A hymn is a type of song religious written for the purpose of adoration or prayer, addressed to a deity or deities, or to a prominent figure or personification. The word hymn derives from Greek ὕμνος, which means "a song of praise". A writer of hymns is known as a hymnodist; the singing or composition of hymns is called hymnody. Collections of hymns are known as hymnals or hymn books. Hymns may not include instrumental accompaniment. Although most familiar to speakers of English in the context of Christianity, hymns are a fixture of other world religions on the Indian subcontinent. Hymns survive from antiquity from Egyptian and Greek cultures; some of the oldest surviving examples of notated music are hymns with Greek texts. Ancient hymns include the Egyptian Great Hymn to the Aten, composed by Pharaoh Akhenaten; the Western tradition of hymnody begins with the Homeric Hymns, a collection of ancient Greek hymns, the oldest of which were written in the 7th century BC, praising deities of the ancient Greek religions.
Surviving from the 3rd century BC is a collection of six literary hymns by the Alexandrian poet Callimachus. Patristic writers began applying the term ὕμνος, or hymnus in Latin, to Christian songs of praise, used the word as a synonym for "psalm". Modeled on the Book of Psalms and other poetic passages in the Scriptures, Christian hymns are directed as praise to the Christian God. Many refer to Jesus Christ either indirectly. Since the earliest times, Christians have sung "psalms and hymns and spiritual songs", both in private devotions and in corporate worship. Non-scriptural hymns from the Early Church still sung today include'Phos Hilaron','Sub tuum praesidium', and'Te Deum'. One definition of a hymn is "...a lyric poem and devotionally conceived, designed to be sung and which expresses the worshipper's attitude toward God or God's purposes in human life. It should be simple and metrical in form, genuinely emotional and literary in style, spiritual in quality, in its ideas so direct and so apparent as to unify a congregation while singing it."Christian hymns are written with special or seasonal themes and these are used on holy days such as Christmas and the Feast of All Saints, or during particular seasons such as Advent and Lent.
Others are used to encourage reverence for the Bible or to celebrate Christian practices such as the eucharist or baptism. Some hymns praise or address individual saints the Blessed Virgin Mary. A writer of hymns is known as a hymnodist, the practice of singing hymns is called hymnody. A collection of hymns is called a hymnary; these may not include music. A student of hymnody is called a hymnologist, the scholarly study of hymns and hymnody is hymnology; the music to which a hymn may be sung is a hymn tune. In many Evangelical churches, traditional songs are classified as hymns while more contemporary worship songs are not considered hymns; the reason for this distinction is unclear, but according to some it is due to the radical shift of style and devotional thinking that began with the Jesus movement and Jesus music. Of note, in recent years, Christian traditional hymns have seen a revival in some churches more Reformed or Calvinistic in nature, as modern hymn writers such as Keith and Kristyn Getty and Sovereign Grace Music have reset old lyrics to new melodies, revised old hymns and republished them, or written a song in accordance with Christian hymn standards such as the hymn, In Christ Alone.
In ancient and medieval times, string instruments such as the harp and lute were used with psalms and hymns. Since there is a lack of musical notation in early writings, the actual musical forms in the early church can only be surmised. During the Middle Ages a rich hymnody developed in the form of Gregorian plainsong; this type was sung in unison, in one of eight church modes, most by monastic choirs. While they were written in Latin, many have been translated. Hymnody in the Western church introduced four-part vocal harmony as the norm, adopting major and minor keys, came to be led by organ and choir, it shares many elements with classical music. Today, except for choirs, more musically inclined congregations and a cappella congregations, hymns are sung in unison. In some cases complementary full settings for organ are published, in others organists and other accompanists are expected to transcribe the four-part vocal score for their instrument of choice. To illustrate Protestant usage, in the traditional services and liturgies of the Methodist churches, which are based upon Anglican practice, hymns are sung during the processional to the altar, during the receiving of communion, during the recessional, sometimes at other points during the service.
