Oneworld is an airline alliance founded on 1 February 1999. The alliance's stated objective is to be the first choice airline alliance for the world's frequent international travelers, its central alliance office is in New York, United States. Its member airlines include American Airlines, British Airways, Cathay Pacific, Iberia, SriLankan Airlines, Japan Airlines, LATAM Airlines, Malaysia Airlines, Qatar Airways, Royal Air Maroc, Royal Jordanian, S7 Airlines, Fiji Airways plus some 30 affiliated airlines; as of October 2017, Oneworld is the third-largest global alliance in terms of passengers with more than 527.9 million passengers carried, behind SkyTeam and Star Alliance. Its slogan is "An alliance of the world's leading airlines working as one." As of October 2017, its member airlines collectively operate a fleet of 3,447 aircraft, serve about 1,000 airports in more than 158 countries, carrying 527.9 million passengers per year on 12,738 daily departures, generating annual revenues of more than US$130 billion.
Oneworld announced the formation of a central alliance team, the Oneworld Management Company, in February 2000, to mark the alliance's first anniversary. The oMC was established in May 2000 in Vancouver, British Columbia, in June 2011 relocated to New York City, it acts as the alliance's central secretariat, with responsibility for driving future growth and the launch of new customer services and benefits. The oMC was first led by Managing Partner Peter Buecking Director of Sales and Marketing at Cathay Pacific. Bruce Ashby, who held roles of CEO of Saudi Arabia's SAMA Airlines, CEO of India's IndiGo, Executive Vice-President for US Airways, became CEO in December 2011. Rob Gurney succeeded Ashby as CEO in October 2016. Reporting to the CEO are Vice-Presidents for Commercial; the CEO reports to the Oneworld Governing Board, made up of the chief executives of each of the member airlines. The Governing Board meets to set strategic direction and review progress. Chairmanship of the board rotates among the alliance members' chief executives.
Finnair CEO Pekka Vauramo has the role. In 2011, the alliance headquarters relocated from Vancouver, Canada, to Park Avenue in New York City, sharing premises with the local offices of a number of Oneworld member airlines including American Airlines, British Airways, Cathay Pacific, Japan Airlines, Qantas. Oneworld was unveiled by its founding members, American Airlines, British Airways, Canadian Airlines, Cathay Pacific, Qantas at a press conference in London, United Kingdom, on 21 September 1998. Oneworld was launched and became operational on 1 February 1999; the alliance outlined its services and benefits as including: Smoother transfers for passengers traveling across all member airlines Greater support to passengers regardless of which member airline they are traveling with Greater range of round-the-world products Enhanced co‑operation in the member airlines' frequent-flyer programs to provide more rewards Wider recognition and access to more airport lounges. More codeshare agreements and connecting flights between member airlinesAhead of the official launch, the alliance embarked on an extensive employee communications and training programme, involving all of the 220,000 staff employed by the five-member airlines, to ensure they could deliver what the alliance brand promised.
At its launch in 1999, Oneworld's member airlines and their affiliates served 648 destinations in 139 countries and carried 181 million passengers with a fleet of 1,577 aircraft. Finnair, Finland's largest airline and flag carrier, was the alliance's first new recruit on 9 December 1998; the alliance welcomed Iberia, Spain's flag carrier, as its second recruit on 15 February 1999. Followed by the reorganisation of the IAG group Both airlines, together with Iberia's franchisee, Iberia Regional Air Nostrum, joined the alliance on 1 September 1999, adding more than 50 destinations to the Oneworld network. On 19 May 1999, LanChile became a member-elect, the alliance's first representative from Latin America. LanChile's two subsidiaries- LAN Express and LAN Perú, would join the alliance. Irish carrier Aer Lingus was formally elected on board and confirmed as the ninth member of the alliance on 2 December 1999; as LanChile and Aer Lingus joined on 1 June 2000, Canadian Airlines left the alliance, following the airline's purchase by Air Canada, a member of the rival Star Alliance.
