Benjamin Rush was a signer of the Declaration of Independence and a civic leader in Philadelphia, where he was a physician, social reformer and educator as well as the founder of Dickinson College. Rush signed the Declaration of Independence, his self-description there was: "He aimed right." He served as Surgeon General of the Continental Army and became a professor of chemistry, medical theory, clinical practice at the University of Pennsylvania. Rush was a leader of the American Enlightenment and an enthusiastic supporter of the American Revolution, he was a leader in Pennsylvania's ratification of the Constitution in 1788. He was prominent in many reforms in the areas of medicine and education, he opposed slavery, advocated free public schools, sought improved education for women and a more enlightened penal system. As a leading physician, Rush had a major impact on the emerging medical profession; as an Enlightenment intellectual, he was committed to organizing all medical knowledge around explanatory theories, rather than rely on empirical methods.
Rush argued that illness was the result of imbalances in the body's physical system and was caused by malfunctions in the brain. His approach prepared the way for medical research, but Rush himself undertook none of it, he promoted public health by advocating clean environment and stressing the importance of personal and military hygiene. His study of mental disorder made him one of the founders of American psychiatry. Benjamin Rush was born to John Rush and Susanna Hall on January 4, 1746; the family, of English descent, lived on a plantation in the Township of Byberry in Philadelphia County, about 14 miles outside of Philadelphia. Benjamin was the fourth of seven children. John Rush died in July 1751 at age thirty-nine, leaving his mother, who ran a country store, to care for the family. At age eight, Benjamin was sent to live with an uncle to receive an education. Benjamin and his older brother Jacob attended a school run by Reverend Samuel Finley, which became West Nottingham Academy. In 1760, after further studies at the College of New Jersey, Rush graduated with a Bachelor of Arts degree at age fourteen.
From 1761 to 1766, Rush apprenticed under Dr. John Redman in Philadelphia. Redman encouraged him to further his studies at the University of Edinburgh in Scotland, where Rush studied from 1766 to 1768 and earned an M. D. degree. Rush became fluent in French and Spanish as a result of his studies and European tour. While at Edinburgh, he became a friend of the Earl of Leven and his family, including William Leslie. Returning to the Colonies in 1769, Rush opened a medical practice in Philadelphia and became Professor of Chemistry at the College of Philadelphia. Rush published the first American textbook on chemistry, several volumes on medical student education, wrote influential patriotic essays. Rush was active in the Sons of Liberty and was elected to attend the provincial conference to send delegates to the Continental Congress. Thomas Paine consulted Rush when writing the profoundly influential pro-independence pamphlet Common Sense. Rush signed the Declaration of Independence, he represented Philadelphia at Pennsylvania's own Constitutional Convention.
While Rush was representing Pennsylvania in the Continental Congress, he used his medical skills in the field. Rush accompanied the Philadelphia militia during the battles after which the British occupied Philadelphia and most of New Jersey, he was depicted serving in the Battle of Princeton in the painting The Death of General Mercer at the Battle of Princeton, January 3, 1777 by the American artist John Trumbull. The Army Medical Service was in disarray, between the military casualties high losses due to typhoid, yellow fever and other camp illnesses, political conflicts between Dr. John Morgan and Dr. William Shippen, Jr. and inadequate supplies and guidance from the Medical Committee. Nonetheless, Rush accepted an appointment as surgeon-general of the middle department of the Continental Army. Rush's order "Directions for preserving the health of soldiers" became one of the foundations of preventative military medicine and was republished, including as late as 1908. However, Rush's reporting of Dr. Shippen's misappropriation of food and wine supplies intended to comfort hospitalized soldiers, under-reporting of patient deaths, failure to visit the hospitals under his command led to Rush's resignation in 1778.
