The Salinas Valley is one of the major valleys and most productive agricultural regions in California. Located within Monterey County, it is west of the San Joaquin Valley and south of San Francisco Bay and the Santa Clara Valley—Silicon Valley; the Salinas Valley is famously mentioned in many of John Steinbeck's novels, such as Of Mice and Men, East of Eden. The Salinas River, which geologically formed the fluvial valley and generated its human history, flows to the northwest or'up' along the principal axis and length of the valley; the valley was named during the late 18th-century Spanish colonial Alta California period, in Spanish salina is the term for a salt marsh, salt lake, or salt pan. The seasonal Salinas River had brackish tule ponds in broad depressed areas, more salinity during summer and drought lowered flows; the valley runs in a southeast to northwest alignment. It begins south of San Ardo, framed by the central inner California Coast Ranges, continues north-westward continuously defined on the west by the Santa Lucia Range, on the east by the Gabilan Range, to its end and the river's mouth at the Monterey Bay.
The Salinas Valley runs 90 miles southeast from the Salinas River mouth near Castroville and Salinas towards King City and San Ardo. The valley lends its name to the Salinian Block. Cities and populated places in the Salinas Valley include Bradley, Chualar, Greenfield, King City, San Ardo, San Lucas and Spreckels; the Salinas Valley is located in between the Gabilan and Santa Lucia mountain ranges, which border the Salinas Valley to the east and the west, respectively. Before colonization, the valley was inhabited by indigenous Salinans who lived by hunting and gathering and spoke the Salinan language; the Spanish colonial missions of San Miguel Arcángel, San Antonio de Padua and Nuestra Señora de la Soledad were all founded within the Salinas Valley in the late 18th century. The commercial farming sector of the Dustbowl era forms the backdrop for several John Steinbeck stories including East of Eden, Tortilla Flat, Of Mice and Men, The Chrysanthemums, Johnny Bear. At a railroad crossing about one mile south of Chualar, a bus carrying Mexican migrant workers collided with a train in September 1963, killing 32 passengers and injuring 25.
It was the most serious road accident in U. S. history, helped spur abolition of the bracero guest worker program. The portion of U. S. Route 101 where the accident occurred was named "Bracero Memorial Highway" at the 50th anniversary of the accident in 2013. At that time two survivors of the crash were still alive. Agriculture dominates the economy of the valley. Promoters call the Salinas Valley "the Salad Bowl of the World" for the production of lettuce, broccoli and numerous other crops; the climate and long growing season are ideal for the flower industry and grape vineyards planted by world-famous vintners. In particular, a large majority of the salad greens consumed in the U. S. are grown within this region. Strawberries, lettuce and spinach are the dominant crops in the valley. Other crops include broccoli, wine grapes and celery. Due to the intensity of local agriculture, the area has earned itself the nickname "America's Salad Bowl." The flower industry, grown in greenhouses, is now dominated by Matsui Nursery, a major philanthropic benefactor to Salinas.
Salinas Valley is an important viticultural area. Three American Viticultural Association "American Viticultural Area" domains are located within Salinas Valley: the Arroyo Seco AVA, the Santa Lucia Highlands AVA, the Monterey AVA. Although agriculture forms an economic base, more than 100 manufacturing firms call Salinas home; some of the largest employers in the area include: Dole Fresh Vegetable, the County of Monterey, Salinas Valley Memorial Hospital. Supplying Salinas Valley farms is an underground water supply fed, in part, by the large watershed in surrounding mountains. Two reservoirs – Nacimiento and San Antonio—store and release the water for groundwater recharge, flood control and farming. Wells access the groundwater to irrigate about 275,000 acres of fruits and vegetables and to supply the valley cities; the Salinas River itself is a sand river, so water appears on the surface only during heavy rains or when water is released from the upstream reservoirs. Increasing demand for water near the mouth of the valley is pulling seawater under the coastal area.