Swiss International Air Lines accepted an invitation to join Oneworld in September 2003, after signing a memorandum of understanding on 23 September 2003 to establish a wide-ranging commercial agreement with British Airways. However, Swiss decided not to proceed with key elements of its agreement with British Airways and was therefore released from its commitment to join Oneworld. Swiss was taken over by Lufthansa in 2005 and joined Star Alliance in 2006; the mid-2000s saw Oneworld undertake one of the biggest expansions in its history. Hungarian flag carrier Malév signed an MOU in May 2005 as a precursor to a formal invitation to join, extended in November 2005. On 17 October 2005, the alliance signed as a member-elect Royal Jordanian, the first airline from the Middle East to accept an invitation to join any global airline alliance. Japan Airlines Asia's largest airline group, applied to join the alliance on 25 October 2005. JAL and Oneworld exchanged a
Lord Howe Island
Lord Howe Island is an irregularly crescent-shaped volcanic remnant in the Tasman Sea between Australia and New Zealand, 600 km directly east of mainland Port Macquarie, 780 km northeast of Sydney, about 900 km southwest of Norfolk Island. It is about 10 km long and between 0.3 and 2.0 km wide with an area of 14.55 km2, though just 3.98 km2 of that comprises the low-lying developed part of the island. Along the west coast there is a sandy semi-enclosed sheltered coral reef lagoon. Most of the population lives in the north, while the south is dominated by forested hills rising to the highest point on the island, Mount Gower; the Lord Howe Island Group comprises 28 islands and rocks. Apart from Lord Howe Island itself the most notable of these is the volcanic and uninhabited Ball's Pyramid about 23 km to the southeast of Howe. To the North lies a cluster of seven small uninhabited islands called the Admiralty Group; the first reported sighting of Lord Howe Island took place on 17 February 1788, when Lieutenant Henry Lidgbird Ball, commander of the Armed Tender HMS Supply, was en route from Botany Bay to found a penal settlement on Norfolk Island.
On the return journey Ball sent a party ashore on Lord Howe Island to claim it as a British possession. It subsequently became a provisioning port for the whaling industry, was permanently settled in June 1834; when whaling declined, the 1880s saw the beginning of the worldwide export of the endemic kentia palms, which remains a key component of the Island's economy. The other continuing industry, began after World War II ended in 1945; the Lord Howe Island Group is part of the state of New South Wales and is regarded as an unincorporated area administered by the Lord Howe Island Board which reports to the New South Wales Minister for Environment and Heritage. The island's standard time zone is UTC +11 when daylight saving time applies; the currency is the Australian dollar. Commuter airlines provide flights to Sydney and Port Macquarie. UNESCO records the Lord Howe Island Group as a World Heritage Site of global natural significance. Most of the island is untouched forest, with many of the plants and animals found nowhere else in the world.
Other natural attractions include the diversity of the landscapes, the variety of upper mantle and oceanic basalts, the world's southernmost barrier coral reef, nesting seabirds, the rich historical and cultural heritage. The Lord Howe Island Act 1981 established a "Permanent Park Preserve"; the island was added to the Australian National Heritage List on 21 May 2007 and the New South Wales State Heritage Register on 2 April 1999. The surrounding waters are a protected region designated the Lord Howe Island Marine Park. Lord Howe Island is part of the IBRA region Pacific Subtropical Islands and is subregion PSI01 with an area of 1,909 hectares, it appears that, prior to European discovery and settlement, Lord Howe Island was uninhabited, unknown to Polynesian peoples of the South Pacific. The first reported European sighting of Lord Howe Island was on 17 February 1788 by Lieutenant Henry Lidgbird Ball, commander of the Armed Tender HMS Supply, on its way from Botany Bay with a cargo of nine male and six female convicts to found a penal settlement on Norfolk Island.
