Boone, North Carolina
Boone is a town located in the Blue Ridge Mountains of western North Carolina, United States. Boone's population was 17,122 in 2010. Boone is the home of Appalachian State University; the town is named for famous American pioneer and explorer Daniel Boone, every summer since 1952 has hosted an outdoor amphitheatre drama, Horn in the West, portraying the British settlement of the area during the American Revolutionary War and featuring the contributions of its namesake. It is the largest community and the economic hub of the seven-county region of Western North Carolina known as the High Country. In 2012, Boone was listed among the 10 best places to retire in the U. S. by U. S. News. Boone took its name from the famous pioneer and explorer Daniel Boone, who on several occasions camped at a site agreed to be within the present city limits. Daniel's nephews and Jonathan, were members of the town's first church, Three Forks Baptist, still in existence today. Boone was served by the narrow gauge East Tennessee and Western North Carolina Railroad until the flood of 1940.
The flood washed away much of the tracks and it was decided not to replace them. Boone is the home of Appalachian State University, a constituent member of the University of North Carolina. Appalachian State is the sixth largest university in the seventeen-campus system. Caldwell Community College & Technical Institute operates a satellite campus in Boone. "Horn in the West" is a dramatization of the life and times of the early settlers of the mountain area. It features Daniel Boone as one of its characters, has been performed in an outdoor amphitheater near the town every summer since 1952; the original actor in the role of "Daniel Boone" was Ned Austin. His "Hollywood Star" stands on a pedestal on King Street in downtown Boone, he was followed in the role by Glenn Causey, who portrayed the rugged frontiersman for 41 years, whose image is still seen in many of the depictions of Boone featured in the area today. Boone is notable for being home to the Junaluska community. Located in the hills just north of Downtown Boone, a free black community has existed in the area since before the Civil War.
Although integration in the mid-20th century led to many of the businesses in the neighborhood closing in favor of their downtown counterparts, descendants of the original inhabitants still live in the neighborhood. Junaluska is home to one of the few majority-African American Mennonite Brethren congregations. Boone is a center for Appalachian storytellers. Notable artists associated with Boone include the late, Grammy Award-winning bluegrass guitar player Doc Watson and the late guitarist Michael Houser, founding member of and lead guitarist for the band Widespread Panic, both Boone natives, as well as Old Crow Medicine Show, The Blue Rags, Eric Church; the Blair Farm, Daniel Boone Hotel, Jones House, John Smith Miller House, US Post Office-Boone are listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Boone has an elevation of 3,333 feet above sea level. An earlier survey gave the elevation as 3,332 ft and since it has been published as having an elevation of 3,333 ft. Boone has the highest elevation of any town of its size east of the Mississippi River.
As such, Boone features, depending on the isotherm used, a humid continental climate, a rarity for the Southeastern United States, bordering on a subtropical highland climate and straddles the boundary between USDA Plant Hardiness Zones 6B and 7A. Compared to the lower elevations of the Carolinas, winters are long and cold, with frequent sleet and snowfall; the daily average temperature in January is 31.2 °F, which gives Boone a winter climate more similar to coastal southern New England rather than the Southeast, where a humid subtropical climate predominates. Blizzard-like conditions are not unusual during many winters. Summers are warm, but far cooler and less humid than lower regions to the south and east, with a July daily average temperature of 68.5 °F. Boone receives on average nearly 35 inches of snowfall annually, far higher than the lowland areas in the rest of North Carolina. On January 18, 1966, the temperature fell to −18 °F; as of the census of 2000, there were 13,472 people, 4,374 households, 1,237 families residing in the town.
The population density was 2,307.0 people per square mile. There were 4,748 housing units at an average density of 813.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 93.98% White, 3.42% Black or African American, 0.30% Native American, 1.19% Asian, 0.05% Pacific Islander, 0.46% from other races, 0.60% from two or more races. 1.64 % of the population were Latino of any race. There were 4,374 households out of which 9.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 21.0% were married couples living together, 5.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 71.7% were non-families. 38.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 1.97 and the average family size was 2.63. The age distribution is 5.8% under 18, 65.9% from 18 to 24, 12.1% from 25 to 44, 9.1% from 45 to 64, 7.1% who were 65 or older. The median age was 21 years. Both the overall age distribution and the median age are driven by the presence of the local university, Appalachian State.