The Salinas Valley Water Project, now under construction by the Monterey County Water Resources Agency, will use an inflatable dam near Salinas to capture more water during wet periods. Monterey County Water Recycling Projects, a combination of the Castroville Seawater Intrusion Project and the Salinas Valley Reclamation Project, started delivering recycled water to fields near Castroville in 1998; the projects slow down seawater intrusion. The Salinas Valley's weather varies from north to south. Proximity to Monterey Bay and the cool coastal waters of the Pacific cools the northern part of the valley in summer, keeps it mild in winter; the southern portion of the valley has greater extremes of temperature, hotter in summer, colder in winter. In summer, inland heating draws the marine layer into the valley, with fog and low clouds near Monterey Bay, sometimes extending farther down the valley; the climate is ideal for the numerous vineyards in the Santa Lucia Highlands, promoting growth of winetasting along the River Road Wine Trail.
The California Rodeo Salinas, California International Airshow, the National Steinbeck Center, the Steinbeck Festival are major attractions. On
A brothel or bordello is a place where people engage in sexual activity with prostitutes. Technically, any premises where prostitution takes place qualifies as a brothel. However, for legal or cultural reasons, establishments describe themselves as massage parlors, strip clubs, body rub parlours, studios, or by some other description. Sex work in a brothel is considered safer than street prostitution. Around the world, attitudes towards prostitution and how and if it should be regulated vary and have varied over time. Part of the discussion impacts on whether the operation of brothels should be legal, if so, to what sort of regulations they should be subjected. On 2 December 1949, the United Nations General Assembly approved the Convention for the Suppression of the Traffic in Persons and of the Exploitation of the Prostitution of Others; the Convention by December 2013 had been ratified by 82 states. The Convention seeks to combat prostitution, which it regards as "incompatible with the dignity and worth of the human person."
Parties to the Convention agreed to abolish regulation of individual prostitutes, to ban brothels and procuring. Some countries not parties to the Convention ban prostitution or the operation of brothels. Various United Nations commissions, have differing positions on the issue. For example, in 2012, a Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS convened by Ban Ki-moon and backed by United Nations Development Programme and UNAIDS, recommended decriminalization of brothels and procuring. In the European Union, there is no consensus on the issue. Netherlands and Germany have the most liberal policies; the European Women's Lobby condemns prostitution as "an intolerable form of male violence" and supports the "Swedish model". In February 2014, the members of the European Parliament voted in a non-binding resolution, in favor of the "Swedish Model" of criminalizing the buying, but not the selling of sex. Prostitution and the operation of brothels is illegal in many countries, though known illegal brothels may be tolerated or laws not enforced.
Such situations exist in many parts of the world, but the region most associated with these policies is Asia. When brothels are illegal they may operate in the guise of a legitimate business, such as massage parlors, saunas or spas. In other places, prostitution itself may be legal, but many activities which surround it are illegal making it difficult for people to engage in prostitution without breaking any law; this is the situation, for example, in the United Kingdom and France. In a few countries and operating a brothel is legal and regulated; the degree of regulation varies by country. Most of these countries allow brothels, at least in theory, as they are considered to be less problematic than street prostitution. In parts of Australia, for example, brothels are legal and regulated. Regulation includes planning controls and licensing and registration requirements, there may be other restrictions. However, the existence of licensed brothels does not stop illegal brothels from operating. According to a report in the Australian Daily Telegraph, illegal brothels in Sydney in 2009 outnumbered licensed operations by four to one.
The introduction of legal brothels in Queensland was to help improve safety of sex workers and the community at large and reduce crime. This is believed to have been successful in many ways in Queensland with The Viper Room being one of the most well known, clean and most regard brothels in Brisbane and Queensland; the Netherlands has one of the most liberal prostitution policies in the world, attracts sex tourists from many other countries. Amsterdam is a destination for sex tourism. Germany has liberal prostitution laws; the largest brothel in Europe is the Pascha in Cologne. Although the Dumas Hotel in Butte, Montana operated from 1890 until 1982, brothels are illegal throughout the United States, except in rural Nevada. All forms of prostitution are illegal in Clark County, which contains the Las Vegas–Paradise metropolitan area; the earliest recorded mention of prostitution as an occupation appears in Sumerian records from ca. 2400 BCE, describes a temple-bordello operated by Sumerian priests in the city of Uruk.