Rush criticized General George Washington in two handwritten but unsigned letters while still serving under the Surgeon General. One, to Virginia Governor Patrick Henry dated October 12, 1778, quoted General Thomas Conway saying that if not for God's grace the ongoing war would have been lost by Washington and his weak counselors. Henry forwarded the letter to Washington, despite Rush's request that the criticism be conveyed orally, Washington recognized the handwriting. At the time, the supposed Conway Cabal was trying to replace Washington with Horatio Gates as commander-in-chief. Rush's letter relayed General John Sullivan's criticism that forces directly under Washington were undisciplined and mob-like, contrasted Gates' army as "a well-regulated family". Ten days Rush wrote to John Adams relaying complaints inside Washington's army, including about "bad bread, no order, universal disgust" and praising Conway, appointed to Inspector General. Dr. Shippen sought Rush's resignation and received it by
Smyth County Community Hospital
The Smyth County Community Hospital is a historic hospital building at 565 Radio Hill Road in Marion, Smyth County, Virginia. It is a four-story steel-framed structure, finished in brick veneer, with a prominent five-story brick tower projecting at its center. One and two-story additions have been added to various parts of the building, its built in 1965-67 to a design by Echols-Sparger & Associates, a local architectural firm, was the first racially integrated hospital in southwestern Virginia. The building was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2015. National Register of Historic Places listings in Smyth County, Virginia
Carilion Roanoke Memorial Hospital
Carilion Roanoke Memorial Hospital is a hospital in Roanoke, Virginia, USA. With 703 beds, Carilion Roanoke Memorial Hospital is one of the largest hospitals in the state, it is part of Carilion Clinic. The region's only level I trauma center, the hospital operates three medical helicopters to provide air ambulance transport, including one in Moneta, one in Christiansburg, one in Lexington; the hospital was founded in 1899 as Roanoke Hospital. In the 1920s and 1930s, its growth was funded through gifts of hundreds of thousands of dollars from David W. Flickwir, a railroad executive and contractor who had married the hospital's nursing superintendent; the hospital dubbed him its "Greatest Benefactor". In the 21st century, the hospital completed a large expansion project, adding an emergency department, a labor-and-delivery unit, the Carilion Clinic Children’s Hospital, which has a pediatric emergency department. Carilion Roanoke Memorial Hospital Official Website
Inova Fairfax Hospital
Inova Fairfax Hospital is the largest hospital in Northern Virginia and the flagship hospital of Inova Health System. Located in Woodburn in Fairfax County, Inova Fairfax Hospital is one of the largest employers in the County. Inova Fairfax Hospital is home to a neonatal intensive care unit, a dedicated pediatrics intensive care unit, an oncology unit, an adolescent medicine unit, centers for cardiac surgery and pediatric surgery. Inova Fairfax Hospital is a 923-bed tertiary care hospital, providing most medical and surgical specialties, which houses Northern Virginia's only Level 1 Trauma Center the nation's fifth busiest obstetrics program, is one of only six community hospitals in the nation offering the full spectrum of organ transplantation, it has been named among the top 50 hospitals for gastrointestinal disorders and heart surgery by U. S. News & World Report. In 2016, Inova Fairfax and University of Virginia Health System announced a partnership involving a $112 million research institute and a University of Virginia School of Medicine regional campus at Inova.
The plan involves developing a Global Genomics and Bioinformatics Research Institute at the Inova Center for Personalized Health, which will be funded by UVA, the Virginia General Assembly. They intend to collaborate on research between the Inova Schar Cancer Institute and the University of Virginia Cancer Research Center. Inova Fairfax Hospital is a satellite clinical campus for students from Virginia Commonwealth University's School of Medicine and the University of Virginia School of Medicine and hosts residents from other universities in the area; the hospital houses the Virginia Commonwealth University School of Pharmacy’s Inova Campus in which students can complete their third and fourth years of training. On about September 29, 2011 it was announced that Inova will layoff 606 jobs. Environmental Service and Teleservices were the departments affected. On about February 17, 2012 it was announced that Inova will outsource and layoff an unknown number of employees. Safety and Security, Patient Transport and Medical Records were among the departments affected.
The following were statistics at the end of the year ending June 30, 2009: Admissions: 54,361 Inpatient surgeries: 19,349 Outpatient visits: 392,405 Emergency room visits: 98,317 Births: 11,182 Number of beds: 833 Best Hospitals, U. S. News & World Report: 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000 Best Hospitals, U. S. News & World Report: 2014 Gynecology Nationally Ranked #19 Best Hospitals and Heart Surgery, U. S. News & World Report: #21 Magnet Nursing Status: American Nurses Association America’s 50 Best Hospitals: 2007-2012 by HealthGrades 50 Best Hospitals in America: February 23, 2011 by Becker's Hospital ReviewThe hospital has received numerous other awards as well; the HealthGrades website contains the clinical quality data for Inova Fairfax Hospital, as of 2017. For this rating section three different types of data from HealthGrades are presented: clinical quality ratings for thirty-eight inpatient conditions and procedures, thirteen patient safety indicators and the percentage of patients giving the hospital as a 9 or 10.
For inpatient conditions and procedures, there are three possible ratings: worse than expected, as expected, better than expected. For this hospital the data for this category is: Worse than expected - 5 As expected - 24 Better than expected - 9For patient safety indicators, there are the same three possible ratings. For this hospital safety indicators were rated as: Worse than expected - 1 As expected - 10 Better than expected - 2Percentage of patients rating this hospital as a 9 or 10 - 76% Percentage of patients who on average rank hospitals as a 9 or 10 - 69% INOVA Fairfax Hospital | INOVA Health System
David Hume was a Scottish Enlightenment philosopher, historian and essayist, best known today for his influential system of philosophical empiricism and naturalism. Hume's empiricist approach to philosophy places him with John Locke, George Berkeley, Francis Bacon and Thomas Hobbes as a British Empiricist. Beginning with his A Treatise of Human Nature, Hume strove to create a total naturalistic science of man that examined the psychological basis of human nature. Against philosophical rationalists, Hume held that passion rather than reason governs human behaviour. Hume argued against the existence of innate ideas, positing that all human knowledge is founded in experience. In what is sometimes referred to as Hume's problem of induction, he argued that inductive reasoning and belief in causality cannot be justified rationally; this is because we can never perceive that one event causes another, but only that the two are always conjoined. Accordingly, to draw any causal inferences from past experience it is necessary to presuppose that the future will resemble the past, a presupposition which cannot itself be grounded in prior experience.
Hume's opposition to the teleological argument for God's existence, the argument from design, is regarded as the most intellectually significant attempt to rebut the argument prior to Darwinism. Hume was a sentimentalist who held that ethics are based on emotion or sentiment rather than abstract moral principle, famously proclaiming that "Reason is, ought only to be the slave of the passions". Hume's moral theory has been seen as a unique attempt to synthesise the modern sentimentalist moral tradition to which Hume belonged, with the virtue ethics tradition of ancient philosophy, with which Hume concurred in regarding traits of character, rather than acts or their consequences, as the proper objects of moral evaluation. Hume maintained an early commitment to naturalistic explanations of moral phenomena, is taken to have first expounded the is–ought problem, or the idea that a statement of fact alone can never give rise to a normative conclusion of what ought to be done. Hume denied that humans have an actual conception of the self, positing that we experience only a bundle of sensations, that the self is nothing more than this bundle of causally-connected perceptions.
Hume's compatibilist theory of free will takes causal determinism as compatible with human freedom. Hume influenced utilitarianism, logical positivism, Immanuel Kant, the philosophy of science, early analytic philosophy, cognitive science and other movements and thinkers. Kant himself credited Hume as the spur to his philosophical thought who had awakened him from his "dogmatic slumbers". Hume was the second of two sons born to Joseph Home of Ninewells, an advocate, his wife The Hon. Katherine, daughter of Sir David Falconer, he was born on 26 April 1711 in a tenement on the north side of the Lawnmarket in Edinburgh. Hume's father died when Hume was a child, just after his second birthday, he was raised by his mother, who never remarried, he changed the spelling of his name in 1734, because of the fact that his surname "Home", pronounced "Hume", was not known in England. Throughout his life Hume, who never married, spent time at his family home at Chirnside in Berwickshire, which had belonged to the family since the sixteenth century.
His finances as a young man were "slender". His family was not rich, and, as a younger son, he had little patrimony to live on, he was therefore forced to make a living somehow. Hume attended the University of Edinburgh at the unusually early age of 12 at a time when 14 was normal. At first, because of his family, he considered a career in law, but came to have, in his words, "an insurmountable aversion to everything but the pursuits of Philosophy and general Learning, he had little respect for the professors of his time, telling a friend in 1735 that "there is nothing to be learnt from a Professor, not to be met with in Books". Hume did not graduate. Aged around 18, he made a philosophical discovery that opened up to him "a new Scene of Thought", which inspired him "to throw up every other Pleasure or Business to apply to it", he did not recount what this scene was, commentators have offered a variety of speculations. One popular interpretation, prominent in contemporary Hume scholarship, is that the new "scene of thought" was Hume's realization that Francis Hutcheson's "moral sense" theory of morality could be applied to the understanding as well.
Due to this inspiration, Hume set out to spend a minimum of 10 years writing. He soon came to the verge of a mental breakdown, suffering from what a doctor diagnosed as the "Disease of the Learned". Hume wrote that it started with a coldness, which he attributed to a "Laziness of Temper", that lasted about nine months; some scurvy spots broke out on his fingers. This was. Hume wrote that he "went under a Course of Bitters and Anti-Hysteric Pills", taken along with a pint of claret every day. Hume decided to have a more active life to better continue his learning, his health improved somewhat, but in 1731 he was afflicted with a ravenous appetite and palpitations of the heart. After eating well for a time, he went from being "tall, lean and ra
Naval Medical Center Portsmouth
The Naval Medical Center Portsmouth Naval Hospital Portsmouth, Norfolk Naval Hospital, is a United States Navy medical center in Portsmouth, United States. It is the oldest continuously running hospital in the Navy medical system; the historic Portsmouth Naval Hospital building was designed by architect John Haviland and built in 1827. It is a three-story Freestone building on a 12-foot basement, its form is that of a hollow square, measuring 172 feet wide by 192 feet deep. The front facade features a 92 feet wide Doric order portico with 10 columns; the building's interior was reconstructed in 1907, a shallow dome was added to the roof. