The Eastern Front of World War II was a theatre of conflict between the European Axis powers and co-belligerent Finland against the Soviet Union and other Allies, which encompassed Central Europe, Eastern Europe, Northeast Europe, Southeast Europe from 22 June 1941 to 9 May 1945. It has been known as the Great Patriotic War in the former Soviet Union and modern Russia, while in Germany it was called the Eastern Front, or the German-Soviet War by outside parties; the battles on the Eastern Front of the Second World War constituted the largest military confrontation in history. They were characterised by unprecedented ferocity, wholesale destruction, mass deportations, immense loss of life due to combat, exposure and massacres; the Eastern Front, as the site of nearly all extermination camps, death marches and the majority of pogroms, was central to the Holocaust. Of the estimated 70–85 million deaths attributed to World War II, around 30 million occurred on the Eastern Front; the Eastern Front was decisive in determining the outcome in the European theatre of operations in World War II serving as the main reason for the defeat of Nazi Germany and the Axis nations.
The two principal belligerent powers were Germany and the Soviet Union, along with their respective allies. Though never engaged in military action in the Eastern Front, the United States and the United Kingdom both provided substantial material aid in the form of the Lend-Lease to the Soviet Union; the joint German–Finnish operations across the northernmost Finnish–Soviet border and in the Murmansk region are considered part of the Eastern Front. In addition, the Soviet–Finnish Continuation War may be considered the northern flank of the Eastern Front. Germany and the Soviet Union remained unsatisfied with the outcome of World War I. Soviet Russia had lost substantial territory in Eastern Europe as a result of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, where the Bolsheviks in Petrograd conceded to German demands and ceded control of Poland, Estonia, Latvia and other areas, to the Central Powers. Subsequently, when Germany in its turn surrendered to the Allies and these territories were liberated under the terms of the Paris Peace Conference of 1919 at Versailles, Soviet Russia was in the midst of a civil war and the Allies did not recognise the Bolshevik government, so no Soviet Russian representation attended.
Adolf Hitler had declared his intention to invade the Soviet Union on 11 August 1939 to Carl Jacob Burckhardt, League of Nations Commissioner, by saying: Everything I undertake is directed against the Russians. If the West is too stupid and blind to grasp this I shall be compelled to come to an agreement with the Russians, beat the West and after their defeat turn against the Soviet Union with all my forces. I need the Ukraine as happened in the last war; the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact signed in August 1939 was a non-aggression agreement between Germany and the Soviet Union. It contained a secret protocol aiming to return Central Europe to the pre–World War I status quo by dividing it between Germany and the Soviet Union. Finland, Estonia and Lithuania would return to the Soviet control, while Poland and Romania would be divided; the Eastern Front was made possible by the German–Soviet Border and Commercial Agreement in which the Soviet Union gave Germany the resources necessary to launch military operations in Eastern Europe.
On 1 September 1939 Germany invaded Poland, starting World War II. On 17 September, the Soviet Union invaded Eastern Poland, and, as a result, Poland was partitioned among Germany, the Soviet Union and Lithuania. Soon after that, the Soviet Union demanded significant territorial concessions from Finland, after Finland rejected Soviet demands, the Soviet Union attacked Finland on 30 November 1939 in what became known as the Winter War – a bitter conflict that resulted in a peace treaty on 13 March 1940, with Finland maintaining its independence but losing its eastern parts in Karelia. In June 1940 the Soviet Union illegally annexed the three Baltic states; the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact ostensibly provided security to the Soviets in the occupation both of the Baltics and of the north and northeastern regions of Romania, although Hitler, in announcing the invasion of the Soviet Union, cited the Soviet annexations of Baltic and Romanian territory as having violated Germany's understanding of the Pact.