The ` kakum' or temple was housed three grades of women. The first group performed only in the temple sex-rites. In years, sacred prostitution and similar classifications of females were known to have existed in Greece, India and Japan. State brothels/bordellos with regulated prices existed in ancient Athens, created by the legendary lawmaker Solon; these brothels catered for a predominantly male clientele, wit
Richard Davalos was an American stage and television actor. Davalos was born in New York City of Spanish descent, his family name was spelled "Dávalos", with an accent on the first "a". Davalos appeared in East of Eden as James Dean's brother Aron and portrayed the convict Blind Dick in Cool Hand Luke, his other film credits include roles in I Died a Thousand Times, All the Young Men, The Cabinet of Caligari, Pit Stop, Kelly's Heroes, Cry for Me, Hot Stuff, Death Hunt, Something Wicked This Way Comes and Ninja Cheerleaders. He won the 1956 Theatre World Award for his performances in the Arthur Miller plays A View From the Bridge and A Memory of Two Mondays. In a 1960 episode of the NBC Western drama Bonanza, Davalos played a young man planning to kill his father, a sheriff who had sent him to prison. In the American Civil War television series, The Americans, broadcast by NBC in 1961, he played Jeff, the younger brother who joined the Confederate Army, in opposition to Ben, the older brother, played by Darryl Hickman, who joined the Union Army.
In 1962 Davalos appeared on Perry Mason as Lt. Anderson's cousin, James Anderson, in "The Case of the Hateful Hero." In 1964 he appeared in "The Case of the Ice-Cold Hands." He guest-starred in an episode of the espionage drama series Blue Light in 1966. Davalos is the father of actress Elyssa Davalos and musician Dominique Davalos, grandfather of actress Alexa Davalos. An image of Davalos appears on the covers of The Smiths' albums Strangeways, Here We Come, Best... I, and... Best II. Davalos died March 2016, at St. Joseph Medical Center in Burbank, California. Richard Davalos on IMDb Richard Davalos at the Internet Broadway Database
John Ernst Steinbeck Jr. was an American author. He won the 1962 Nobel Prize in Literature "for his realistic and imaginative writings, combining as they do sympathetic humour and keen social perception." He has been called "a giant of American letters," and many of his works are considered classics of Western literature. During his writing career, he authored 27 books, including 16 novels, six non-fiction books, two collections of short stories, he is known for the comic novels Tortilla Flat and Cannery Row, the multi-generation epic East of Eden, the novellas Of Mice and Men and The Red Pony. The Pulitzer Prize-winning The Grapes of Wrath is considered Steinbeck's masterpiece and part of the American literary canon. In the first 75 years after it was published, it sold 14 million copies. Most of Steinbeck's work is set in central California in the Salinas Valley and the California Coast Ranges region, his works explored the themes of fate and injustice as applied to downtrodden or everyman protagonists.
Steinbeck was born on February 1902, in Salinas, California. He was of German and Irish descent. Johann Adolf Großsteinbeck, Steinbeck's paternal grandfather, shortened the family name to Steinbeck when he immigrated to the United States; the family farm in Heiligenhaus, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, is still named "Großsteinbeck." His father, John Ernst Steinbeck, served as Monterey County treasurer. John's mother, Olive Hamilton, a former school teacher, shared Steinbeck's passion for reading and writing; the Steinbecks were members of the Episcopal Church, although Steinbeck became agnostic. Steinbeck lived in a small rural town, no more than a frontier settlement, set in some of the world's most fertile land, he spent his summers working on nearby ranches and with migrant workers on Spreckels sugar beet farms. There he learned of the harsher aspects of the migrant life and the darker side of human nature, which supplied him with material expressed in such works as Of Mice and Men, he explored his surroundings, walking across local forests and farms.
While working at Spreckels Sugar Company, he sometimes worked in their laboratory, which gave him time to write. He had considerable mechanical fondness for repairing things he owned. Steinbeck graduated from Salinas High School in 1919 and went on to study English Literature at Stanford University near Palo Alto, leaving without a degree in 1925, he traveled to New York City. When he failed to publish his work, he returned to California and worked in 1928 as a tour guide and caretaker at Lake Tahoe, where he met Carol Henning, his first wife, they married in January 1930 in Los Angeles, with friends, he attempted to make money by manufacturing plaster mannequins. When their money ran out six months due to a slow market and Carol moved back to Pacific Grove, California, to a cottage owned by his father, on the Monterey Peninsula a few blocks outside the Monterey city limits; the elder Steinbecks gave John free housing, paper for his manuscripts, from 1928, loans that allowed him to write without looking for work.