On the return journey of 13 March 1788 Ball observed Ball's Pyramid and sent a party ashore on Lord Howe Island to claim it as a British possession. Numerous turtles and tame birds were returned to Sydney. Ball named Mount Lidgbird and Ball's Pyramid after himself and the main island after Richard Howe, 1st Earl Howe, First Lord of the Admiralty at the time. Many names on the island date from this time, from May of the same year when four ships of the First Fleet, HMS Supply, Lady Penrhyn and Scarborough, visited it. Much of the plant and animal life was first recorded in the journals and diaries of visitors like David Blackburn, Master of Supply, Arthur Bowes Smyth, surgeon of the Lady Penrhyn. Watercolour sketches of native birds including the Lord Howe woodhen, white gallinule, Lord Howe pigeon, were made by artists including George Raper and John Hunter; as the latter two birds were soon hunted to extinction these paintings are their only remaining pictorial record. Over the next three years the Supply returned to the island several times in search of turtles and the island was visited by ships of the Second and Third Fleets.
Between 1789 and 1791 the Pacific whale industry was born with British and American whaling ships chasing sperm whales along the equator to the Gilbert and Ellice archipelago south into Australian and New Zealand waters. The American fleet numbered 675 ships and Lord Howe was located in a region known as the Middle Ground noted for sperm whales and southern right whales; the island was subsequently visited by many government and whaling ships sailing between New South Wales and Norfolk Island and across the Pacific, including many from the American whaling fleet, so its reputation as a provisioning port preceded settlement, some ships leaving goats and pigs on the island as food for future visitors. Between July and October 1791 the Third Fleet ships arrived at Sydney and within days the deckwork was being reconstructed for a future in the lucrative whaling industry. Whale oil was to become Australia's most profitable export until the 1830s, it was the whaling industry that shaped Lord Howe Island's e
Melbourne Airport, colloquially known as Tullamarine Airport, is the primary airport serving the city of Melbourne, the second busiest airport in Australia. It was opened in 1970 to replace the nearby Essendon Airport. Melbourne Airport is the main international airport of the four airports serving the Melbourne metropolitan area, the other international airport being Avalon Airport; the airport comprises four terminals: one international terminal, two domestic terminals and one budget domestic terminal. It is 23 kilometres from the city centre, adjacent to the suburb of Tullamarine; the airport has its own postcode -- Melbourne Airport, Victoria. In 2016-17 around 25 million domestic passengers and 10 million international passengers used the airport; the Melbourne–Sydney air route is the second most-travelled passenger air route in the world. The airport features direct flights to 33 domestic destinations and to destinations in the Pacific, Asia, North America and South America. Melbourne Airport is the number one arrival/departure point for the airports of four of Australia's eight other capital cities.
Melbourne serves as a major hub for Qantas and Virgin Australia, while Jetstar Airways and Tigerair Australia utilise the airport as home base. Domestically, Melbourne serves as headquarters for Australian airExpress and Toll Priority and handles more domestic freight than any other airport in the nation. Before the opening of Melbourne Airport, Melbourne's main airport was Essendon Airport, designated an international airport in 1950. In the mid-1950s, over 10,000 passengers were using Essendon Airport, its limitations were beginning to become apparent. Essendon's facilities were insufficient to meet the increasing demand for air travel. By the mid-1950s, an international overflow terminal was built in a new northern hangar; the airport could not be expanded. The search for a replacement for Essendon commenced in February 1958, when a panel was appointed to assess Melbourne's civil aviation needs. In 1959 the Commonwealth Government acquired 5,300 ha of grassland in then-rural Tullamarine. In May 1959 it was announced that a new airport would be built at Tullamarine, with Prime Minister Robert Menzies announcing on 27 November 1962 a five-year plan to provide Melbourne with a A$45 million "jetport" by 1967.
The first sod at Tullamarine was turned two years in November 1964. In line with the five-year plan, the runways at Essendon were expanded to handle larger aircraft, with Ansett Australia launching the Boeing 727 there in October 1964, the first jet aircraft used for domestic air travel in Australia. On 1 July 1970, Melbourne Airport was opened to international operations by Prime Minister John Gorton, ending Essendon's near two decade run as Melbourne's international airport. Essendon still was home to domestic flights for one year, until they were transferred to Melbourne Airport on 26 June 1971, with the first arrival of a Boeing 747 occurring that year. In the first year of operations, Melbourne handled six international airlines and 155,275 international passengers. Melbourne Airport was called'Melbourne International Airport', it is at a name derived from the indigenous name Tullamareena. Locally, the airport is referred to as Tullamarine or as Tulla to distinguish the airport from the other three Melbourne airports: Avalon and Moorabbin.
On opening, Melbourne Airport consisted of three connected terminals: International in the centre, with Ansett to the South and Trans Australia Airlines to the North. The design capacity of the airport was eight Boeing 707s at a rate of 500 passengers per hour, with minor expansion works completed in 1973 allowing Boeing 747s to serve the airport. By the late 1980s peak passenger flows at the airport had reached 900 per hour, causing major congestion. In late 1989, Federal Airports Corporation Inspector A. Rohead was put in charge of a bicentennial project to rename streets in Melbourne Airport to honour the original inhabitants, European pioneers and aviation history. Information on the first two categories was provided by Ian Hunter, Wurundjeri researcher, Ray Gibb, local historian; the project was completed but was shelved, with the only suggested name, Gowrie Park Drive, being allocated, named after the farm at the heart of the airport. During the 1920s, the farm had been used as a landing site for aircraft, which were parked at night during World War II in case Essendon Aerodrome was bombed.
In 1988, the Australian Government formed the Federal Airports Corporation, placing Melbourne Airport under the operational control of the new corporation along with 21 other airports around the nation. The FAC undertook a number of upgrades at the airport; the first major upgrades were carried out at the domestic terminals, with an expansion of the Ansett domestic terminal approved in 1989 and completed in 1991, adding a second pier for use by smaller regional airlines. Work on an upgrade of the international terminal commenced in 1991, with the'SkyPlaza' retail complex completed in late 1993 on a site flanking the main international departure gates; the rest of the work was completed in 1995, when the new three-level satellite concourse was opened at the end of the existing concourse. Diamond shaped and measuring 80 m on each side, the additional 10 aerobridges provided by the expansion doubled the international passenger handing capacity at Melbourne Airport. In April 1994, the Australian Government announced that all airports operated by FAC would be privatised in several phases.
Melbourne Airport was includ
East-West Airlines (Australia)
East-West Airlines was an Australian regional airline founded in Tamworth, New South Wales in 1947. It operated to major regional city-centres and connected these centres to various state capitals, by the 1980s it was Australia's third largest domestic airline, it carried out its own heavy maintenance in Tamworth and operated a network of Travel Centres. East-West Airlines was founded in 1947 with funds raised from about 800 small investors with the aim to "fight the city based airline monopolies" and traded forthwith as an unlisted public company. At this early time, the workforce consisted of the manager, Basil Brown, the maintenance engineer and workshop manager, Cedric Wood. Cedric Wood was an exceptional aircraft engineer, having an unblemished maintenance record, despite having nine separate aircraft maintenance licences to his name. Enabling the company to operate maintenance procedures on a'shoe string' budget. Using single-engine Tiger Moth aircraft, East-West established Australia's first regular mail delivery service between Tamworth NSW, Port Maquarie and Newcastle.
The company bought twin-engine Avro Anson aircraft which allowed it to carry more mail and passengers. East-West acquired several Douglas DC-3s starting in 1953 and these 28-seat aircraft replaced the smaller Avro Ansons in operating scheduled services throughout New South Wales; the last example was disposed in 1973 having latterly been operated on research flights into cloud seeding systems for CSIRO. It grew in the following years from an intrastate operator to Australia's third largest domestic carrier which owned by 1982 ten Fokker aircraft. By that time East-West was about to acquire its first jet aircraft, it was however still reeling from a venture into the Northern Territory in 1980, which incurred heavy losses. This caused a falling out among board members. East-West in 1981 in an era still governed by the Two Airlines Policy, became the first "third" carrier operating between Sydney and Canberra. Between 1977 and 1990 it operated services to Norfolk Island. In 1982 former Ansett and Air Niugini executive Bryan Grey, in partnership with former Citicorp Australia merchant banking executive Duke Minks, formed East-West Development Pty Ltd with the specific purpose to acquire East-West Airlines.