For every 100 females, there are 95.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, the
An EMD SW1200 is a diesel switcher locomotive built by General Motors Electro-Motive Division between January 1954 and May 1966. Power was provided by an EMD 567C 12-cylinder engine. Late SW1200s built in 1966 were built with the 567E 12-cylinder engine. Additional SW1200 production was completed by General Motors Diesel in Ontario Canada between September 1955 and June 1964. 737 examples of this locomotive model were built for American railroads, 287 were built for Canadian railroads 4 were built for Brazilian Railroads, 25 were built for a Chilean Industrial firm, 3 were built for the Panama Canal Railway. A cow-calf variation, the TR12, was cataloged. A few units were built with dynamic brakes, featuring large square box with a fan on top of the hood, right in front of the cab. An SW1200RS is a variation of the standard SW1200 that featured large front and rear numberboard housings, EMD Flexicoil B-B trucks, larger fuel tanks for roadswitcher service; the majority of the Canadian National and Canadian Pacific SW1200 fleets were purchased as SW1200RS units.
The Sandersville Railroad Company EMD SW1200 road number SAN 1200 SAN 200 was built with the V-12 EMD 567C Prime Mover but it was replaced with a V-12 EMD 645 Prime Mover, the two both produce 1,200 Horsepower though the same motor in the EMD SW1500 produces 1,500 Horsepower. The SAN 1200 has EMD Flexcoil trucks instead of the standard switcher trucks found on other EMD SW1200s. Grand Trunk Western 1512 is now owned by the West Michigan Railroad and is in use as a short line freight hauler. Lake Superior Terminal and Transfer Railway 105 is operated by the Minnesota Transportation Museum as Northern Pacific Railway 105. Fremont and Elkhorn Valley Railroad 1219 built in March 1962 for Chicago & North Western is utilized for their excursion trains as well as the Fremont Dinner Train and pulls 1920s era passenger cars for their non-profit excursion operations & the for-profit dinner train cars. HudBay Minerals 1274 built for Canadian National Railway and HudBay Minerals 8153 built for Canadian Pacific Railway are operating as industrial yard locomotives at HudBay Minerals Flin Flon.
Coos Bay Lumber Company 1203 is now being operated by Coos Bay Rail Link as a road switcher and can be seen anywhere from Eugene, OR, to Coos Bay, OR, wearing road number 1203. Crab Orchard & Egyptian 1136 and 1161 are both still in operation as short line freight haulers on the CO&E lines based in Herrin and Marion, Illinois respectively. Resolute Forest Products used 1305 at its now closed mill in Iroquois Falls, Canada, it was rebuilt by Diesel Electric Services in Sudbury, Canada, in August and September 2012. Quincy Railroad, owned by Sierra Pacific Industries at their mill in Quincy, has QRR SW1200 No. 5, builder No. 28344, built June 1963. Lineage is. 11, former Ashley Drew & Northern No. 1208, née-ADN No. 178 Former B&O 9614 was acquired many years ago by the Potomac Electric Power Company for use at its power generating station in Alexandria, which became the property of Mirant GenOn Energy. Over the years the surrounding area changed from industrial use to residential and, after much community action, the plant closed on October 1, 2012.
As of August 2013 the locomotive was still on site at the dormant plant but has since been transferred to the power generating station near Morgantown, MD. Former Texas and New Orleans 113 is now working for Key Cooperative in Newton, Iowa at its grain facility. Englewood Railway on Vancouver Island, British Columbia, operates four SW1200, three of which have been rebuilt with 1,500 hp Caterpillar engines, the fourth retaining its original power plant; the locomotives have larger fuel tanks, dynamic brakes, operate as "road" locomotives hauling lumber. Three of these locomotives were owned by Canadian Forest Products, one from COOS. Commonwealth Edison unit 16 and Terminal Railroad Association of St. Loius unit 1231 are now being operated by Steel Dynamics Inc. Pittsboro, IN. Both locomotives are used as scrap yard switchers at the Pittsboro facility. Sandersville Railroad SAN 200 purchased in 1964 is still used in daily switching service with the Sandersville Railroad as of 2017 but has been re-stenciled as the SAN 1200.