During the Great Depression, Steinbeck bought a small boat, claimed that he was able to live on the fish and crab that he gathered from the sea, fresh vegetables from his garden and local farms. When those sources failed and his wife accepted welfare, on rare occasions, stole bacon from the local produce market. Whatever food they had, they shared with their friends. Carol became the model for Mary Talbot in Steinbeck's novel Cannery Row. In 1930, Steinbeck met the marine biologist Ed Ricketts, who became a close friend and mentor to Steinbeck during the following decade, teaching him a great deal about philosophy and biology. Ricketts very quiet, yet likable, with an inner self-sufficiency and an encyclopedic knowledge of diverse subjects, became a focus of Steinbeck's attention. Ricketts had taken a college class from Warder Clyde Allee, a biologist and ecological theorist, who would go on to write a classic early textbook on ecology. Ricketts became a proponent of ecological thinking, in which man was only one part of a great chain of being, caught in a web of life too large for him to control or understand.
Meanwhile, Ricketts operated a biological lab on the coast of Monterey, selling biological samples of small animals, rays, starfish and other marine forms to schools and colleges. Between 1930 and 1936, Steinbeck and Ricketts became close friends. Steinbeck's wife began working at the lab as secretary-bookkeeper. Steinbeck helped on an informal basis, they formed a common bond based on their love of music and art, John learned biology and Ricketts' ecological philosophy. When Steinbeck became upset, Ricketts sometimes played music for him. Steinbeck's first novel, Cup of Gold, published in 1929, is loosely based on the life and death of privateer Henry Morgan, it centers on Morgan's assault and sacking of the city of Panama, sometimes referred to as the'Cup of Gold', on the women, fairer than the sun, who were said to be found there. Between 1930 and 1933, Steinbeck produced three shorter works; the Pastures of Heaven, published in 1932, consists of twelve interconnected stories about a valley near Monterey, discovered by a Spanish corporal while chasing runaway Indian slaves.
In 1933 Steinbeck published The Red Pony, a 100-page, four-chapter story weaving in memories of Steinbeck's childhood. To a God Unknown, named after a Vedic hymn, follows the life of a homesteader and his family in California, depicting a character with a primal and pa
Lois Arlene Smith is an American character actress, whose career spans seven decades. She made her film debut in the 1955 drama film East of Eden, played supporting roles in a number of movies, include Five Easy Pieces, Fatal Attraction, Fried Green Tomatoes, How to Make an American Quilt, Dead Man Walking, Minority Report, The Nice Guys and Lady Bird. In 2017, at the age of 87, Smith received critical acclaim for her leading performance in the science-fiction drama film Marjorie Prime, for which she was nominated for an Independent Spirit Awards, Gotham Awards and Saturn Award, well as won Satellite Award. Smith has had many roles on television, both daytime and prime time, she was regular cast member in the HBO horror drama True Blood, well as received Critics' Choice Television Award for Best Guest Performer in a Drama Series nomination for The Americans. Smith is known for her extensive work in the theatre, receiving two Tony Award nominations for originating the role of Ma Joad in The Grapes of Wrath and for the role of Halie in a revival of Buried Child in 1996.
She starred in an acclaimed Off-Broadway revival of The Trip to Bountiful in 2005 for which she received an Obie Award for Best Actress, an Outer Critics Circle Award, a Lucille Lortel Award, a Drama Desk Award. Smith is an ensemble member of Steppenwolf Theatre Company in Chicago. Smith was inducted into the American Theatre Hall of Fame in 2007 for her outstanding contributions to the theatre. In 2013, she was given a Lifetime Achievement Obie Award for excellence in Off-Broadway performances. In her career, she has taught and written for the stage. Smith was born Lois Arlene Humbert in Topeka, the youngest of six children of Carrie and William Humbert, who worked for a telephone company, her father died in 1950 at age 54. Her family included her two sisters and Marvelle, three brothers, William and Phillip, all of whom are now deceased, her father moved the family to Seattle when Lois was 11 years old, he was involved in the church. William would put on plays at church, she did not graduate. At age 18, she married Wesley Dale Smith.
The couple had Moon Elizabeth Smith. Around 1951, Smith and her husband decided to leave Seattle and moved to New York City to begin their professional careers. After she worked with Elia Kazan on East of Eden, he encouraged her to study with Lee Strasberg at the Actors Studio, which she did, she was mentored in her early years in New York City by John Van Druten. Smith made her Broadway debut in 1952 at age 22 in the play Time Out for Ginger as Joan, with Nancy Malone as Ginger and Melvyn Douglas as their father, she followed this in 1955 with a play that starred Helen Hayes. In 1956, she performed with Helen Hayes in The Glass Menagerie. In 1955, she was given the lead role of Josephine Perry in Sally Benson's play The Young and Beautiful, which ran for 65 performances at the Longacre Theatre. In 1957, Smith originated the role of Carol Cutrere in Orpheus Descending by Tennessee Williams, which starred Maureen Stapleton. In 1958, she was directed by José Ferrer in Edwin Booth. In 1973, she returned to Broadway to appear in a revival of The Iceman Cometh by Eugene O'Neill.
In 1975, she performed the role of Gaby in the play Harry Outside by Corinne Jacker. She played the lead female role in the play Touching Bottoms by Steve Tesich in 1978. In 1979, she played the role of Denise in the play Hillbilly Women by Elizabeth Stearns at the Long Wharf Theatre. In 1987, she played Jessie Bliss in The Stick Wife by Darrah Cloud with the Hartford Stage Company. In 1988, Smith was cast with the Steppenwolf Theatre Company of Chicago as Ma Joad in the play The Grapes of Wrath, an adaptation of the 1939 Steinbeck novel. Smith originated the stage role, after going on tour, the production reached Broadway in 1990 and Smith earned a Tony Award nomination for Best Featured Actress in a Play. In 1988, Smith originated the role of Mrs. Campbell in The Man Who Climbed the Pecan Trees by Horton Foote. In 1989, she performed in an Off-Broadway production of Measure for Measure by William Shakespeare in the role of Mistress Overdone. In 1995, Smith starred as Halie in a revival of Buried Child by Sam Shepard at the Steppenwolf Theatre Company which transferred to Broadway in 1996, for which she received her second nomination for the Tony Award for Best Featured Actress in a Play.
In 1997, Smith played the role of Betty in Defying Gravity by Jane Anderson Off-Broadway. In 1998, she played the role of Kandall Kingsley in Impossible Marriage by Beth Henley. In 2001, she starred in the title role of Mother Courage and Her Children, in 2002 she starred in a revival of The Royal Family as Fanny Cavendish, both plays with the Steppenwolf Theatre Company. In 2005, Smith starred in an Off-Broadway production of The Trip to Bountiful as Carrie Watts with the Signature Theatre Company for which she received an Obie Award for Best Actress, an Outer Critics Circle Award, a Lucille Lortel Award, a Drama Desk Award. In 2010, she performed the role of Vera in After the Revolution by Amy Herzog for which she was nominated for a Lucille Lortel Award. In 2012 she originated the role of Mable Murphy in the play Heartless by Sam Shepard, in 2013, she starred in a revival of My Old Friends by Horton Foote. In 2014, she starred in a new play by Jordan Harrison titled Marjorie Prime, originating the title role of Marjorie at the Mark Taper Forum.
She is featured in the new pl
Edward Montgomery "Monty" Clift was an American actor. His New York Times obituary said he was known for his portrayal of "moody, sensitive young men", he is best remembered for roles in Red River, The Heiress, A Place in the Sun, Alfred Hitchcock's I Confess, From Here to Eternity, The Young Lions, Judgment at Nuremberg, The Misfits. He received four Oscar nominations during his career: three for Best Actor and one for Best Supporting Actor. Along with Marlon Brando and James Dean, Clift was one of the original method actors in Hollywood, he executed a rare move by not signing a contract after arriving in Hollywood, only doing so after his first two films were a success. This was described as "a power differential that would go on to structure the star-studio relationship for the next 40 years". Clift was born on October 1920, in Omaha, Nebraska, his father, William Brooks "Bill" Clift, was the vice-president of Omaha National Trust Company. His mother was Ethel Fogg "Sunny" Clift, they had married in 1914.
Clift had a twin sister, who survived him by 48 years, a brother, William Brooks Clift, Jr. who had an illegitimate son with actress Kim Stanley and was married to political reporter Eleanor Clift. Clift had Dutch and Scottish ancestry, his mother was an adopted child who, at the age of 18, had been told that her birth parents were members of prominent Yankee families who were forced to part by the tyrannical will of the girl's mother. She spent the rest of her life trying to gain the recognition of her alleged relations. Part of Clift's mother's effort was her determination that her children should be brought up in the style of true aristocrats. Thus, as long as Clift's father was able to pay for it, he and his siblings were tutored, travelled extensively in America and Europe, became fluent in German and French, led a protected life, sheltered from the destitution and communicable diseases which became legion following the First World War; the Wall Street Crash of 1929 and the Great Depression of the 1930s ruined Clift's father financially.
Unemployed and broke, he was forced to move his family to New York, but Clift's mother still persisted in her plans, as her husband's situation improved, she was able to enroll Brooks at Harvard and Ethel at Bryn Mawr College. Clift, could not adjust to school, never went to college. Instead, he took to stage acting, beginning in a summer production, which led to his debut on Broadway by 1935. In the next ten years, Clift built a successful stage career working with, among others, Dame May Whitty, Alla Nazimova, Cornelia Otis Skinner, Fredric March, Tallulah Bankhead, Alfred Lunt, Lynn Fontanne, he appeared in plays written by Moss Hart, Robert Sherwood, Lillian Hellman, Tennessee Williams, Thornton Wilder, creating the part of Henry in the original production of The Skin of Our Teeth. In 1939, as a member of the cast of the 1939 Broadway production of Noël Coward's Hay Fever, Clift participated in one of the first television broadcasts in the United States. A performance of Hay Fever was broadcast by NBC's New York television station W2XBS and was aired during the World's Fair as part of the introduction of television.
He resided in Jackson Heights, until he got his break on Broadway. Clift first acted on Broadway at age 15, when he appeared as Prince Peter in the Cole Porter musical Jubilee at the Imperial Theater. At 20, he appeared in the Broadway production of There Shall Be No Night, a work which won the 1941 Pulitzer Prize. Clift did not serve during World War II, having been given 4-F status after suffering dysentery in 1942. At the age of 25, Clift moved to Hollywood, his first movie role was opposite John Wayne in Red River, shot in 1946 and released in 1948. His second movie was The Search. Clift was unhappy with the quality of the script, reworked it himself; the movie was awarded a screenwriting Academy Award for the credited writers. Clift's naturalistic performance led to director Fred Zinnemann's being asked, "Where did you find a soldier who can act so well?", he was nominated for an Academy Award for Best Actor. Clift signed on for The Heiress, in order to avoid being typecast. Clift was unhappy with the script, unable to get along with most of the cast.
He criticized co-star Olivia de Havilland, saying that she let the director shape her entire performance and telling friends that he wanted to change de Havilland's lines because "She isn't giving me enough to respond ". The studio marketed Clift as a sex symbol prior to the movie's release in 1949. Clift had a large female following, Olivia de Havilland was flooded with angry fan letters because her character rejects Clift's character in the final scene of the movie. Clift ended up unhappy with his performance, left early during the film's premiere. Clift starred in The Big Lift, shot on location in Germany. Clift's performance in A Place in the Sun is regarded as one of his signature method acting performances, he worked extensively on his character, was again nominated for an Academy Award for Best Actor. For his character's scenes in jail, Clift spent a night in a real state prison, he refused to go along with director George Stevens' suggestion that he do "something amazing" on his character's walk to the electric chair.
