauraki Gulf peoples of Ngāti Paoa|Ngāti Pāoa and Ngāti Tamaterā, among others.
The Ngāti Pāoa chieftain Hauauru noted in 1851 that by the mid-1830s Ngāti Pāoa, Ngāti Tamaterā and Te Akitai had competing interests in Otara. While all of these groups hold ancestral relationships to the Otara area, Ngāi Tai continue to retain recognised mana whenua status. During the 1830s, Otara was among many present-day suburbs of Manukau & Auckland included within the boundaries of what became known as the "Tamaki Block" or "Fairburn Purchase". Between 1836 and 1839, the newly arrived Church Mission Society missionary William Thomas Fairburn began moves to establish a mission station at Maraetai while attempting to purchase a vast tract of land from various iwi of Auckland. Brokered as "an act of Christian peacemaking" between warring tribes on the Tamaki isthmus, Fairburn obtained "signatures" to the deed of purchase from over 30 Rangatira. Fairburn estimated the total area to contain 40,000 acres, but it was surveyed as being around 83,000; when the purchase came under scrutiny from the CMS, in 1837 Fairburn signed a deed promising to return one third of the land to the original inhabitants, unsuccessfully attempted to offer another third to the Church.
Following the Treaty of Waitangi establishing New Zealand as a British Overseas Territories in 1840, Fairburn came under investigation from the new Government's Land Claims Commission. Following a protracted investigation, in 1848 the Commission disallowed Fairburn's original claim, awarding him instead a much smaller grant of just under 5,500 acres; the remainder of the land, including Otara, was retained by the Crown as "surplus land" to be onsold to European settlers. Following the protests of Hori Te Whetuki on behalf of Ngāi Tai, in 1854 the Commission granted a "Native Reservation" of just over 6,000 acres at Duders Beach to "the chiefs of the Ngatitai" and paid them £500 compensation, on the condition that they sign an agreement to vacate all other lands within the original purchase boundaries, order all other iwi to do the same. European settlement of Otara began in earnest from the 1850s onwards, with most settlers of the wider East Tamaki area being Scottish and Irish Presbyterans.
The most prominent settler of Otara during this period was the Wesleyan missionary Reverend Gideon Smales. Smales had arrived from England in 1840, upon his retirement moved to settle at East Tamaki, purchasing a 400-acre block from the Government in 1855, which included Te Puke Ō Tara. Smales opened a quarry on the mountain. Mātanginui Pā was largely destroyed by quarrying from 1870 onwards and is now the site of the Greenmount Landfill. 13 acres from the Smales Mount/Puke Ō Tara estate on the remains of the original cone now form reserve known as Te Puke Ō Tara Hampton Park, which includes a stone church built in the 1860s and the remains of
Pakuranga is a south-eastern suburb of Auckland, in northern New Zealand. Pakuranga covers a series of low ridges and swampy flats, now drained, that lie between the Pakuranga Creek and Tamaki River, two estuarial arms of the Hauraki Gulf, it is located to the north of Manukau and 15 kilometres southeast of the Auckland CBD. The suburb's name is Te Pakūrangarāhihi Maori for battle of the sunlight or battle of the sun's rays. A fierce battle over forbidden love raged between two patupaiarehe - fairy people of the forest - until a priest caused the sun to rise and the earth to explode. Caught by the rays of the sun and volcanic eruptions, many patupaiarehe perished.. Pakuranga is traditionally home to the Ngāi Tai Iwi known as Ngāi Tai Ki Tāmaki; the prominent pa were at Ohuiarangi / Pigeon Mountain and Mokoia Pā of Ngāti Paoa at Panmure on a cliff, at the intersection of the Te Wai Ō Taiki / Tamaki River and the inlet to the Panmure Basin. During the attacks by Ngapuhi in the Musket wars in late September 1820, most of the population were killed, taken prisoner or fled south to the Waikato.
In early European times, it was a sparsely settled dairy farming area between the townships of Panmure and Howick. In the 1920s and 30s it was served by a bus that ran from Bucklands Beach known as the "shiek". In the 1930s a concrete road was built between these townships that improved transport times for people and milk. Although there had been a hinged steel bridge over the Tamaki River to Panmure from as early as 1866, it was not until the construction of a sturdier structure across the Tamaki River in the 1950s, coinciding with a demand for more settlement land and the increasing levels of car ownership, that Pakuranga became suburban. In fact, for a while in the 70s it was considered the typical New Zealand middle class suburb,'Vim Valley', after'a typical Pakuranga housewife' was featured in a famous cleaning product ad. Many of the American style houses of the 1950s and 1960s are still noticeable but much of the appeal of the early suburb lay in the proximity of untouched countryside.
Since the 1970s Pakuranga has been surrounded and engulfed by suburban developments on a much larger scale but of less architectural merit. Traffic travelling to and from these suburbs and the centre of Auckland is funnelled through the roadways of Pakuranga which has degraded the area somewhat as well. Despite this today Pakuranga remains an attractive suburb, with some light industry, centred on the Pakuranga Town Centre 1965, the second built in New Zealand, now known as "The Plaza"; the mall the second mall of the modern age in New Zealand, incorporating Farmers and George Court department stores. The mall itself has been transformed several times since it first went up and retains little of the 1960s style it once had; the Te Tuhi Centre for the Arts is located nearby. There was no school in the area before the 1960s so children had to walk or ride horses to the old Howick school, located across from the Highland Park shops; the old school was moved to the old village display in Pakuranga.