Its original 567C engine was upgraded to 645 specs at some point in its history. Northern Pacific Railway 146, after being inherited by successor railroads Burlington Northern Railroad and BNSF Railway, was sold to Evraz North America and renumbered 3540. In November 2015, it was acquired by the Virginia and Truckee Railroad in Virginia City and renumbered D-4 to fit the railroad's diesel numbering series, it is in operable condition. EMD LWT12 List of GMD Locomotives List of GM-EMD locomotives Pinkepank, Jerry A.. The Second Diesel Spotter's Guide. Milwaukee, Wisconsin: Kalmbach Publishing. ISBN 978-0-89024-026-7. Kristopans, Andre J.. "EMC/EMD 201A and 567 Switchers". Utah Rails. Kristopans, Andre J.. "General Motors Diesel". Utah Rails. Kristopans, Andre J.. "GM Export Models". Utah Rails
Connecticut Southern Railroad
The Connecticut Southern Railroad is a 78-mile long short-line railroad operating in Connecticut and Massachusetts, on lines operated by the New York, New Haven and Hartford Railroad operated by Penn Central and Conrail. It is a subsidiary of Wyoming; the line is headquartered in Hartford and interchanges with CSX at West Springfield and New Haven, Connecticut. Pan Am Railways exercises trackage rights to access its line at Berlin, Connecticut connecting to Waterbury, Connecticut; the railroad began operations in 1996 and was acquired by RailAmerica in 2000. Genesee & Wyoming acquired the railroad as part of its acquisition of RailAmerica in 2012. Traffic comes from construction materials, as well as food products; the CSO hauled around 23,000 carloads in 2008. The tracks are shared with Amtrak passenger trains. "Genesee & Wyoming-CSO". Retrieved 2013-05-02
A diesel locomotive is a type of railway locomotive in which the prime mover is a diesel engine. Several types of diesel locomotive have been developed, differing in the means by which mechanical power is conveyed to the driving wheels. Early internal combusition locomotives and railcars used gasoline as their fuel. Dr. Rudolf Diesel patented his first compression ignition engine in 1898, steady improvements in the design of diesel engines reduced their physical size and improved their power-to-weight ratio to a point where one could be mounted in a locomotive. Internal combustion engines only operate efficiently within a limited torque range, while low power gasoline engines can be coupled to a mechanical transmission, the more powerful diesel engines required the development of new forms of transmission; the first successful diesel engines used diesel–electric transmissions, by 1925 a small number of diesel locomotives of 600 hp were in service in the United States. In 1930, Armstrong Whitworth of the United Kingdom delivered two 1,200 hp locomotives using Sulzer-designed engines to Buenos Aires Great Southern Railway of Argentina.
In 1933, diesel-electric technology developed by Maybach was used propel the DRG Class SVT 877, a high speed intercity two-car set, went into series production with other streamlined car sets in Germany starting in 1935. In the USA, diesel-electric propulsion was brought to high speed mainline passenger service in late 1934 through the research and development efforts of General Motors from 1930–34 and advances in lightweight carbody design by the Budd Company; the economic recovery from the Second World War saw the widespread adoption of diesel locomotives in many countries. They offered greater flexibility and performance than steam locomotives, as well as lower operating and maintenance costs. Diesel–hydraulic transmissions were introduced in the 1950s, but from the 1970s onwards diesel–electric transmission has dominated; the earliest recorded example of the use of an internal combustion engine in a railway locomotive is the prototype designed by William Dent Priestman, examined by Sir William Thomson in 1888 who described it as a " mounted upon a truck, worked on a temporary line of rails to show the adaptation of a petroleum engine for locomotive purposes.".