These hymns c
An artos is a loaf of leavened bread, blessed during services in the Eastern Orthodox and Byzantine rite catholic churches. A large Artos is baked with a seal depicting the resurrection for use at Pascha. Smaller loaves are blessed during great vespers in a ritual called Artoklasia and in other occasions like feast days, memorial services etc. Artos in Ancient Greek meant "cake", "loaf of wheat-bread", collectively "bread", but in Modern Greek it is now more used in the context of communion bread used in church, having been replaced in the broader context by the word ψωμί, psomi; this word is thought to be first attested in Mycenaean Greek as the first stem of the compound word, a-to-po-qo, "bakers", written in the Linear b syllabary. Near the end of the Paschal Vigil, after the Prayer Before the Ambo, a single large loaf of bread, the Artos, is brought to the priest. Depicted on the top of the Artos are either the symbol of Christ's victory over death—the Cross, surmounted by a crown of thorns—or the Resurrection of Christ.
The Artos symbolizes the physical presence of the resurrected Christ among the disciples. The priest sprinkles it with Holy Water; the Artos is placed on a small table before the Iconostasis where it remains throughout Bright Week. It is customary, whenever the faithful enter the Temple, for them to kiss the Artos as a way of greeting the Risen Christ. On every day of Bright Week, after the Paschal Divine Liturgy, the Artos is carried in a solemn procession around the outside of the church. In monasteries, the Artos is carried to the Trapeza every day of Bright Week, where at the end of the festive meal, it is lifted in a ceremony called the Lifting of the Artos; the one performing the ceremony will lift up the Artos and say, "Christ is Risen!" All will respond, "He is Risen!" The celebrant will make the sign of the Cross with the Artos as he says, "We worship His Resurrection on the third day!" Two Paschal hymns are sung and everyone comes forward to kiss the Artos and receive the Superior's blessing, as all sing the Paschal troparion many times.
On Bright Saturday, after the Divine Liturgy, the priest says another prayer over the Artos and it is broken and distributed among the whole congregation along with the Antidoron. The significance of the artos is that it serves to remind all Christians of the events connected with the Resurrection of Our Lord Jesus Christ. While still living on earth, the Lord called Himself the Bread of Life, saying: I am the bread of life. After His Resurrection, more than once Jesus appeared to His disciples, ate before them and blessed their own food. For example, as evening fell on the first day of His Resurrection, He was recognized in Emmaus by two of His disciples as He blessed and broke bread. On the 40th day after His Resurrection, the Lord ascended into heaven, His disciples and followers found comfort in their memories of the Lord: they recalled His every word, His every step and His every action; when they met for common prayer, they would partake of the Body and Blood of Christ, remembering the Last Supper.
When they sat down to an ordinary meal, they would leave a place at the head of the table empty for the invisibly present Lord and would lay bread on that place. Remembering this custom of the Apostles, the Fathers of the Church made it their custom to put out the Artos at the Paschal Feast in memory of the appearances of the Risen Lord to His disciples, in memory of the fact that the Lord Who suffered and was resurrected for our justification has made Himself the true Bread of Life and is invisibly present in His church always, to the close of the age. Whereas special Paschal breads, called kulichi are broken and eaten on the first day of Pascha, the Artos is kept whole throughout the whole of Bright Week as a reminder of the presence of the Risen Savior in the midst of those who believe in Him and is only divided and distributed on Saturday. In this way Bright Week begins and ends with the eating of baked and blessed bread; the Artos may be compared to the unleavened bread of the Old Testament, of which ancient Israel, delivered from their captivity in the land of Egypt, ate during the week of the Passover.
As Cyril, Bishop of Turov, who lived during the 12th Century in Russia, said in a sermon for the Sunday after Pascha: Even as the Jews bore the unleavened bread upon their heads out of Egypt through the desert until they had crossed the Red Sea, after which they dedicated the bread to God, divided it amongst all their host, having all eaten thereof, became...terrible to their enemies so do we, saved by our Resurrected Lord from the captivity of that Pharaoh of the mind, the Devil, bear forth the blessed bread the Artos from the day of the Resurrection of Christ and having dedicated this bread to God, we eat of it and preserve it to the health of body and soul. It is a custom among Russian Orthodox Christians to this day to keep a portion of the artos throughout the year and with due reverence and faith to eat of it in time of illness or distress; this is eaten together with a drink of Holy Water, blessed at the Feast of the Theophany of Our Lord. On feast days towards the end of vespers there is a blessing of loaves, wheat and oil, whereafter the priest breaks one of the loaves from which action the rite receives its name: Artoklasia, "breaking of bread".
The loaves for the Artoklasia may be sealed with a stamp (as are the Prosphora for the Divine
Christendom has several meanings. In one contemporary sense, as used in a secular or Protestant context, it may refer to the "Christian world": Christian-majority countries and the countries in which Christianity dominates or prevails, or, in the historic, Catholic sense of the word, the nations in which Catholic Christianity is the established religion, having a Catholic Christian polity. Since the spread of Christianity from the Levant to Europe and North Africa during the early Roman Empire, Christendom has been divided in the pre-existing Greek East and Latin West. Different versions of the Christian religion arose with their own beliefs and practices, centred around the cities of Rome and Constantinople. From the 11th to 13th centuries, Latin Christendom rose to the central role of the Western world. In its historical sense, the term refers to the Middle Ages and to the Early Modern period during which the Christian world represented a geopolitical power, juxtaposed with both the pagan and the Muslim world.
In the traditional Roman Catholic sense of the word, it refers to the sum total of nations in which the Catholic Church is the established religion of the state or to those with ecclesiastical concordats with the Holy See. The Anglo-Saxon term cristendom appears to have been invented in the 9th century by a scribe somewhere in southern England at the court of king Alfred the Great of Wessex; the scribe was translating Paulus Orosius' book History Against the Pagans and in need for a term to express the concept of the universal culture focused on Jesus Christ. It had the sense now taken by Christianity; the current sense of the word of "lands where Christianity is the dominant religion" emerged in Late Middle English. This semantic development happened independently in the languages of late medieval Europe, which leads to the confusing semantics of English Christendom equalling German Christenheit, Dutch christenheid, French chrétienté vs. English Christianity equalling German Christentum, Dutch christendom, French christianisme.
The reason is the increasing fragmentation of Western Christianity at that time both theologically and politically. "Christendom" as a geopolitical term is thus meaningful in the context of the Middle Ages, arguably during the European wars of religion and the Ottoman wars in Europe. Canadian theology professor Douglas John Hall stated that "Christendom" means the dominion or sovereignty of the Christian religion." Thomas John Curry, Roman Catholic auxiliary bishop of Los Angeles, defined Christendom as "the system dating from the fourth century by which governments upheld and promoted Christianity." Curry states that the end of Christendom came about because modern governments refused to "uphold the teachings, customs and practice of Christianity." British church historian Diarmaid MacCulloch described Christendom as "the union between Christianity and secular power." The Christian world is collectively known as the Corpus Christianum, translated as the Christian body, meaning the community of all Christians.
The Christian polity, embodying a less secular meaning, can be compatible with the idea of both a religious and a temporal body: Corpus Christianum. The Corpus Christianum can be seen as a Christian equivalent of the Muslim Ummah; the word "Christendom" is used with its other meaning to frame-true Christianity. A more secular meaning can denote the fact that the term Christendom refers to Christians as a group, the "political Christian world", as an informal cultural hegemony that Christianity has traditionally enjoyed in the West. In its most broad term, it refers to the world's Christian-majority countries, share little in common aside from the predominance of the faith. Unlike the Muslim world, which has a geo-political and cultural definition that provides a primary identifier for a large swath of the world, Christendom is more complex. There is a common and nonliteral sense of the word, much like the terms Western world, known world or Free World; when Thomas F. Connolly said, "There isn't enough power in all Christendom to make that airplane what we want!", he was using a figure of speech, although it is true that during the Cold War, just as the totalitarianism of the Communist Bloc presented a contrast to the liberty of the Free World, the state atheism of the Communist Bloc contrasted with the religious freedom and the powerful religious institutions in North America and Western Europe.