With a loan of $8.5 million from the Nauru Phosphate Royalties Trust they purchased East-West in a share buy-out. The take over was deemed controversial, as discussions queried how far the involvement of Nauruan capital constituted quasi a foreign takeover. In the following years East-West competed vigorously with major airlines Ansett and Trans Australia Airlines on inter-capital routes; the Australian aviation industry was regulated at the time under the Two Airlines Policy, which prevented East-West from flying directly between major capital cities, so it instead offered services between major cities via regional centres. Routes included Melbourne to Sydney via Albury and Sydney to Brisbane via Newcastle and Coolangatta, sometimes making touch-and-go landings at intermediate locations. East-West flew Fokker F27 Friendship turboprops and Fokker F28 Fellowship jets. In June 1983 East-West sold return tickets between Sydney and Melbourne via Albury, which took about two hours 45 minutes, for $120, about half of the standard fare of $248 for direct flights by the duopoly carriers taking one hour 15 minutes.
However and Trans Australia Airlines offered discounted fares down to around $140. According to Brian Grey the service attracted about 4,000 customers per month; because of its operating structure, East-West was able to undercut other airlines. East West Airlines' aggressive "Third Airline" campaign forced the Federal Government to scrap the Two Airline Policy, which had kept Australian air fares inflated for many years. Managing Director Bryan Grey along with marketing consultant John Williams created a massive nationwide media campaign and thus attracted many first-time flyers with what could be described as Australia's first discounted fares in a now deregulated arena. East-West set the scene for other airlines to enter the Australian domestic market years later. In December 1983 East-West was sold, for A$20 to 30 million according to estimates, to Perth based Skywest Airlines owned by Ric Stowe. In particular the Government of New South Wales opposed the deal. Former owner Bryan Grey formed Compass Airlines in 1990 as first entrant into a then-deregulated domestic aviation market.
Under the new ownership East-West was retained as an independent entity. Skywest Holdings announced in May 1985 it planned to merge both Skywest Airlines and East-West, but this was not carried out except for some harmonisation of timetables. In 1985 East-West challenged the Two Airline Policy in the Federal Court. In July 1987 East-West and Skywest were sold to Perth car dealer Perron Group which sold them on by the end of the month to Bodas Pty Ltd, it continued to operate as a separate entity until 1993 when its operations were integrated with those of Ansett and the East-West name ceased to be used. The maintenance facility at Tamworth Airport was converted to a bus body factory by fellow Ansett subsidiary Ansair in 1993. On Wednesday 12 October 1949 an East-West Airlines Avro Anson plane crashed just after taking off from Tamworth. Four passengers escaped injury; the pilot, Captain John Lachlan Rentell, 35, had his right foot severed at the ankle, sustained internal injuries and deep wounds to the face and arms.
He avoided a tree by turning the machine into a steep bank, headed north-west towards his best clearance and turning south put the plane
New South Wales
New South Wales is a state on the east coast of Australia. It borders Queensland to the north, Victoria to the south, South Australia to the west, its coast borders the Tasman Sea to the east. The Australian Capital Territory is an enclave within the state. New South Wales' state capital is Sydney, Australia's most populous city. In September 2018, the population of New South Wales was over 8 million, making it Australia's most populous state. Just under two-thirds of the state's population, 5.1 million, live in the Greater Sydney area. Inhabitants of New South Wales are referred to as New South Welshmen; the Colony of New South Wales was founded as a penal colony in 1788. It comprised more than half of the Australian mainland with its western boundary set at 129th meridian east in 1825; the colony included the island territories of New Zealand, Van Diemen's Land, Lord Howe Island, Norfolk Island. During the 19th century, most of the colony's area was detached to form separate British colonies that became New Zealand and the various states and territories of Australia.
However, the Swan River Colony has never been administered as part of New South Wales. Lord Howe Island remains part of New South Wales, while Norfolk Island has become a federal territory, as have the areas now known as the Australian Capital Territory and the Jervis Bay Territory; the prior inhabitants of New South Wales were the Aboriginal tribes who arrived in Australia about 40,000 to 60,000 years ago. Before European settlement there were an estimated 250,000 Aboriginal people in the region; the Wodi Wodi people are the original custodians of the Illawarra region of South Sydney. Speaking a variant of the Dharawal language, the Wodi Wodi people lived across a large stretch of land, surrounded by what is now known as Campbelltown, Shoalhaven River and Moss Vale; the Bundjalung people are the original custodians of parts of the northern coastal areas. The European discovery of New South Wales was made by Captain James Cook during his 1770 survey along the unmapped eastern coast of the Dutch-named continent of New Holland, now Australia.