Moscow partitioned the annexed Romanian territory between the Ukrainian and Moldavian Soviet republics. Adolf Hitler had argued in his autobiography Mein Kampf for the necessity of Lebensraum: acquiring new territory for Germans in Eastern Europe, in particular Russia, he envisaged settling Germans there, as according to Nazi ideology the Germanic people constituted the "master race", while exterminating or deporting most of the existing inhabitants to Siberia and using the remainder as slave labour. Hitler as early as 1917 had referred to the Russians as inferior, believing that the Bolshevik Revolution had put the Jews in power over the mass of Slavs, who were, in Hitler's opinion, incapable of ruling themselves but instead being ruled by Jewish masters; the Nazi leadership, saw the war against the Soviet Union as a struggle between the ideologies of Nazism and Jewish Bolshevism, ensuring territorial expansion for the Germanic Übermensch, who according to Nazi ideology were the Aryan Herrenvolk, at the expense of the Slavic Untermenschen (subhum
Timothy Andrew Keith Rodber is an English former rugby union footballer who played at Number eight, flanker or lock for Northampton Saints and the British and Irish Lions. Rodber excelled at rugby from an early age, representing his school, as well as local sides Petersfield R. F. C. and Oxford Old Boys. He studied biology at Oxford Polytechnic on Army scholarships. Rodber was a Captain in the Green Howards infantry regiment of the British Army and remained so after rugby turned professional, he resigned in 2001 after retiring from the sport. In 1987 Rodber would go on to become club captain, he made his debut for England in the 25-7 victory over Scotland in the 1992 Five Nations Championship. Good performances, including helping England to win the 1993 Rugby World Cup Sevens title, earned him a call-up to the 1997 British Lions tour to South Africa. Rodber was one of the stand out performers during the tour and captained the midweek side against Mpumalanga, his commitment was rewarded when, after injury to Wales' Scott Quinnell, he was selected at No.8 for the first two Tests, both of which the Lions won to take the series 2-1.
He was one of the few Englishmen in the 1990s to be sent off when he was given a red card in a tour game against Eastern Province in South Africa in 1994 when he reacted to a stamp on teammate Jon Callard. However, the same tour saw Rodber play a vital role in one of England's best away performance of the decade during the 32-15 win in Pretoria on that same tour. "Has one seen an England team glisten in a ball-game with such a shimmering and sustained diamond brightness?" purred Frank Keating. "Rodber and his forwards were quite stupendous from first to last." Rodber was selected for the 1997 British Lions tour to South Africa, playing in both the winning Tests. However, injury dogged his career and he was not selected for England after the 1999 Rugby World Cup. Whilst at Northampton he started in the victorious 2000 Heineken Cup Final, he retired at the end of the 2000/01 season. Rodber went into management after retiring and held executive posts including successful stints as regional COO and CEO of Williams Lea.
He worked for Middleton Advisors until mid 2013. In July 2013 he was appointed CEO of Instant. Tim Rodber at ESPNscrum Northampton Saints Roll of Honour at Archive.today Player Profile Page - Tim Rodber at the Wayback Machine Sporting Heroes profile
Albert H Medwin is an American electrical engineer. He holds several US patents, including ones in the field of electronic encoders. Medwin was involved in the early development of integrated circuits while working at RCA in Somerville, New Jersey. In the 1960s he led the engineering group that developed the world's first low power CMOS chips including a high speed shift register, he is credited with leading the RCA group that introduced the 4000 series CMOS integrated circuit to the market. Medwin's first patent issued in 1968 when he was 43, it was assigned to Radio Corporation of America. His second patent issued in 1971 and is titled "Integrated Circuit." It was assigned to the RCA Corporation. At this point, Medwin left RCA to start his own integrated circuit development company called Ragen Semiconductor, he received his next patent in 1972, titled "Apparatus for Providing a Pulsed Liquid Crystal Display." This was the first of his patents, assigned to Ragen Semiconductor. A number of companies were competing in the early 1970s to develop and commercialize a pocket sized calculator.
Medwin's activities in this space were chronicled in Business Week and other periodicals. Several years Medwin started another company call CGS Systems, Inc. in Princeton, New Jersey. His next patent was issued in 1978 and is titled "Method and Apparatus for Near-Synchronization of a Pair of Oscillators, Measuring Thereby." His final two patents are related to electronic encoders. "Electronic Measuring Apparatus" issued in 1983 and "Electronic Vernier" issued in 1984. Neither of these was assigned to a company