Pakistan the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country in South Asia. It is the world’s sixth-most populous country with a population exceeding 212,742,631 people. In area, it is the 33rd-largest country. Pakistan has a 1,046-kilometre coastline along the Arabian Sea and Gulf of Oman in the south and is bordered by India to the east, Afghanistan to the west, Iran to the southwest, China in the far northeast, it is separated narrowly from Tajikistan by Afghanistan's Wakhan Corridor in the northwest, shares a maritime border with Oman. The territory that now constitutes Pakistan was the site of several ancient cultures and intertwined with the history of the broader Indian subcontinent; the ancient history involves the Neolithic site of Mehrgarh and the Bronze Age Indus Valley Civilisation, was home to kingdoms ruled by people of different faiths and cultures, including Hindus, Indo-Greeks, Turco-Mongols and Sikhs. The area has been ruled by numerous empires and dynasties, including the Persian Achaemenid Empire, Alexander III of Macedon, the Seleucid Empire, the Indian Maurya Empire, the Gupta Empire, the Arab Umayyad Caliphate, the Delhi Sultanate, the Mongol Empire, the Mughal Empire, the Afghan Durrani Empire, the Sikh Empire and, most the British Empire.
Pakistan is the only country to have been created in the name of Islam. It is an ethnically and linguistically diverse country, with a diverse geography and wildlife. A dominion, Pakistan adopted a constitution in 1956, becoming an Islamic republic. An ethnic civil war and Indian military intervention in 1971 resulted in the secession of East Pakistan as the new country of Bangladesh. In 1973, Pakistan adopted a new constitution which stipulated that all laws are to conform to the injunctions of Islam as laid down in the Quran and Sunnah. A regional and middle power, Pakistan has the sixth-largest standing armed forces in the world and is a nuclear power as well as a declared nuclear-weapons state, the second in South Asia and the only nation in the Muslim world to have that status. Pakistan has a semi-industrialised economy with a well-integrated agriculture sector and a growing services sector, it is ranked among the emerging and growth-leading economies of the world, is backed by one of the world's largest and fastest-growing middle class.
Pakistan's political history since independence has been characterized by periods of military rule, political instability and conflicts with India. The country continues to face challenging problems, including overpopulation, poverty and corruption. Pakistan is a member of the UN, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation, the OIC, the Commonwealth of Nations, the SAARC and the Islamic Military Counter Terrorism Coalition; the name Pakistan means "land of the pure" in Urdu and Persian. It alludes to the word pāk meaning pure in Pashto; the suffix ـستان is a Persian word meaning the place of, recalls the synonymous Sanskrit word sthāna स्थान. The name of the country was coined in 1933 as Pakstan by Choudhry Rahmat Ali, a Pakistan Movement activist, who published it in his pamphlet Now or Never, using it as an acronym referring to the names of the five northern regions of British India: Punjab, Kashmir and Baluchistan; the letter i was incorporated to ease pronunciation. Some of the earliest ancient human civilisations in South Asia originated from areas encompassing present-day Pakistan.
The earliest known inhabitants in the region were Soanian during the Lower Paleolithic, of whom stone tools have been found in the Soan Valley of Punjab. The Indus region, which covers most of present day Pakistan, was the site of several successive ancient cultures including the Neolithic Mehrgarh and the Bronze Age Indus Valley Civilisation at Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro; the Vedic period was characterised by an Indo-Aryan culture. Multan was an important Hindu pilgrimage centre; the Vedic civilisation flourished in the ancient Gandhāran city of Takṣaśilā, now Taxila in the Punjab, founded around 1000 BCE. Successive ancient empires and kingdoms ruled the region: the Persian Achaemenid Empire, Alexander the Great's empire in 326 BCE and the Maurya Empire, founded by Chandragupta Maurya and extended by Ashoka the Great, until 185 BCE; the Indo-Greek Kingdom founded by Demetrius of Bactria included Gandhara and Punjab and reached its greatest extent under Menander, prospering the Greco-Buddhist culture in the region.
