Niantic is a census-designated place and village in the town of East Lyme, Connecticut in the United States. The population was 3,114 at the 2010 census, it is located on Long Island Sound, the Millstone Nuclear Power Plant in nearby Waterford is visible on the bay's eastern horizon line, Rocky Neck State Park is located in the area. Niantic was once famous for its Niantic River scallops, but the scallop population has been in decline for a number of years. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 3.5 square miles, of which 1.5 square miles is land and 2.1 square miles, or 58.64%, is water. As of the census of 2000, there were 3,085 people, 1,404 households, 835 families residing in the CDP; the population density was 2,110.3 people per square mile. There were 1,756 housing units at an average density of 1,201.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the CDP was 96.63% White, 0.49% African American, 0.16% Native American, 1.23% Asian, 0.42% from other races, 1.07% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.11% of the population. There were 1,404 households out of which 24.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 46.3% were married couples living together, 10.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 40.5% were non-families. 33.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.20 and the average family size was 2.81. In the CDP, the population was spread out with 20.3% under the age of 18, 5.9% from 18 to 24, 29.0% from 25 to 44, 27.0% from 45 to 64, 17.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 42 years. For every 100 females, there were 91.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 89.7 males. The median income for a household in the CDP was $54,872, the median income for a family was $65,077. Males had a median income of $46,887 versus $35,811 for females; the per capita income for the CDP was $27,306. About 1.9% of families and 3.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 7.2% of those under age 18 and 1.8% of those age 65 or over.
According to www.city-data.com, the median income for a household in 2008 was $74,348, higher than the median income for the entire state of Connecticut. The median of all housing units in Niantic was $337,612 in 2008. Otto Graham, Hall of Fame professional football player Tom Danielson, former professional road bicycle racer Rajai Davis, baseball player for the Cleveland Indians Charles Drake, actor in over 80 films and numerous television shows John McDonald, Major League Baseball player with the Arizona Diamondbacks Jeremy Powers, professional racing cyclist riding for Jelly Belly Jay Allen Sanford and cartoonist best known as the co-creator of the comic book Rock'N' Roll Comics, for his work with Revolutionary Comics, Carnal Comics, the San Diego Reader William Nathan Harrell Smith, congressman from North Carolina. Official site
Gales Ferry, Connecticut
Gales Ferry is a village in the town of Ledyard, United States. It is located along the eastern bank of the Thames River; the village developed as a result of having a ferry to Uncasville located at this site, from which the village was named. Gales Ferry was listed as a census-designated place for the 2010 Census, with a population of 1,162. Much of the core of the original settlement at the site of the former ferry has been included in two separate historic districts, each with several farmstead buildings from the late colonial and early national periods; the two historic districts are irregularly shaped, are separated by a railroad cut and some non-contributing buildings. Several farmsteads that are individually listed on the National Register of Historic Places are located close to Gales Ferry; these are the Nathan Lester House on Vinegar Hill Road, the Perkins-Bill House at 1040 Long Cove Road, the Capt. Mark Stoddard Farmstead at 24 Vinegar Hill Road; the village is named for the ferry operated by Roger Gale at the current site of a Yale University crew training camp.
Gales Ferry is part of the town of Ledyard, with its own post office and the Gales Ferry branch of the Ledyard library. The community has several neighborhoods, including The Village, Christy Hills, Sherwood Forest and Presidential Estates. Gales Ferry has its own volunteer fire department and a small marina. Much of the economic activity in the town revolves around Naval Submarine Base New London just to the south in Groton; the community has three schools: Juliet W. Long, Grades 3-6, the newer Gales Ferry school, K-2, Ledyard Middle School, grade 7-8, they are located off the Thames River next door to each other. In 2012 a CVS pharmacy was constructed where the baseball field used to be, at the old Gales Ferry School; the school itself is still up for sale for commercial retail use. The ferry which gave its name to the surrounding community of Gales Ferry was first established on the Thames in 1740. John Comstock, Ralph Stoddard, Jr. and John Hurlbut were the original three ferry men. It became known as Gale's Ferry when it was owned by Roger Gale from 1759 to 1764.