Pakuranga College was built on a low-lying swampy piece of land south of Pigeon Mountain opening in May 1961 with a roll of 428. Edgewater College was built on low-lying swamp land known as Fletcher's Bog near the Tamaki River, it opened in 1968. Schools in Pakuranga include the private school Saint Kentigern College. Pakuranga History of Howick and Pakuranga Google Map of Pakuranga Te Tuhi Centre for the Arts Photographs of Pakuranga held in Auckland Libraries' heritage collections
Fo Guang Shan Temple, Auckland
The Fo Guang Shan temple is a temple and community centre of the Fo Guang Shan Buddhist movement in the East Tamaki/Flat Bush suburb of Auckland, New Zealand. The temple and complex were built over seven years It was designed in the architectural style of the Tang Dynasty; the temple includes a large Buddha statue and a two-tonne bell. Opened in late 2007, the mission of the new temple is to promote Humanistic Buddhism, but it is intended to benefit non-Buddhists, "through education and teaching people how to lead good lives." Before its official opening, the temple had provided community courses such as Chinese calligraphy, Chinese language and martial arts, as well as providing a venue for crime prevention talks and meetings. IBPS Manila Zu Lai Temple Nan Hua Temple Hsi Lai Temple Chung Tian Temple Fo Guang Shan Buddha Museum Fo Guang Shan New Zealand
Auckland Libraries is the public library system for the Auckland Region of New Zealand. It was created when the seven separate councils in the Auckland region merged in 2010, it is the largest public-library network in the Southern Hemisphere with 55 branches from Wellsford to Waiuku. In November 2010, Auckland's local councils merged to create the Auckland Council; as a result of this process, the seven public library systems within the region were combined to form Auckland Libraries. The following library networks were amalgamated, forming Auckland Libraries: Auckland City Libraries Bookinopolis Manukau Libraries North Shore Libraries Papakura Library Services – The Sir Edmund Hillary Library Rodney Libraries Waitakere Libraries In the years leading up to the merger of the library systems within Auckland, the separate library systems combined to form a consortium in order to align their processes; this organisation was called eLGAR. This consortium settled on Millenium as their Library Management System, the libraries within this system all moved to this software.
The result was that the library systems were able to offer their customers a seamless transition to membership of the larger network, with immediate access to all 55 libraries from November 1, 2010. Prior to amalgamation, Auckland City Libraries was a network of 17 public libraries and a mobile library operated by Auckland City Council. In September 1880, Auckland City Council took responsibility for the library of the Auckland Mechanics' Institute which had come under financial difficulties; the Mechanics’ Institute was formed in 1842 and the items remaining in its library, along with items from the Library of the old Auckland Provincial Council, were included in the collection of the Auckland Free Public Library. In 1887, George Grey donated around 8,000 books, doubling the existing collection, a new building was erected for the library on the corner of Wellesley and Coburg streets. At the time, this building housed the entire collection for the Auckland public library, in addition to the city's art collection.
Additionally, from its inception in 1916 until it was closed in 1957, The Old Colonists’ Museum was in this building. This building is now the Auckland Art Gallery; the building on Lorne Street that houses the Central City library was opened in 1971. Before amalgamation, three public libraries—Pukekohe and Tuakau—made up a network known as "Bookinopolis". A municipal library had first been established at Pukekohe in 1913 and at Waiuku in 1946, in each case taking over an existing subscription library. Tuakau Public Library was opened in 1977. After local-body amalgamation in 1989, these three libraries formed the Franklin District library system. In 2000, this was taken over by the Franklin District Library Trust; the Trust renamed its library system "Bookinopolis". In 2010, the Pukekohe and Waiuku libraries became branches of Auckland Libraries, due to boundary changes, Tuakau was taken over by Waikato Dictrict Council; when Manukau City Council was formed by the amalgamation of Manukau County and Manurewa Borough in 1965, it took over responsibility for a small subscription library at Māngere East and volunteer-run community libraries in Alfriston, Clevedon, Kawakawa Bay, Orere Point and Weymouth.
The newly formed city opened its first full-service public library at Manurewa in 1967. This was followed by children’s libraries at both Otara and Māngere East in 1969, branch libraries at Pakuranga in 1973 and Manukau City Centre in 1976, a combined school and public library at Ngā Tapuwae College in 1978. Came Māngere Bridge in 1979, Māngere Town Centre in 1980 and Highland Park in 1987. Local-body amalgamation in 1989 saw two more libraries added to the system: Papatoetoe and Howick, where the municipal library services dated from 1945 and 1947 respectively. In 1958 Papatoetoe Library had earned the distinction of setting up the first municipal mobile library in New Zealand. Manukau Libraries’ last three branches were Clendon, the innovative Tupu-Dawson Road Youth Library, the Botany Idealibrary. Clendon Library was renamed Te Matariki Clendon when it was relocated in 2006. Throughout its life, Manukau Libraries operated as a dispersed rather than a centralised library system. However, in 2001 it opened a reference and reading room near Manukau City Centre that expanded into the Manukau Research Library.
By 2010 Manukau Libraries operated 13 branch libraries, a research library, five volunteer-run'rural libraries', a mobile library. In 1989, the North Shore City Council was formed by combining the various boroughs that had existed on the North Shore, so that prior to the 2010 amalgamation of the council into the Auckland Council, North Shore Libraries was a network of six libraries and a mobile library. Membership of Auckland Libraries is free for residents and ratepayers of the Auckland Council region. Auckland Libraries has a small number of rental collections. Library members can request an item from any of the libraries in Auckland Libraries for free. Many of the libraries provide Internet access; the library system gives access to three specialised eBook suppliers: Overdrive, BorrowBox, Wheelers. There is a Digital Library which includes over 100 databases; the library system provides a number of free events: Wriggle and Rhyme: Active Movement for Early Learning for babies.