Taxila had one of the earliest universities and centres of higher education in the world, established during the late Vedic period in 6th century BCE. The school consisted of several monasteries without large dormitories or lecture halls where the religious instruction was provided on an individualistic basis; the ancient university was documented by the invading forces of Alexander the Great, "the like of which had not been seen in Greece," and was recorded by Chinese pilgrims in the 4th or 5th century CE. At its zenith, the Rai Dynasty of Sindh ruled the surrounding territories; the Pala Dynasty was the last Buddhist empire, under Dharmapala and Devapala, stretched across South Asia from what is now Bangladesh through Northern India to Pakistan. The Arab conqueror Muhammad bin Qasim conquered Sindh in 711 CE; the Pakistan government's official chronol
Arun Lal pronunciation is a retired Indian cricketer, a cricket commentator. His columns about cricket analysis appears in newspaper and internet columns, he started a cricket academy. Arun Lal did his schooling at Ajmer, he played for India, as a right-handed batsman, between 1982 and 1989. He struggled at the international level with a poor Test batting average of 26.03. In 1982, he made his Test debut against Sri Lanka at Madras with 63 and shared a partnership of 156 with Sunil Gavaskar. In his next test, he scored 51 against Pakistan and shared an opening partnership with Sunil Gavaskar for 105, his highest test innings score is 93 made against West Indies at Calcutta in 1987. His ODI average was poorer at 9.36. At Indian domestic level he represented Bengal cricket team and Delhi cricket team where he has a record of scoring over 10,000 runs with a top score of 287 and a batting average of 46.94. He resigned from domestic cricket in March 2001, his last club match was for East Bengal. He represented Bengal in the iconic Doordarshan national integration song, "Mile Sur Mera Tumara".
In that he comes out of the Kolkata metro rail. He commentates on matches India play at home, which are broadcast by Star Sports. In 2016, he was in recovery after battling jaw cancer was detected that kept him out of commentary box since January 2016 Cricinfo cricketarchive
Manoj Kumar Tiwary is an Indian cricketer. He is a right-handed batsman, he represents Bengal in domestic cricket and played for Kings XI Punjab in the IPL. He has represented the Indian national cricket team in the One Day International format of the game. He's an aggressive right-handed batsman and has gained attention from selectors and fans through his strokeplay and high runs scoring in Indian domestic cricket; because of his front foot play and ability to attack the bowler by charging down the pitch, many have compared his batting style to England's Kevin Pietersen. Tiwary was named in the ODI squad to Bangladesh, however he failed to make the playing eleven after sustaining an injury in training, the morning he was supposed to debut, he made his debut against Australia in the 2007–08 Commonwealth Bank Series in which he scored only 2 runs in his only innings. He was included in the India team for the West Indies tour of 2011, as a replacement for Yuvraj Singh, who opted out of the series due to a lung infection.
Manoj Tiwary played the 5th ODI in the series. He got picked for England's tour of India in October, he got 24 runs. He played the only T20 and scored 15 runs. Tiwary was subsequently named in the squad for the ODI's against West Indies in November–December, he played in the 5th ODI at Chennai when India was down by 2 wickets for only 1 run in the first over of the match. He went on build a solid innings which got him his scoring maiden ODI century despite having cramps and retired soon after getting his century. India won the match by 34 runs and he was awarded the Man-Of-The-Match for this match-winning knock. After the unbeaten century, Tiwary was made to sit in the reserves for 14 successive matches following the century. However, he made an auspicious comeback as an all-rounder replacing leg spinner Rahul Sharma against Sri Lanka at Colombo as he took 4/61 from his 10 overs with his leg-breaks to restrict the hosts to 251/8, he took the wickets of Dinesh Chandimal, Angelo Mathews, Jeevan Mendis and Thisara Perera, followed it with a fighting 21 from 38 at a tough time coming at 60/3.
India won the match as Virat Kohli scored an unbeaten ton. Tiwary was picked for the Commonwealth Bank tri-series against Australia and Sri Lanka,but he didn't play any matches. Manoj Tiwary was again selected in the Indian team for the Asia Cup 2012 where again he didn't play any matches. Tiwary was selected for the lone T20 against South Africa, played celebrating 150 years of settlement of Indians in South Africa. In October 2017, he played in his 100th first-class cricket match, in the fixture between Bengal and Chhattisgarh in the 2017–18 Ranji Trophy, he was the leading run-scorer for Bengal in the 2018–19 Vijay Hazare Trophy, with 366 runs in nine matches. In October 2018, he was named in India B's squad for the 2018–19 Deodhar Trophy. In November 2018, batting for Bengal against Madhya Pradesh in the 2018–19 Ranji Trophy, he scored his fifth double-century in first-class cricket. Tiwary was signed by the Delhi Daredevils for a sum of US$675,000 in the initial seasons of the Indian Premier League.