The ferry landing site at Gales Ferry (41°25′50.41″N 72°5′36.06″W at 2 Riverside Place, is now occupied by a complex of buildings owned by Yale University which serve as a training camp for the Yale Heavyweight Men's Crew for the Harvard–Yale Regatta. The complex consists of Manager's House and the Boathouse; the oldest structure on the site is the front portion of the varsity house, constructed in the late eighteenth century as a private home and which has since been expanded by multiple additions. The boathouse was designed by James Gamble Rogers, responsible for much of the Gothic Revival architecture at Yale's New Haven campus; the boathouse adjoining the dock serves as a center of activity when the camp is occupied and provides storage and repair space for the boats. Freshman oarsmen are quartered in the second floor of the boathouse. Upperclassmen, including all of the rowers in the varsity and junior varsity boats, are quartered in the top floor of the varsity house. Women on the team, if there are any serving as coxswains, are housed either in the front wing of the varsity quarters or in the manager's house.
The varsity house contains several common spaces including a game room, a central common room and the dining room as well as bathrooms and the kitchen. The ferry is of considerable historical interest since Yale's crew is the oldest college athletic team in America; the complex's buildings are filled with artifacts from the team's history. This is a living history, because of continuing use and occupation that bring the camp to life every year for the race; as the center of Yale Crew's institutional memory and the annual home of the longest-running rivalry in American college sports, the ferry serves as an important site in the history of sports. Much of the core of the original settlement at the site of the former ferry has been included in two separate historic districts, each with several farmstead buildings from the late colonial and early national periods; the two historic districts are irregularly shaped, are separated by a railroad cut and some non-contributing buildings. Gales Ferry Historic District No.
1Gales Ferry Historic District No. 1 is an irregularly shaped district in the area of the junction of Hurlbutt Road and Riverside Place. It includes work designed by Stephen Gray and examples of Greek Revival and Federal architecture; the district was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1992. In 1992, it included 31 contributing buildings over 13 acres. Significant buildings within the district include: Guy Stoddard House Benajah Davis House, 7 Riverside Place, c. 1750, Gambrel Daniel Copp House, 64 Hurlbutt Road, c. 1796, Federal Sarah Vincent House, 63 Hurlbutt Road, c. 1850, Victorian vernacular Thomas Geer House, 2 Riverside place, 1796, since expanded in late 19th century for Yale University Crew quarters John Allyn, Jr. House, 54 Hurlbutt Road, 1795, vernacular Cape Stephen Gray House, 56 Hurlbutt Road, c. 1842, Greek Revival William Browning House, 52 Hurlbutt Road, 1827, Cape Capt. Austin Lester House, 1846, Greek Revival, 5 Riverside Place Rebecca Bailey House, 8 Riverside Place, 1857, Late Greek Revival John Bradford House, 57 Hurlbutt Road, c.
1850, 19th-century vernacular William Bracewell House Capt. Latham Brown House, 2 Riverside Place, c. 1875, Italianate Lucy B. Hempstead House, 53 Hurlbutt Road, c. 1910, Victorian vernacular Samuel Brown Store, 55 Hurlbutt Road, 1899 Yale Boathouse, 2 Rive
The Narragansett people are an Algonquian American Indian tribe from Rhode Island. The tribe was nearly landless for most of the 20th century, but it worked to gain federal recognition and attained it in 1983, it is the Narragansett Indian Tribe of Rhode Island and is made up of descendants of tribal members who were identified in an 1880 treaty with the state. The tribe acquired land in 1991 in their lawsuit Carcieri v. Salazar, they petitioned the Department of the Interior to take the land into trust on their behalf; this would have made the newly acquired land to be recognized as part of the Narragansett Indian reservation, taking it out from under Rhode Island's legal authority. In 2009, the United States Supreme Court ruled against the request, declaring that tribes which had achieved federal recognition since the 1934 Indian Reorganization Act did not have standing to have newly acquired lands taken into federal trust and removed from state control; the Narragansett tribe was recognized by the federal government in 1983 and controls the Narragansett Indian Reservation, 1,800 acres of trust lands in Charlestown, Rhode Island.
A small portion of the tribe resides on or near the reservation, according to the 2000 U. S. Census. Additionally, they own several hundred acres in Westerly. In 1991, the Narragansetts purchased 31 acres in Charlestown for development of elderly housing. In 1998, they requested that the Department of the Interior take the property into trust on behalf of the tribe, to remove it from state and local control; the case went to the United States Supreme Court, as the state challenged the removal of new lands from state oversight by a tribe recognized by the US after the 1934 Indian Reorganization Act. Rhode Island was joined in its appeal by 21 other states. In 2009, the US Supreme Court ruled that the Department of the Interior could not take land into trust, removing it from state control, if a tribe had achieved federal recognition after the 1934 Indian Reorganization Act, if the land in question was acquired after that federal recognition, their determination was based on wording in the act which defines "Indian" as "all persons of Indian descent who are members of any recognized tribe now under federal jurisdiction."
The tribe is led by an elected tribal council, a chief sachem, a medicine man, a Christian leader. The entire tribal population must approve major decisions; the administration in 2018 was: Chief Sachem: Anthony Dean Stanton Medicine Man: John Brown First Councilman: Cassius Spears, Jr. Second Councilman: John Pompey Secretary, John Mahoney Councilmen: Yvonne Simonds Lamphere Betty Johnson Walter K. Babcock Lonny Brown Mary Brown Some present-day Narragansett people believe that their name means "people of the little points and bays". Pritzker's Native American Encyclopedia translates the name as " of the Small Point"; the Narragansett language died out in the 19th century, so modern attempts to understand its words have to make use of written sources. The earliest such sources are the writings of English colonists in the 1600s, at that time the name of the Narragansett people was spelled in a variety of different ways attesting to different local pronunciations; the present spelling "Narragansett" was first used by Massachusetts governor John Winthrop in his History of New England.
Underneath this diversity of spelling a common phonetic background can be discerned. Linguist James Hammond Trumbull explains that naiag or naiyag means a corner or angle in the Algonquian languages, so that the prefix nai is found in the names of many points of land on the sea coast and rivers of New England; the word na-ig-an-set, according to Trumbull, signifies "the territory about the point", na-ig-an-eog means "the people of the point". Roger Williams spent much time learning and studying the Narragansett language, he wrote a definitive study on it in 1643 entitled A Key Into the Language of America, he traced the source of the word Narragansett to a geographical location: Being inquisitive of what root the title or denomination Nahigonset should come I heard that Nahigonsset was so named from a little island, between Puttaquomscut and Mishquomacuk on the sea and fresh water side. I went on purpose to see it, about the place called Sugar Loaf Hill I saw it and was within a pole of it, but could not learn why it was called Nahigonset.
Berkeley anthropologist William Simmons, who specialized in the Narragansett people, explains the name as follows: The name Narragansett, like the names of most tribes in this region, referred to both a place and the people who lived there. Roger Williams, the first English settler of Providence, wrote that the name came from that of a small island, which he did not locate but which may have been in what is now Point Judith Pond, he could not learn why the Indians called it Narragansett. But in fact Roger Williams's statement does enable a precise localization: He states that the place was "a little island, between Puttaquomscut and Mishquomacuk on the sea and fresh water side", that it was near Sugar Loaf Hill; this means it was between the Pettaquamscutt river to the east, the present town of Westerly to the west (the "sea side" and "fresh water side" being with reference to the land on th
Ninigret was a sachem of the eastern Niantic Indian tribe in New England at the time of English colonization. He was based in present-day Rhode Island. In 1637, Ninigret allied with the English colonists and the Narragansetts against the Pequot Indians. Ninigret is credited with keeping the Niantics out of King Philip's War, in which the English colonists fought fiercely to prevent their homes and settlements from being destroyed by certain Indian tribes. Ninigret was the cousin or the uncle of Miantonomo, his name was written in several ways, he was first known to the English settlers as Janemo and was sachem of the Niantics, a tribe of the Narragansett people. He did not participate in the Pequot war of 1632, he aided the colonists in the Pequot war of 1637. About a year after the death of Miantonomo, Ninigret formed a plan for expelling the colonists and sent a messenger to Long Island sachem Waiandance to engage him in it. Instead of listening to the messenger, Waiandance sent him to the fort at Saybrook.
From there, the messenger was transported to Hartford under guard. On their way, the party was forced to put in at Shelter Island. Ninigret passed the winter of 1652-53 among the Dutch in the western Indians, he was suspected of plotting with them against the New England colonists. The commissioners in Boston declared war against him in April 1653. Meanwhile, Ninigret waged war against the Long Island Indians who had placed themselves under the protection of the colonists. In September 1654, the commissioners sent a message to the chief demanding his appearance in Hartford where they were convened, the payment of tribute that had long been due, he refused to appear, sent them a haughty answer. War was again declared against him, 270 infantry and 40 horsemen were raised and placed under the command of Major Simon Willard, his instructions were to go to Ninigret's quarters, demand the tribute, insist upon a cessation of the war with the Long Island Indians. On the approach of the troops, Ninigret was not pursued.