In his original journal covering the survey, in triplicate to satisfy Admiralty Orders, Cook first named the land "New Wales", named after Wales. However, in the copy held by the Admiralty, he "revised the wording" to "New South Wales"; the first British settlement was made by. After years of chaos and anarchy after the overthrow of Governor William Bligh, a new governor, Lieutenant-Colonel Lachlan Macquarie, was sent from Britain to reform the settlement in 1809. During his time as governor, Macquarie commissioned the construction of roads, wharves and public buildings, sent explorers out from Sydney and employed a planner to design the street layout of Sydney. Macquarie's legacy is still evident today. During the 19th century, large areas were successively separated to form the British colonies of Tasmania, South Australia and Queensland. Responsible government was granted to the New South Wales colony in 1855. Following the Treaty of Waitangi, William Hobson declared British sovereignty over New Zealand in 1840.
In 1841 it was separated from the Colony of New South Wales to form the new Colony of New Zealand. Charles Darwin visited Australia in January 1836 and in The Voyage of the Beagle records his hesitations about and fascination with New South Wales, including his speculations about the geological origin and formation of the great valleys, the aboriginal population, the situation of the convicts, the future prospects of the country. At the end of the 19th century, the movement toward federation between the Australian colonies gathered momentum. Conventions and forums involving colony leaders were held on a regular basis. Proponents of New South Wales as a free trade state were in dispute with the other leading colony Victoria, which had a protectionist economy. At this time customs posts were common on borders on the Murray River. Travelling from New South Wales to Victoria in those days was difficult. Supporters of federation included the New South Wales premier Sir Henry Parkes whose 1889 Tenterfield Speech was pivotal in gathering support for New South Wales involvement.
Edmund Barton to become Australia's first Prime Minister, was another strong advocate for federation and a meeting held in Corowa in 1893 drafted an initial constitution. In 1898 popular referenda on the proposed federation were held in New South Wales, South Australia and Tasmania. All votes resulted in a majority in favour, but the New South Wales government under Premier George Reid had set a requirement for a higher "yes" vote than just a simple majority, not met. In 1899 further referenda were held in the same states as well as Queensland. All resulted in yes votes with majorities increased from the previous year. New South Wales met the conditions; as a compromise to the question on where the capital was to be located, an agreement was made that the site was to be within New South Wales but not closer than 100 miles from Sydney, while the provisional capital would be Melbourne. The area that now forms the Australian Capital Territory was ceded by New South Wales when Canberra was selected.
In the years after World War I, the high prices enjoyed durin
An airline is a company that provides air transport services for traveling passengers and freight. Airlines utilize aircraft to supply these services and may form partnerships or alliances with other airlines for codeshare agreements. Airline companies are recognized with an air operating certificate or license issued by a governmental aviation body. Airlines vary in size, from small domestic airlines to full-service international airlines with double decker airplanes. Airline services can be categorized as being intercontinental, regional, or international, may be operated as scheduled services or charters; the largest airline is American Airlines Group. DELAG, Deutsche Luftschiffahrts-Aktiengesellschaft I was the world's first airline, it was founded on November 16, 1909, with government assistance, operated airships manufactured by The Zeppelin Corporation. Its headquarters were in Frankfurt; the first fixed wing scheduled airline was started on January 1, 1914, from St. Petersburg, Florida, to Tampa, Florida.
The four oldest non-dirigible airlines that still exist are Netherlands' KLM, Colombia's Avianca, Australia's Qantas, the Czech Republic's Czech Airlines. The earliest fixed wing airline in Europe was Aircraft Transport and Travel, formed by George Holt Thomas in 1916. Using a fleet of former military Airco DH.4A biplanes, modified to carry two passengers in the fuselage, it operated relief flights between Folkestone and Ghent. On 15 July 1919, the company flew a proving flight across the English Channel, despite a lack of support from the British government. Flown by Lt. H Shaw in an Airco DH.9 between RAF Hendon and Paris – Le Bourget Airport, the flight took 2 hours and 30 minutes at £21 per passenger. On 25 August 1919, the company used DH.16s to pioneer a regular service from Hounslow Heath Aerodrome to Le Bourget, the first regular international service in the world. The airline soon gained a reputation for reliability, despite problems with bad weather, began to attract European competition.