In 1894, a 20 hp two axle machine built by Priestman Brothers. In 1896 an oil-engined railway locomotive was built for the Royal Arsenal, England, in 1896, using an engine designed by Herbert Akroyd Stuart, it was not a diesel because it used a hot bulb engine but it was the precursor of the diesel. Following the expiration of Dr. Rudolf Diesel's patent in 1912, his engine design was applied to marine propulsion and stationary applications. However, the massiveness and poor power-to-weight ratio of these early engines made them unsuitable for propelling land-based vehicles. Therefore, the engine's potential as a railroad prime mover was not recognized; this changed as development reduced the weight of the engine. In 1906, Rudolf Diesel, Adolf Klose and the steam and diesel engine manufacturer Gebrüder Sulzer founded Diesel-Sulzer-Klose GmbH to manufacture diesel-powered locomotives. Sulzer had been manufacturing Diesel engines since 1898; the Prussian State Railways ordered a diesel locomotive from the company in 1909, after test runs between Winterthur and Romanshorn the diesel–mechanical locomotive was delivered in Berlin in September 1912.
The world's first diesel-powered locomotive was operated in the summer of 1912 on the Winterthur–Romanshorn railroad in Switzerland, but was not a commercial success. During further test runs in 1913 several problems were found. After the First World War broke out in 1914, all further trials were stopped; the locomotive weight was 95 tonnes and the power was 883 kW with a maximum speed of 100 km/h. Small numbers of prototype diesel locomotives were produced in a number of countries through the mid-1920s. Adolphus Busch purchased the American manufacturing rights for the diesel engine in 1898 but never applied this new form of power to transportation, he founded the Busch-Sulzer company in 1911. Only limited success was achieved in the early twentieth century with internal combustion engined railcars, due, in part, to difficulties with mechanical drive systems. General Electric entered the railcar market in the early twentieth century, as Thomas Edison possessed a patent on the electric locomotive, his design being a type of electrically propelled railcar.
GE built its first electric locomotive prototype in 1895. However, high electrification costs caused GE to turn its attention to internal combustion power to provide electricity for electric railcars. Problems related to co-coordinating the prime mover and electric motor were encountered due to limitations of the Ward Leonard current control system, chosen. A significant breakthrough occurred in 1914, when Hermann Lemp, a GE electrical engineer and patented a reliable direct current electrical control system. Lemp's design used a single lever to control both engine and generator in a coordinated fashion, was the prototype for all internal combustion–electric drive control systems. In 1917–18, GE produced three experimental diesel–electric locomotives using Lemp's control design, the first known to be built in the United States. Following this development, the 1923 Kaufman Act banned steam locomotives from New York City because of severe pollution problems; the response to this law was to electrify high-traffic rail lines.
However, electrification was u
Columbus and Greenville Railway
There have been two uses of Columbus and Greenville Railway, both for the same rail line. The first Columbus and Greenville Railway was formed by the sale of the Southern Railway operated Southern Railway in Mississippi, to local interests. In January 1952, the CAGY retired its last steam locomotive, Baldwin 4-6-0 Ten-Wheeler #304 built in 1904, it continued independent operations until 1972 when it was bought by the Illinois Central Gulf Railroad. The second Columbus and Greenville Railway was founded in 1974 and began operations in 1975 over divested Illinois Central Gulf Railroad trackage across the state of Mississippi, its terminals, as the name implies, are Greenville, Mississippi. In 2001, CAGY suspended service over 89.5 miles of track between West Point and Greenwood due to a washout. This action split the line in two; the western section operates between Greenville and Greenwood with an interchange with Canadian National in Greenwood. The eastern section operates the remaining trackage from West Point onwards.
The company once specialized in transporting paper products to and from local factories. The company's traffic base has expanded to include bricks, plastic products, feed grains for catfish and swine and raw steel, biodiesel as well as cotton and rice products; the company runs six trains a day, two between Greenwood and Greenville, two out of Columbus and two at the Severcorr steel mill between Columbus and Artesia. The majority owner of the Columbus and Greenville is CAGY Industries, which owns the Luxapalila Valley Railroad and the Chattooga and Chickamauga Railway. In June 2008, CAGY Industries was purchased by Wyoming Inc.. Several pieces of CAGY equipment have been preserved and put on display: Baldwin locomotive #601 is on display in front of the Columbus & Greenville shops in Columbus, MS. Baldwin locomotive #606 "City of Moorhead" is on display at the Illinois Railway Museum. Caboose # 500 is on display in MS next to the train depot downtown. Caboose #503 is on display in Propst Park in Columbus, MS along with some C&G passenger coaches and a GM&O steam locomotive.
Caboose #506 is in downtown Kosciusko, MS. Caboose #508 is in front of a doctor's office in Greenwood, MS. "CAGY Industries Information". Retrieved 2005-12-15. "Columbus and Greenville Railway Information". Retrieved 2005-12-15. Lewis, Edward A.. American Shortline Railway Guide. Milwaukee, Wisconsin: Kalmbach Publishing Company. P. 62. ISBN 0-89024-073-6. GWRR-CAGY Railway CAGY Industries Columbus and Greenville Railway HawkinsRails.net CAGY collection
3 ft gauge railways
Three foot gauge railways have a track gauge of 3 ft or 1 yard. This gauge is a narrow gauge and is found throughout North and South America. In Ireland, many secondary and industrial lines were built to 3 ft gauge, it is the dominant gauge on the Isle of Man, where it is known as the Manx Standard Gauge. Modern 3 ft gauge railways are most found in isolated mountainous areas, on small islands, or in large-scale amusement parks and theme parks; this gauge is popular in model railroading, model prototypes of these railways have been made by several model train brands around the world, such as Accucraft Trains, Aristo-Craft Trains, Bachmann Industries, Delton Locomotive Works, LGB, PIKO. Heritage railway List of track gauges Swedish three foot gauge railways
Buffalo and Pittsburgh Railroad
The Buffalo and Pittsburgh Railroad is a Class II railroad operating in New York and Pennsylvania. The BPRR is owned by Wyoming, its main line runs between Buffalo, New York and Eidenau, north of Pittsburgh. Here, connections are made to the city center via the Allegheny Valley Railroad; the system runs on former Baltimore and Ohio Railroad lines. The entire BPRR system is 729 miles. Major commodities carried include paper, petroleum products, coal and sand; the Buffalo-Eidenau main line passes through Salamanca, NY, Bradford, PA, Johnsonburg, PA, DuBois, PA, Punxsutawney, PA, Butler, PA. Principal rail yards are located at Butler and Buffalo, with support yards for local industry at other locations. B&P used the direct former B&O/BR&P main between Buffalo and Salamanca, but during the 1990s a failing bridge at Springville, New York forced the railroad to detour its trains north of Ashford Junction via the former Rochester & Southern track to Machias Junction, New York, thence north on Conrail's/Norfolk Southern's ex-Pennsylvania Railroad Buffalo Line to Buffalo.
Buffalo & Pittsburgh now is the sole user of the ex-PRR south of CP-GRAVITY in Buffalo. BPRR operates two key secondary lines. One runs between Johnsonburg along the former Allegheny and Eastern Railroad. Another is made up of former Pittsburg and Shawmut Railroad tracks, running from the Armstrong Power Plant in Reesedale to Freeport, Pennsylvania; the B&P operates on the Low Grade between DuBois and Driftwood, used by the Pennsylvania Railroad Conrail. A portion of the former B&O Northern Subdivision is used to provide access to Petrolia, PA. CSX Transportation leases the P&W Subdivision to the B&P between Allison Park and the New Castle Yard in West Pittsburg, just outside New Castle, PA. Though the B&P ends in Allison Park, the railroad traverses the line down to the borough. Instead, it transfers its goods to the AVR either in Evans City or Bakerstown depending on the amount of freight it has. Other owned and operated branch lines travel to Homer City, St. Marys, Brookville, Pennsylvania, as well as to the Buffalo suburb of Orchard Park, New York.
Operations began in 1988 over former Baltimore & Ohio Railroad lines. In the early 2000s, the BPRR merged other GWI railroads into it; these lines include the Allegheny and Eastern Railroad and Shawmut Railroad, the Bradford Industrial Railroad. Around 2005 the Indiana Subdivision, out of use, was rehabilitated to serve the Homer City Generating Station. Shortly after this, the Ridge Subdivision, which had seen a Norfolk Southern Railway coal train run-through to Shelocta was sold off to NS. In 2006, the railroad was honored as the Regional Railroad of the Year by industry trade journal Railway Age magazine. Buffalo & Pittsburgh Railroad