On October 13, 1660, he and other chiefs mortgaged their territory to the colonists, he gave them possession at Pettequamscot in 1662. He so escaped the ruin that overtook the other tribes, his remains are said to be buried at a place near Charlestown, Rhode Island called Burying Hill. The Puritans achieved little in trying to convert the Niantics to Christianity. Roger Williams recorded his discouragement about it. Thomas Mayhew requested Ninigret to allow him to preach to his tribe, he replied: “Go and make the English good first.” Ninigret's daughter succeeded him as sachem. At her death, she was succeeded by her half-brother Ninigret, who granted a large portion of his people's lands to the colony of Rhode Island in 1709; this cession of land created difficulties for the Niantics. The younger Ninigret died about 1722, leaving sons Charles George. Charles Augustus left an infant son; some of the tribe acknowledged the boy as their sachem, while another portion adhered to his uncle George, who assumed the entire government in 1735.
George's son Thomas Ninegret became chief in 1746. He sold additional Niantic lands to the colony of Rhode Island which caused discontentment among his people, some of whom tried to depose him, they appealed for relief to Sir William Johnson, the colonial superintendent of the Indians in the Northeast. They made the case that the Niantic lands which Thomas Ninegret had sold were needed to support the families of men who had died serving the English king in the French and Indian War. In one letter to Johnson, they addressed the question of whether they had the authority to depose a sachem: “As it was in the power of the nation to put him in, we think it in the power of the nation to turn him out.” The controversy continued for several years, but Rhode Island obtained the lands. A small remnant of the Niantic people were still living in Rhode Island in 1812; the tribe no longer exists. Ninigret National Wildlife Refuge Fort Ninigret Ninigret Pond Ninigret Park Ninigret Beach Harold M. Chapin, Sachems of the Narragansett.
Providence, 1931. Julie A. Fisher and David J. Silverman, Sachem of the Niantics and Narragansetts: Diplomacy and the Balance of Power in Seventeenth-Century New England and Indian Country. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2014. Michael L. Oberg, First of the Mohegans.. Glen LaFantasie, ed; the Correspondence of Roger Williams, 1629–1653, Vol. 1. Massachusetts Historical Society, Collections, 2nd Ser. VIII, 59. Lafarge, Oliver.. A Pictorial History of the American Indian Crown Publishers Inc. Page 81. Yale University Brief Biography
Groton is a town in New London County, Connecticut located on the Thames River. It is the home of General Dynamics Electric Boat, the major contractor for submarine work for the United States Navy; the Naval Submarine Base New London is located in Groton, the pharmaceutical company Pfizer is a major employer. Avery Point in Groton is home to a regional campus of the University of Connecticut; the population was 40,115 at the 2010 census. Groton was established in 1705 when it separated from Connecticut; the town was named after Suffolk in England. A hundred years before it was established, the Niantic people settled in the area between the Thames River and Pawcatuck River, but they settled in Westerly, Rhode Island; the newcomers to the land were the Pequots, a branch of the Mohawk people who moved eastward into the Connecticut River Valley. The summer of 1614 was the first time, they started trading furs for the settlers' goods, such as steel knives and boots. In 1633, the Dutch opened a fur trading post.
Meanwhile, the English bought land for settlement from the local tribes. The Dutch had unintentionally killed the Pequots' chief, this prompted revenge by the Pequot tribe, this escalated into the Pequot War. On the night of May 26, 1637, the Colonial forces arrived outside the Pequot village near the Mystic River; the palisade surrounding the village had only two exits, their leader Colonel John Mason gave the order to set the village on fire and block off the exits. Those who tried climbing over the palisade were shot; the land was poor for farming, but access to the region's waterways left room for commerce and trade, Groton became a town of oceangoing settlers. Most of the community began to build ships, soon traders made their way to Massachusetts Bay Colony and Plymouth Colony to trade for food, tools and clothing. John Leeds was the earliest shipbuilder, coming as a sea captain from England, he built a 20-ton brigantine, a two-masted sailing ship with square-rigged sails on the foremast and fore-and-aft sails on the mainmast.
Thomas Starr built a 67-ton square-sterned vessel, Thomas Latham launched a 100-ton brig on the Groton bank with mast standing and rigged. The sturdy ships built in Groton engaged in profitable trade with the islands of the Caribbean. Rough times came to the Connecticut town of Groton when the French and Indian War ended and the Sugar Act of 1764 and the Stamp Act of 1765 were passed. Parliament closed down the port of crippling Groton's commerce. On September 6, 1781, the Battle of Groton Heights was fought between a combined force of state troops and local militia led by William Ledyard and numerous British forces led by Benedict Arnold. No one at Fort Griswold had expected an attack after six years of false alarms. At sunrise, a force of 1,700 British regulars landed on both sides of the mouth of the Thames River; the British fleet had sailed from Long Island the evening before, only a sudden shift in the wind prevented a surprise attack during the night. Across the Thames River in New London, Benedict Arnold was leading an 800-man detachment which destroyed stockpiles of goods and naval stores.