He was traded to the Kolkata Knight Riders in exchange for Moises Henriques before the 2010 IPL season. In the auction for 4th edition of the Indian Premier League, he was signed by the Kolkata Knight Riders for a sum of US$475,000. In the fourth as well as the fifth season of the IPL, he has been a permanent fixture in the Kolkata Knight Riders middle order. In the final of IPL 2012, Manoj Tiwary hit the winning runs off the bowling of Dwayne Bravo to help Kolkata Knight Riders win the title. In IPL 2013, he played in 10 matches and scored just 146 runs at an average of 18.25. In February 2017, he was bought by the Rising Pune Supergiants team for the 2017 Indian Premier League for 50 lakhs. In January 2018, he was bought by the Kings XI Punjab in the 2018 IPL auction. India national cricket team Indian Premier League Manoj Tiwary at ESPNcricinfo Manoj Tiwary's profile page on Wisden Manoj Tiwary at CricketArchive Manoj Tiwary Official Website
Bangladesh the People's Republic of Bangladesh, is a sovereign country in South Asia. It shares land borders with Myanmar; the country's maritime territory in the Bay of Bengal is equal to the size of its land area. Bangladesh is the world's eighth most populous country as well as its most densely-populated, to the exclusion of small island nations and city-states. Dhaka is largest city, followed by Chittagong, which has the country's largest port. Bangladesh forms the largest and easternmost part of the Bengal region. Bangladeshis include people from a range of ethnic religions. Bengalis, who speak the official Bengali language, make up 98% of the population; the politically dominant Bengali Muslims make the nation the world's third largest Muslim-majority country. Islam is the official religion of Bangladesh. Most of Bangladesh is covered by the largest delta on Earth; the country has 8,046 km of inland waterways. Highlands with evergreen forests are found in the northeastern and southeastern regions of the country.
Bangladesh has a coral reef. The longest unbroken natural sea beach of the world, Cox's Bazar Beach, is located in the southeast, it is home to the Sundarbans, the largest mangrove forest in the world. The country's biodiversity includes a vast array of plant and wildlife, including endangered Bengal tigers, the national animal; the Greeks and Romans identified the region as Gangaridai, a powerful kingdom of the historical Indian subcontinent, in the 3rd century BCE. Archaeological research has unearthed several ancient cities in Bangladesh, which enjoyed international trade links for millennia; the Bengal Sultanate and Mughal Bengal transformed the region into a cosmopolitan Islamic imperial power between the 14th and 18th centuries. The region was home to many principalities; as the Mughal Empire's wealthiest province, Bangladesh as part of the Bengal Subah was worth 12% of the world's GDP, larger than the entirety of western Europe. It was a notable center of the global muslin and silk trade.
As part of British India, the region was influenced by the Bengali renaissance and played an important role in anti-colonial movements. The Partition of British India made East Bengal a part of the Dominion of Pakistan; the region witnessed the Bengali Language Movement in 1952 and the Bangladesh Liberation War in 1971. After independence was achieved, a parliamentary republic was established. A presidential government was in place between 1975 and 1990, followed by a return to parliamentary democracy; the country continues to face challenges in the areas of poverty, education and corruption. Bangladesh is a developing nation. Listed as one of the Next Eleven, its economy ranks 43rd in terms of nominal gross domestic product and 29th in terms of purchasing power parity, it is one of the largest textile exporters in the world. Its major trading partners are the European Union, the United States, India, Japan and Singapore. With its strategically vital location between South and Southeast Asia, Bangladesh is an important promoter of regional connectivity and cooperation.
It is a founding member of SAARC, BIMSTEC, the Bangladesh-China-India-Myanmar Forum for Regional Cooperation and the Bangladesh Bhutan India Nepal Initiative. It is a member of the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, Commonwealth of Nations, the Developing 8 Countries, the OIC, the Indian-Ocean Rim Association, the Non Aligned Movement, the Group of 77 and the World Trade Organization. Bangladesh is one of the largest contributors to United Nations peacekeeping forces; the etymology of Bangladesh can be traced to the early 20th century, when Bengali patriotic songs, such as Namo Namo Namo Bangladesh Momo by Kazi Nazrul Islam and Aaji Bangladesher Hridoy by Rabindranath Tagore, used the term. The term Bangladesh was written as two words, Bangla Desh, in the past. Starting in the 1950s, Bengali nationalists used the term in political rallies in East Pakistan; the term Bangla is a major name for both the Bengali language. The earliest known usage of the term is the Nesari plate in 805 AD; the term Vangaladesa is found in 11th-century South Indian records.
The term gained official status during the Sultanate of Bengal in the 14th century. Shamsuddin Ilyas Shah proclaimed himself as the first "Shah of Bangala" in 1342; the word Bangla became the most common name for the region during the Islamic period. The Portuguese referred to the region as Bengala in the 16th century; the origins of the term Bangla are unclear, with theories pointing to a Bronze Age proto-Dravidian tribe, the Austric word "Bonga", the Iron Age Vanga Kingdom. The Indo-Aryan suffix Desh is derived from the Sanskrit word deśha, which means "land" or "country". Hence, the name Bangladesh means "Land of Bengal" or "Country of Bengal". Stone Age tools found in Bangladesh indicate human habitation for over 20,000 years, remnants of Copper Age settlements date back 4,000 years. Ancient Bengal was settled by Austroasiatics, Tibeto-Burmans and Indo-Aryans in consecutive waves of migration. Archaeological evidence confirms that by the second millennium BCE, rice-cultivating communities inhabited the region.
By the 11th century people lived in systemically-aligned housing, buried their dead, manufactured copper ornaments and black and red pottery. The Ganges and Meghna rivers were natural arteries for communication and transportation, estuaries on the Bay of Bengal permit
Jharkhand cricket team
The Jharkhand Cricket Team is a Ranji Trophy team based in the Indian state of Jharkhand. When the old state of Bihar was split into Jharkhand state and Bihar state, the Jharkhand team took the place of the Bihar cricket team, as much of the former's state's cricketing infrastructure was in Jharkhand. Jharkhand State Cricket Association was formed on November 15, 2000 and the team made its first-class debut in November 2004 against Saurashtra in the 2004/05 Ranji Trophy at Madhavrao Scindia Cricket Ground, Rajkot; the match was drawn. The team won the 2010/11 Vijay Harare Trophy against Gujarat at the Holkar Cricket Stadium in Indore. Jharkhand batted first and were boosted by several useful contributions from their batsmen while Gujarat in their reply failed to measure up against a dominating bowling performance to sink to a 159-run defeat. Famous Players Mahendra Singh Dhoni Varun Aaron Ishan Kishan Shabhaz Nadeem Saurabh Tiwary Players with international caps are listed in bold. Head Coach -: V Venkatram Jharkhand State Cricket Association Bihar Cricket Association Bihar cricket team Official website of Jharkhand State Cricket Association Jharkhand at CricketArchive
Cricket is a bat-and-ball game played between two teams of eleven players on a field at the centre of, a 20-metre pitch with a wicket at each end, each comprising two bails balanced on three stumps. The batting side scores runs by striking the ball bowled at the wicket with the bat, while the bowling and fielding side tries to prevent this and dismiss each player. Means of dismissal include being bowled, when the ball hits the stumps and dislodges the bails, by the fielding side catching the ball after it is hit by the bat, but before it hits the ground; when ten players have been dismissed, the innings ends and the teams swap roles. The game is adjudicated by two umpires, aided by a third umpire and match referee in international matches, they communicate with two off-field scorers. There are various formats ranging from Twenty20, played over a few hours with each team batting for a single innings of 20 overs, to Test matches, played over five days with unlimited overs and the teams each batting for two innings of unlimited length.