In November 1919, it won the first British civil airmail contract. Six Royal Air Force Airco DH.9A aircraft were lent to the company, to operate the airmail service between Hawkinge and Cologne. In 1920, they were returned to the Royal Air Force. Other British competitors were quick to follow – Handley Page Transport was established in 1919 and used the company's converted wartime Type O/400 bombers with a capacity for 12 passengers, to run a London-Paris passenger service; the first French airline was Société des lignes Latécoère known as Aéropostale, which started its first service in late 1918 to Spain. The Société Générale des Transports Aériens was created in late 1919, by the Farman brothers and the Farman F.60 Goliath plane flew scheduled services from Toussus-le-Noble to Kenley, near Croydon, England. Another early French airline was the Compagnie des Messageries Aériennes, established in 1919 by Louis-Charles Breguet, offering a mail and freight service between Le Bourget Airport and Lesquin Airport, Lille.
The first German airline to use heavier than air aircraft was Deutsche Luft-Reederei established in 1917 which started operating in February 1919. In its first year, the D. L. R. Operated scheduled flights on routes with a combined length of nearly 1000 miles. By 1921 the D. L. R. Network was more than 3000 km long, included destinations in the Netherlands and the Baltic Republics. Another important German airline was Junkers Luftverkehr, which began operations in 1921, it was a division of the aircraft manufacturer Junkers, which became a separate company in 1924. It operated joint-venture airlines in Austria, Estonia, Hungary, Norway, Poland and Switzerland; the Dutch airline KLM made its first flight in 1920, is the oldest continuously operating airline in the world. Established by aviator Albert Plesman, it was awarded a "Royal" predicate from Queen Wilhelmina, its first flight was from Croydon Airport, London to Amsterdam, using a leased Aircraft Transport and Travel DH-16, carrying two British journalists and a number of newspapers.
In 1921, KLM started scheduled services. In Finland, the charter establishing Aero O/Y was signed in the city of Helsinki on September 12, 1923. Junkers F.13 D-335 became the first aircraft of the company, when Aero took delivery of it on March 14, 1924. The first flight was between Helsinki and Tallinn, capital of Estonia, it took place on March 20, 1924, one week later. In the Soviet Union, the Chief Administration of the Civil Air Fleet was established in 1921. One of its first acts was to help found Deutsch-Russische Luftverkehrs A. G. a German-Russian joint venture to provide air transport from Russia to the West. Domestic air service began around the same time, when Dobrolyot started operations on 15 July 1923 between Moscow and Nizhni Novgorod. Since 1932 all operations had been carried under the name Aeroflot. Early European airlines tended to favor comfort – the passenger cabins were spacious with luxurious interiors – over speed and efficiency; the basic navigational capabilities of pilots at the time meant that delays due to the weather were commonplace.
By the early 1920s, small airlines were struggling to compete, there was a movement towards increased rationalization and consolidation. In 1924, Imperial Airways was formed from the merger of Instone Air Line Company, British Marine Air Navigation, Daimler Airway and Handley Page Transport Co Ltd. to allow British airlines to compete with stiff competition from French and German airlines that were enjoying heavy government subsidies. The ai
Sydney is the state capital of New South Wales and the most populous city in Australia and Oceania. Located on Australia's east coast, the metropolis surrounds Port Jackson and extends about 70 km on its periphery towards the Blue Mountains to the west, Hawkesbury to the north, the Royal National Park to the south and Macarthur to the south-west. Sydney is made up of 40 local government areas and 15 contiguous regions. Residents of the city are known as "Sydneysiders"; as of June 2017, Sydney's estimated metropolitan population was 5,230,330 and is home to 65% of the state's population. Indigenous Australians have inhabited the Sydney area for at least 30,000 years, thousands of engravings remain throughout the region, making it one of the richest in Australia in terms of Aboriginal archaeological sites. During his first Pacific voyage in 1770, Lieutenant James Cook and his crew became the first Europeans to chart the eastern coast of Australia, making landfall at Botany Bay and inspiring British interest in the area.