Arnold had been unaware of the orders given to spare most of the town. He was unaware that one of the ships docked in New London was filled with gunpowder. Upon ignition, the ship burst into flames and created an uncontrollable fire which destroyed 143 buildings in New London. Meanwhile, a British force of 800 men moved towards Fort Griswold in Groton, garrisoned by 164 militia and local men; the British sent a flag of surrender to Fort Griswold but William Ledyard refused and returned the flag. The British attacked, opening the bloody Battle of Groton Heights. After an initial repulse, the British succeeded in entering the fort and overpowering the small garrison inside. Lt. Col. William Ledyard realized that his men were overpowered and surrendered to the British—who proceeded to slaughter the Americans and murder Ledyard with his own sword. Jonathan Rathbun described the surrender this way:...the wretch who murdered him, exclaimed, as he came near, "Who commands this fort?" Ledyard handsomely replied, "I did, but you do now," at the same moment handing him his sword, which the unfeeling villain buried in his breast!
Oh, the hellish spite and madness of a man that will murder a reasonable and noble-hearted officer, in the act of submitting and surrendering! A memorial for the Battle of Groton Heights was put up in 1830 for the 88 men and boys who were killed at the fort. Fort Griswold is the only intact memorial in town left from the Revolutionary War; the 135-foot-tall monument is now featured on the Groton town seal. Shortly after the Revolutionary War, Groton started to re-establish its commercial activities. Shipbuilders began to build again. Shipbuilders along the Mystic River were the busiest; these ships went on trips to Florida, the resulting profits made Mystic the most thriving part of the town. Between 1784 and 1800, 32 vessels were built in Groton. 28 more were built from 1800 to 1807. In June 1812, the United States declared war on Great Britain. Most of the United States' small navy was landlocked in the Thames River; this frightened the people in Groton for fear that there would be a repeat of the Groto
Lisbon is a town in New London County, United States, 7.3 miles by road northeast of Norwich. The population was 4,338 at the 2010 census; the town center is known as the village of Newent. The town school is Lisbon Central School. Lisbon has one of the weakest municipal identity foundations in Connecticut, its only postal code, 06351, is Jewett City, a village of the town of Griswold and encompasses all of Lisbon and Griswold. The town incorporated from Norwich in 1786; the community was named after the capital of Portugal. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 16.6 square miles, of which 16.3 square miles is land and 0.4 square miles, or 2.29%, is water. The Taft Tunnel carries the Providence and Worcester Railroad through the hills along the Quinebaug River; as of the census of 2000, there were 4,069 people, 1,525 households, 1,181 families residing in the town. The population density was 250.3 people per square mile. There were 1,563 housing units at an average density of 96.1 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the town was 96.71% White, 0.32% African American, 0.42% Native American, 0.47% Asian, 0.37% from other races, 1.72% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.57% of the population. There were 1,525 households out of which 36.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 63.9% were married couples living together, 8.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 22.5% were non-families. 18.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.0% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.67 and the average family size was 3.03. In the town, the population was spread out with 26.0% under the age of 18, 6.1% from 18 to 24, 30.4% from 25 to 44, 26.0% from 45 to 64, 11.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females, there were 98.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.7 males. The median income for a household in the town was $55,149, the median income for a family was $61,888.
Males had a median income of $40,043 versus $25,833 for females. The per capita income for the town was $22,476. About 1.8% of families and 3.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 2.4% of those under age 18 and 3.4% of those age 65 or over. Andrew Clark House - built in 1740, it was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1979. Anshei Israel Synagogue - built in 1936, a rare example of a rural synagogue. Lathrop-Mathewson-Ross House - built in 1761, it was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1982. John Palmer House Taft Tunnel- Built in 1837, Taft Tunnel is the oldest railroad tunnel in America and continues to serve a line of the Providence and Worcester Railroad. Elias Perkins, congressman Jeannine Phillips, Miss Connecticut USA Town of Lisbon official website
New London, Connecticut
New London is a seaport city and a port of entry on the northeast coast of the United States, located at the mouth of the Thames River in New London County, Connecticut. It was one of the world's three busiest whaling ports for several decades beginning in the early 19th century, along with Nantucket and New Bedford, Massachusetts; the wealth that whaling brought into the city furnished the capital to fund much of the city's present architecture. The city subsequently became home to other shipping and manufacturing industries, but it has lost most of its industrial heart. New London is home to the United States Coast Guard Academy, Connecticut College, Mitchell College, The Williams School; the Coast Guard Station New London and New London Harbor is home port to the Coast Guard Cutter Chinook and the Coast Guard's tall ship Eagle. The city had a population of 27,620 at the 2010 census; the Norwich-New London metropolitan area includes 274,055 people. The area was called Nameaug by the Pequot Indians.