Traditionally cricketers play in all-white kit, but in limited overs cricket they wear club or team colours. In addition to the basic kit, some players wear protective gear to prevent injury caused by the ball, a hard, solid spheroid made of compressed leather with a raised sewn seam enclosing a cork core, layered with wound string. Cricket's origins are uncertain and the earliest definite reference is in south-east England in the middle of the 16th century, it spread globally with the expansion of the British Empire, leading to the first international matches in the second half of the 19th century. The game's governing body is the International Cricket Council, which has over 100 members, twelve of which are full members who play Test matches; the game's rules are held in a code called the Laws of Cricket, owned and maintained by Marylebone Cricket Club in London. The sport is followed in the Indian subcontinent, the United Kingdom, southern Africa and the West Indies, its globalisation occurring during the expansion of the British Empire and remaining popular into the 21st century.
Women's cricket, organised and played separately, has achieved international standard. The most successful side playing international cricket is Australia, having won seven One Day International trophies, including five World Cups, more than any other country, having been the top-rated Test side more than any other country. Cricket is one of many games in the "club ball" sphere that involve hitting a ball with a hand-held implement. In cricket's case, a key difference is the existence of a solid target structure, the wicket, that the batsman must defend; the cricket historian Harry Altham identified three "groups" of "club ball" games: the "hockey group", in which the ball is driven to and fro between two targets. It is believed that cricket originated as a children's game in the south-eastern counties of England, sometime during the medieval period. Although there are claims for prior dates, the earliest definite reference to cricket being played comes from evidence given at a court case in Guildford on Monday, 17 January 1597.
The case concerned ownership of a certain plot of land and the court heard the testimony of a 59-year-old coroner, John Derrick, who gave witness that: "Being a scholler in the ffree schoole of Guldeford hee and diverse of his fellows did runne and play there at creckett and other plaies". Given Derrick's age, it was about half a century earlier when he was at school and so it is certain that cricket was being played c. 1550 by boys in Surrey. The view that it was a children's game is reinforced by Randle Cotgrave's 1611 English-French dictionary in which he defined the noun "crosse" as "the crooked staff wherewith boys play at cricket" and the verb form "crosser" as "to play at cricket". One possible source for the sport's name is the Old English word "cryce" meaning a staff. In Samuel Johnson's Dictionary, he derived cricket from "cryce, Saxon, a stick". In Old French, the word "criquet" seems to have meant a kind of stick. Given the strong medieval trade connections between south-east England and the County of Flanders when the latter belonged to the Duchy of Burgundy, the name may have been derived from the Middle Dutch "krick", meaning a stick.
Another possible source is the Middle Dutch word "krickstoel", meaning a long low stool used for kneeling in church and which resembled the long low wicket with two stumps used in early cricket. According to Heiner Gillmeister, a European language expert of Bonn University, "cricket" derives from the Middle Dutch phrase for hockey, met de sen. Gillmeister has suggested that not only the name but the sport itself may be of Flemish origin. Although the main object of the game has always been to score the most runs, the early form of cricket differed from the modern game in certain key technical aspects; the ball was bowled underarm by the bowler and all along the ground towards a batsman armed with a bat that, in shape, resembled a hockey stick.
Mahendra Singh Dhoni is an Indian international cricketer who captained the Indian national team in limited-overs formats from 2007 to 2016 and in Test cricket from 2008 to 2014. An attacking right-handed middle-order batsman and wicket-keeper, he is regarded as one of the greatest finishers in limited-overs cricket, he is regarded as one of the best wicket-keepers in world cricket. He made his One Day International debut in December 2004 against Bangladesh, played his first Test a year against Sri Lanka. Dhoni has been the recipient of many awards, including the ICC ODI Player of the Year award in 2008 and 2009, the Rajiv Gandhi Khel Ratna award in 2007, the Padma Shri, India's fourth highest civilian honour, in 2009 and the Padma Bhushan, India's third highest civilian honour, in 2018, he was named as the captain of the ICC World Test XI in 2009, 2010 and 2013. He has been selected a record 8 times in ICC World ODI XI teams, 5 times as captain; the Indian Territorial Army conferred the honorary rank of Lieutenant Colonel to Dhoni on 1 November 2011.