The notion of "Europe" and the "Western World" has been intimately connected with the concept of "Christianity and Christendom". In the beginning of Christendom, early Christianity was a religion spread in the Greek/Roman world and beyond as a 1st-century Jewish sect, which historians refer to as Jewish Christianity, it may be divided into two distinct phases: the apostolic period, when the first apostles were alive and organizing the Church, the post-apostolic period, when an early episcopal structure developed, whereby bishoprics were governed by bishops. The post-apostolic period concerns the time after the death of the apostles when bishops emerged as overseers of urban Christian populations; the earliest recorded use of the terms Christianity and catholic, dates to this period, the 2nd century, attributed to Ignatius of Antioch c. 107. Early Christendom would close at t
Octave of Easter
The term Octave of Easter refers to the eight-day period in Eastertide that starts on Easter Sunday and concludes with the Sunday following Easter. The Octave Day of Easter refers only to that day, it is called Low Sunday in the Anglican Communion. It may be called Thomas Sunday among Eastern Christians, or Quasimodo Sunday and Quasimodogeniti, among other names. On 30 April 2000, it was designated as Divine Mercy Sunday by Pope John Paul II; the Octave of a feast refers to an eight-day festal period commencing with that feast. Presently in the Roman Catholic Church, Easter is one of only two solemnities that carries an octave, the second being Christmas Day, although until many feasts had octaves; the name Quasimodo came from the Latin text of the traditional Introit for this day, which begins "Quasi modo geniti infantes..." from 1 Peter 2:2 translated as "As newborn babes desire the rational milk without guile...". Quasi modo means "as if in manner". On the Octave Day of Easter, called Saint Thomas Sunday in the East, the Gospel reading is always John 20:19-29, relating the appearance of Christ to his disciples, with Thomas the Apostle present, on the Sunday following his resurrection.
A traditional name in English is Low Sunday given this name because of the contrast with the high festival of Easter on the preceding Sunday, or the word "Low" may be a corruption of Latin Laudes, the first word of a sequence in use in the Sarum Rite. Another name is Quasimodo Sunday, from the first words of the introit in Latin. Easter Week was known as ebdomada alba or in albis, because of the white robes that those, baptized at the Easter Vigil used at the celebrations each day until Saturday; the pre-Tridentine edition of the Roman Missal, published in 1474, called Saturday in albis, short for in albis depositis or in albis deponendis, a name, kept in the Tridentine versions of the Missal for that Saturday. In the 1604 edition of the Tridentine Missal, but not in the original 1570 edition, the description in albis was applied to the following Sunday, the octave day of Easter; the name in albis was dropped in the 1969 revision of the Roman Missal, which called this Sunday the Second Sunday of Easter.
In the third edition of this Missal, promulgated in 2000 but published only in 2002, the Sunday took what is now its official name: "Second Sunday of Easter or of Divine Mercy". In Anglican churches, the Second Sunday of Easter is known as Low Sunday, both because rituals are lower than they were the week before, on Easter Day, because church attendance is a fraction of what it was on the feast day; the Churchman's Ordo Kalendar, which contains all saints' and holy days, refers to it as Low Sunday. Divine Mercy Sunday is the culmination of the novena to the Divine Mercy of Jesus, a devotion given to St. Faustina, is based upon an entry in her diary stating that anyone who participates in the Mass and receives the sacraments of Confession and the Eucharist on this day is assured by Jesus of full remission of their sins and punishments; the devotion was promoted by Pope John Paul II, who canonized St. Faustina and designated the Sunday after Easter as the Sunday of the Divine Mercy in the General Roman Calendar.
John Paul II, who died in April 2005 on the vigil of Divine Mercy Sunday, was beatified on Divine Mercy Sunday, 1 May 2011, by his successor, Pope Benedict XVI. and was canonized, with Pope John XXIII on Divine Mercy Sunday, 27 April 2014, by Pope Francis. In Chile in Santiago Metropolitan Region, on Quasimodo Sunday is celebrated the Cuasimodo Feast. Huasos in adorned carriages or bicycles accompany the priest to give communion to the infirm. Antipascha is the name given to the eighth day of Pascha in the Eastern Orthodox and certain Eastern Catholic churches. According to the Synaxarium, "On this Sunday, the second Sunday of Pascha, we celebrate the Antipascha, to say the re-dedication of the Resurrection of Christ, commemorate the event of the Holy Apostle Thomas' touching the wounds of Christ."Thomas Sunday and Renewal Sunday are other names by which this Sunday is known. The former name refers to the event commemorated that day, described in the Gospel passage read that day at the Divine Liturgy, which recounts the story of Christ appearing to the Apostle Thomas in order to dispel the latter's doubt about the Resurrection.
Among Eastern Christians Thomas is not so much remembered as "doubting Thomas," but is rather remembered for his confession of faith: "My Lord and my God," thus being the first to publicly proclaim the two natures of Christ: human and divine. The latter name reflects that on that day the celebration of the Resurrection is repeated and renewed; the entire week from Pascha to Thomas Sunday, known as Bright Week, is considered to be one continuous day. The octave concludes in the Roman calendar with the celebration of Divine Mercy Sunday. Quasimodo, protagonist of the 1831 French novel Notre Dame de Paris by Victor Hugo, was found abandoned on the doorsteps of Notre Dame Cathedral on the Sunday after Easter, AD 1467. In the words of the novel: He called him Quasimodo. Indeed, one-eyed and bow-legged, could hardly be considered as anything more than an almost. Media related to Octave
The Christian cross, seen as a representation of the instrument of the crucifixion of Jesus, is the best-known symbol of Christianity. It is related to the crucifix and to the more general family of cross symbols, the term cross itself being detached from the original Christian meaning in modern English; the basic forms of the cross are the Latin cross with unequal arms and the Greek cross with equal arms, besides numerous variants with confessional significance, such as the tau cross, the double-barred cross, triple-barred cross, cross-and-crosslets, many heraldic variants, such as the cross potent, cross pattée, cross moline, cross fleury, etc. John Pearson, Bishop of Chester wrote in his commentary on the Apostles' Creed that the Greek word stauros signified "a straight standing Stake, Pale, or Palisador", but that, "when other transverse or prominent parts were added in a perfect Cross, it retained still the Original Name", he declared: "The Form of the Cross on which our Saviour suffered was a simple,', by whose Procurator he was condemned to die.
In which there was not only a straight and erected piece of Wood fixed in the Earth, but a transverse Beam fastned unto that towards the top thereof". There are few extant examples of the cross in 2nd century Christian iconography, it has been argued that Christians were reluctant to use it as it depicts a purposely painful and gruesome method of public execution. A symbol similar to the cross, the staurogram, was used to abbreviate the Greek word for cross in early New Testament manuscripts such as P66, P45 and P75 like a nomen sacrum; the extensive adoption of the cross as Christian iconographic symbol arose from the 4th century. However, the cross symbol was associated with Christians in the 2nd century, as is indicated in the anti-Christian arguments cited in the Octavius of Minucius Felix, chapters IX and XXIX, written at the end of that century or the beginning of the next, by the fact that by the early 3rd century the cross had become so associated with Christ that Clement of Alexandria, who died between 211 and 216, could without fear of ambiguity use the phrase τὸ κυριακὸν σημεῖον to mean the cross, when he repeated the idea, current as early as the apocryphal Epistle of Barnabas, that the number 318 in Genesis 14:14 was interpreted as a foreshadowing of the cross and of Jesus.
His contemporary Tertullian rejected the accusation of Christians being "adorers of the gibbet". In his book De Corona, written in 204, Tertullian tells how it was a tradition for Christians to trace on their foreheads the sign of the cross; the crucifix, a cross upon which an image of Christ is present, is not known to have been used until the 6th century AD. The oldest extant depiction of the execution of Jesus in any medium seems to be the second-century or early third-century relief on a jasper gemstone meant for use as an amulet, now in the British Museum in London, it portrays a naked bearded man whose arms are tied at the wrists by short strips to the transom of a T-shaped cross. An inscription in Greek on the obverse contains an invocation of the redeeming crucified Christ. On the reverse a inscription by a different hand combines magical formulae with Christian terms; the catalogue of a 2007 exhibition says: "The appearance of the Crucifixion on a gem of such an early date suggests that pictures of the subject may have been widespread in the late second or early third century, most in conventional Christian contexts".
The Jewish Encyclopedia says: The cross as a Christian symbol or "seal" came into use at least as early as the second century. Accordingly the Christian Fathers had to defend themselves, as early as the second century, against the charge of being worshipers of the cross, as may be learned from Tertullian, "Apologia," xii. xvii. and Minucius Felix, "Octavius," xxix. Christians used to swear by the power of the cross Catholics, Orthodox Catholic, Oriental Orthodox, members of the major branches of Christianity with other adherents as Lutheranism and Anglicans, others make the Sign of the Cross upon themselves; this was a common Christian practice in the time of Tertullian. The Feast of the Cross is an important Christian feast. One of the twelve Great Feasts in Orthodox Catholic is the Exaltation of the Cross on September 14, which commemorates the consecration of the basilica on the site where the original cross of Jesus was discovered in 326 by Helena of Constantinople, mother of Constantine the Great.
The Catholic Church celebrates the feast on the same day and under the same name, though in English it has been called the feast of the Triumph of the Cross. Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox and Anglican bishops place a cross before their name when signing a document; the dagger symbol placed. In many Christian traditions, such as the Methodist Churches, the altar cross sits atop or is suspended above the altar table and is a focal
Easter Vigil called the Paschal Vigil or the Great Vigil of Easter, is a service held in traditional Christian churches as the first official celebration of the Resurrection of Jesus. It is during this service that people are baptized and that adult catechumens are received into full communion with the Church, it is held in the hours of darkness between sunset on Holy Saturday and sunrise on Easter Day – most in the evening of Holy Saturday or midnight – and is the first celebration of Easter, days traditionally being considered to begin at sunset. Among liturgical western churches including the Roman Catholic Church, the Anglican Communion, Lutheran churches, the Easter Vigil is the most important service of public worship and Masses of the liturgical year, marked by the first use since the beginning of Lent of the exclamatory "Alleluia", a distinctive feature of the Easter season. In Eastern Orthodox churches, Oriental Orthodox churches, other traditions of Eastern Christianity, the festive ceremonies and Divine Liturgy which are celebrated during the Easter Vigil are unique to that night and are the most elaborate and important of the liturgical year.
The original twelve Old Testament readings for the Easter Vigil survive in an ancient manuscript belonging to the Armenian Patriarchate of Jerusalem. The Armenian Easter Vigil preserves what is believed to be the original length of the traditional gospel reading of the Easter Vigil, i.e. from the Last Supper account to the end of the Gospel according to Matthew. In the earliest Jerusalem usage the vigil began with Psalm 117 sung with the response, "This is the day which the Lord has made." Followed twelve Old Testament readings, all but the last being followed by a prayer with kneeling. Genesis 1:1--3:24; the twelfth reading leads into the Song of the Three Children and is not followed by a prayer with kneeling, but is followed by the prokeimenon of the Eucharistic liturgy. Thomas Talley stresses the importance of this series of reading as representing the oldest known series and the one evidently having the greatest influence on the development of all subsequent series of readings. According to Byzantine historian Andrew Ekonomou, the Easter Vespers was unknown in Rome prior to its introduction in the mid-7th century, solemnization by Pope Vitalian during the period when Rome was part of the Byzantine Empire.
The Paschal vespers was long celebrated in Constantinople prior to this and the service itself has details that appear eastern in origin. The Roman Missal states: "Of this night’s Vigil, the greatest and most noble of all solemnities, there is to be only one celebration in each church, it is arranged, moreover, in such a way that after the Lucernarium and the "Exsultet", The Easter Proclamation, Holy Church meditates on the wonders the Lord God has done for his people from the beginning, trusting in his word and promise until, as day approaches, with new members reborn in Baptism, the Church is called to the table the Lord has prepared for his people, the memorial of his Death and Resurrection until he comes again."In the Roman Rite liturgy, the Easter Vigil consists of four parts: The Service of Light The Liturgy of the Word Christian Initiation and the Renewal of Baptismal Vows EucharistThe vigil begins between sunset on Holy Saturday and sunrise on Easter Sunday outside the church, where an Easter fire is kindled and the Paschal candle is blessed and lit.
This Paschal candle will be used throughout the season of Easter, remaining in the sanctuary of the church or near the lectern, throughout the coming year at baptisms and funerals, reminding all that Christ is "light and life". Once the candle has been lit, it is carried by a deacon through the nave of the church, itself in complete darkness, stopping three times to chant the acclamation'Light of Christ', to which the assembly responds'Thanks be to God' or'Deo Gratias'; as the candle proceeds through the church, the small candles held by those present are lit from the Paschal candle. As this symbolic "Light of Christ" spreads, darkness is decreased; the deacon, priest, or a cantor now chants the Exsultet, after which the people sit for the Liturgy of the Word. Once the paschal candle has been placed on its stand in the sanctuary, the lights in the church are switched on and the congregation extinguish their candles; the Liturgy of the Word consists of seven readings from the Old Testament, although it is permitted to reduce this number for pastoral reasons to at least three, or for pressing pastoral reasons two.
The account of the Israelites' crossing of the Red Sea may never be omitted, since this event is at the centre of the Jewish Passover, of which Christians believe Christ's death and resurrection is the fulfillment