Instead, he walked to his death with a depressed facial expression. His main acting rival, Marlon Brando, was so moved
World War I
World War I known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. Contemporaneously described as "the war to end all wars", it led to the mobilisation of more than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, making it one of the largest wars in history, it is one of the deadliest conflicts in history, with an estimated nine million combatants and seven million civilian deaths as a direct result of the war, while resulting genocides and the 1918 influenza pandemic caused another 50 to 100 million deaths worldwide. On 28 June 1914, Gavrilo Princip, a Bosnian Serb Yugoslav nationalist, assassinated the Austro-Hungarian heir Archduke Franz Ferdinand in Sarajevo, leading to the July Crisis. In response, on 23 July Austria-Hungary issued an ultimatum to Serbia. Serbia's reply failed to satisfy the Austrians, the two moved to a war footing. A network of interlocking alliances enlarged the crisis from a bilateral issue in the Balkans to one involving most of Europe.
By July 1914, the great powers of Europe were divided into two coalitions: the Triple Entente—consisting of France and Britain—and the Triple Alliance of Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy. Russia felt it necessary to back Serbia and, after Austria-Hungary shelled the Serbian capital of Belgrade on the 28th, partial mobilisation was approved. General Russian mobilisation was announced on the evening of 30 July; when Russia failed to comply, Germany declared war on 1 August in support of Austria-Hungary, with Austria-Hungary following suit on 6th. German strategy for a war on two fronts against France and Russia was to concentrate the bulk of its army in the West to defeat France within four weeks shift forces to the East before Russia could mobilise. On 2 August, Germany demanded free passage through Belgium, an essential element in achieving a quick victory over France; when this was refused, German forces invaded Belgium on 3 August and declared war on France the same day. On 12 August and France declared war on Austria-Hungary.
In November 1914, the Ottoman Empire entered the war on the side of the Alliance, opening fronts in the Caucasus and the Sinai Peninsula. The war was fought in and drew upon each power's colonial empire as well, spreading the conflict to Africa and across the globe; the Entente and its allies would become known as the Allied Powers, while the grouping of Austria-Hungary and their allies would become known as the Central Powers. The German advance into France was halted at the Battle of the Marne and by the end of 1914, the Western Front settled into a battle of attrition, marked by a long series of trench lines that changed little until 1917. In 1915, Italy opened a front in the Alps. Bulgaria joined the Central Powers in 1915 and Greece joined the Allies in 1917, expanding the war in the Balkans; the United States remained neutral, although by doing nothing to prevent the Allies from procuring American supplies whilst the Allied blockade prevented the Germans from doing the same the U. S. became an important supplier of war material to the Allies.
After the sinking of American merchant ships by German submarines, the revelation that the Germans were trying to incite Mexico to make war on the United States, the U. S. declared war on Germany on 6 April 1917. Trained American forces would not begin arriving at the front in large numbers until mid-1918, but the American Expeditionary Force would reach some two million troops. Though Serbia was defeated in 1915, Romania joined the Allied Powers in 1916 only to be defeated in 1917, none of the great powers were knocked out of the war until 1918; the 1917 February Revolution in Russia replaced the Tsarist autocracy with the Provisional Government, but continuing discontent at the cost of the war led to the October Revolution, the creation of the Soviet Socialist Republic, the signing of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk by the new government in March 1918, ending Russia's involvement in the war. This allowed the transfer of large numbers of German troops from the East to the Western Front, resulting in the German March 1918 Offensive.
This offensive was successful, but the Allies rallied and drove the Germans back in their Hundred Days Offensive. Bulgaria was the first Central Power to sign an armistice—the Armistice of Salonica on 29 September 1918. On 30 October, the Ottoman Empire capitulated. On 4 November, the Austro-Hungarian empire agreed to the Armistice of Villa Giusti after being decisively defeated by Italy in the Battle of Vittorio Veneto. With its allies defeated, revolution at home, the military no longer willing to fight, Kaiser Wilhelm abdicated on 9 November and Germany signed an armistice on 11 November 1918. World War I was a significant turning point in the political, cultural and social climate of the world; the war and its immediate aftermath sparked numerous uprisings. The Big Four (Britain, the United States, It