He is the second Indian cricketer. Dhoni holds numerous captaincy records such as the most wins by an Indian captain in Tests, ODIs and T20Is, most back-to-back wins by an Indian captain in ODIs, he took over the ODI captaincy from Rahul Dravid in 2007 and led the team to its first-ever bilateral ODI series wins in Sri Lanka and New Zealand. Under his captaincy, India won the 2007 ICC World Twenty20, 2007–08 Commonwealth Bank Series, the 2010 and 2016 Asia Cups, the 2011 ICC Cricket World Cup and the 2013 ICC Champions Trophy. In the final of the 2011 World Cup, Dhoni scored 91 not out off 79 balls handing India the victory for which he was awarded the Man of the Match. In June 2013, when India defeated England in the final of the Champions Trophy in England, Dhoni became the first captain to win all three ICC limited-overs trophies. After taking up the Test captaincy in 2008, he led the team to series wins in New Zealand and the West Indies, the Border-Gavaskar Trophy in 2008, 2010 and 2013.
In 2009, Dhoni led the Indian team to number one position for the first time in the ICC Test rankings. In 2013, under his captaincy, India became the first team in more than 40 years to whitewash Australia in a Test series. In the Indian Premier League, he captained the Chennai Super Kings to victory at the 2010, 2011 and 2018 seasons, along with wins in the 2010 and 2014 editions of Champions League Twenty20, he announced his retirement from Tests on 30 December 2014. In 2011, Time magazine included Dhoni in its annual Time 100 list as one of the "Most Influential People in the World." In 2012, SportsPro rated Dhoni as the sixteenth most marketable athlete in the world. In June 2015, Forbes ranked Dhoni at 23rd in the list of highest paid athletes in the world, estimating his earnings at US$31 million. In 2016, a biopic M. S. Dhoni: The Untold Story was made about him. Dhoni holds the post of Vice-President of India Cements Ltd. after resigning from Air India. India Cements is the owner of the IPL team Chennai Super Kings, Dhoni has been its captain since the first IPL season.
Dhoni is the co-owner of Indian Super League team Chennaiyin FC. Dhoni was born in Ranchi, he identifies as a Hindu Rajput, his paternal village Lvali is in the Lamgarha block of the Almora District of Uttarakhand. Dhoni's parents moved from Uttarakhand to Ranchi, where his father Pan Singh worked in junior management positions in MECON. Dhoni has a brother Narendra Singh Dhoni. Dhoni is a fan of Adam Gilchrist, his childhood idols were cricket teammate Sachin Tendulkar, Bollywood actor Amitabh Bachchan and singer Lata MangeshkarDhoni studied at DAV Jawahar Vidya Mandir, Ranchi, Jharkhand where he excelled in badminton and football and was selected at district and club level in these sports. Dhoni was a goalkeeper for his football team and was sent to play cricket for a local cricket club by his football coach. Though he had not played cricket, Dhoni impressed with his wicket-keeping skills and became the regular wicketkeeper at the Commando cricket club. Based on his performance at club cricket, he was picked for the 1997/98 season Vinoo Mankad Trophy Under-16 Championship and he performed well.
Dhoni focused on cricket after his 10th standard. Dhoni was a Travelling Ticket Examiner at Kharagpur railway station from 2001 to 2003, under South Eastern Railway in Midnapore, a district in West Bengal, his colleagues remember him as a honest, straightforward employee of the Indian Railways. But he had a mischievous side to his personality. Once, while staying at the railway quarters, Dhoni and a couple of his friends covered themselves in white bedsheets and walked around in the complex late in the night; the night guards were fooled into believing. The story made big news on the next day. In 1998, Dhoni was selected by Deval Sahay to play for the Central Coal Fields Limited team. Till 1998 Dhoni, in class 12th in school, had played only school cricket and club cricket and no professional cricket. One of the famous episodes, when Dhoni used to play for CCL, was when Deval Sahay used to gift him Rs 50 for each six that he hit in Sheesh Mahal tournament cricket matches. Playing for CCL, he got a chance to bat up the order.
He scored centuries and helped CCL move to the A division. Deval Sahay impressed by his hard-hitting shots and dedication, used his contacts in Bihar Cricket Association to push for his selection in the Bihar team. D