In 1788, the First Fleet of convicts, led by Arthur Phillip, founded Sydney as a British penal colony, the first European settlement in Australia. Phillip named the city Sydney in recognition of 1st Viscount Sydney. Penal transportation to New South Wales ended soon after Sydney was incorporated as a city in 1842. A gold rush occurred in the colony in 1851, over the next century, Sydney transformed from a colonial outpost into a major global cultural and economic centre. After World War II, it experienced mass migration and became one of the most multicultural cities in the world. At the time of the 2011 census, more than 250 different languages were spoken in Sydney. In the 2016 Census, about 35.8% of residents spoke a language other than English at home. Furthermore, 45.4% of the population reported having been born overseas, making Sydney the 3rd largest foreign born population of any city in the world after London and New York City, respectively. Despite being one of the most expensive cities in the world, the 2018 Mercer Quality of Living Survey ranks Sydney tenth in the world in terms of quality of living, making it one of the most livable cities.
It is classified as an Alpha+ World City by Globalization and World Cities Research Network, indicating its influence in the region and throughout the world. Ranked eleventh in the world for economic opportunity, Sydney has an advanced market economy with strengths in finance and tourism. There is a significant concentration of foreign banks and multinational corporations in Sydney and the city is promoted as Australia's financial capital and one of Asia Pacific's leading financial hubs. Established in 1850, the University of Sydney is Australia's first university and is regarded as one of the world's leading universities. Sydney is home to the oldest library in Australia, State Library of New South Wales, opened in 1826. Sydney has hosted major international sporting events such as the 2000 Summer Olympics; the city is among the top fifteen most-visited cities in the world, with millions of tourists coming each year to see the city's landmarks. Boasting over 1,000,000 ha of nature reserves and parks, its notable natural features include Sydney Harbour, the Royal National Park, Royal Botanic Garden and Hyde Park, the oldest parkland in the country.
Built attractions such as the Sydney Harbour Bridge and the World Heritage-listed Sydney Opera House are well known to international visitors. The main passenger airport serving the metropolitan area is Kingsford-Smith Airport, one of the world's oldest continually operating airports. Established in 1906, Central station, the largest and busiest railway station in the state, is the main hub of the city's rail network; the first people to inhabit the area now known as Sydney were indigenous Australians having migrated from northern Australia and before that from southeast Asia. Radiocarbon dating suggests human activity first started to occur in the Sydney area from around 30,735 years ago. However, numerous Aboriginal stone tools were found in Western Sydney's gravel sediments that were dated from 45,000 to 50,000 years BP, which would indicate that there was human settlement in Sydney earlier than thought; the first meeting between the native people and the British occurred on 29 April 1770 when Lieutenant James Cook landed at Botany Bay on the Kurnell Peninsula and encountered the Gweagal clan.
He noted in his journal that they were somewhat hostile towards the foreign visitors. Cook was not commissioned to start a settlement, he spent a short time collecting food and conducting scientific observations before continuing further north along the east coast of Australia and claiming the new land he had discovered for Britain. Prior to the arrival of the British there were 4,000 to 8,000 native people in Sydney from as many as 29 different clans; the earliest British settlers called the natives Eora people. "Eora" is the term the indigenous population used to explain their origins upon first contact with the British. Its literal meaning is "from this place". Sydney Cove from Port Jackson to Petersham was inhabited by the Cadigal clan; the principal language groups were Darug and Dharawal. The earliest Europeans to visit the area noted that the indigenous people were conducting activities such as camping and fishing, using trees for bark and food, collecting shells, cooking fish. Britain—before that, England—and Ireland had for a long time been sending their convicts across the Atlantic to the American colonies.
That trade was ended with the Declaration of Independence by the United States in 1776. Britain decided in 1786 to found a new penal outpost in the territory discovered by Cook some 16 years ear