John Winthrop, Jr. founded the first English settlement here in 1646, making it about the 13th town settled in Connecticut. Inhabitants informally referred as Pequot after the tribe. In the 1650s, the colonists wanted to give the town the official name of London after London, but the Connecticut General Assembly wanted to name it Faire Harbour; the citizens protested, declaring that they would prefer it to be called Nameaug if it couldn't be named London. The legislature relented, the town was named New London on March 10, 1658; the harbor was considered to be the best deep water harbor on Long Island Sound, New London became a base of American naval operations during the American Revolutionary War. Famous New Londoners during the American Revolution include Nathan Hale, William Coit, Richard Douglass and Nathaniel Shaw, Gen. Samuel Parsons, printer Timothy Green, Bishop Samuel Seabury. New London was raided and much of it burned to the ground on September 6, 1781 in the Battle of Groton Heights by Norwich native Benedict Arnold in an attempt to destroy the Revolutionary privateer fleet and supplies of goods and naval stores within the city.
It is noted that this raid on New London and Groton was intended to divert General George Washington and the French Army under Rochambeau from their march on Yorktown, Virginia. The main defensive fort for New London was Fort Griswold, located across the Thames River in Groton, it was well known to Arnold, who sold its secrets to the British fleet so that they could avoid its artillery fire. The British overran New London's Fort Trumbull, while other soldiers moved in to attack Ft. Griswold across the river, commanded by Lieutenant Colonel William Ledyard; the British suffered great casualties at Ft. Griswold before the Americans were forced to surrender—whereupon the British stormed into and slaughtered most of the militia who defended it, including Colonel Ledyard. All told, more than 52 British soldiers and 83 militia were killed, more than 142 British and 39 militia were wounded, many mortally. New London suffered over 6 militia killed and 24 wounded, while Arnold and the British and Hessian raiding party suffered an equal amount.
Connecticut's independent legislature made New London one of the first two cities brought from de facto to formalized incorporations in its January session of 1784, along with New Haven. During the War of 1812, torpedoes were employed in attempts to destroy British vessels and protect American harbors. In fact, a submarine-deployed torpedo was used in an unsuccessful attempt to destroy HMS Ramillies while in New London's harbor; this prompted British Capt. Hardy to warn the Americans to cease efforts with the use of any "torpedo boat" in this "cruel and unheard-of warfare", or he would "order every house near the shore to be destroyed."For several decades beginning in the early 19th century, New London was one of the three busiest whaling ports in the world, along with Nantucket and New Bedford, Massachusetts. The wealth that whaling brought into the city furnished the capital to fund much of the city's present architecture; the New Haven and New London Railroad connected New London by rail to New Haven and points beyond by the 1850s.
The Springfield and New London Railroad connected New London to Springfield, Massachusetts by the 1870s. Several military installations have been part of New London's history, including the United States Coast Guard Academy and Coast Guard Station New London. Most of these military installations have been located at Fort Trumbull; the first Fort Trumbull was an earthwork built 1775-1777. The second Fort Trumbull was built 1839-1852 and still stands. By 1910, the fort's defensive function had been superseded by the new forts of the Endicott Program located on Fishers Island; the fort became the Revenue Cutter Academy. The Revenue Cutter Service was merged into the United States Coast Guard in 1915, the Academy relocated to its current site in 1932. During World War II, the Merchant Marine Officers Training School was located at Fort Trumbull. From 1950 to 1990, Fort Trumbull was the location for the Naval Underwater Sound Laboratory, which developed sonar and related systems for US Navy submarines.
In 1990, the Sound Laboratory was merged with the Naval Underwater Systems Center in Newport, Rhode Island, the New London facility was closed in 1996. The Naval Submarine Base New London is physically located in Groton, but submarines were stationed in New London from 1951 to 1991; the submarine tender Fulton and Submarine Squadron 10 were at State Pier in New London during this time. Squadron Ten was composed of eight to ten submarines and was the first al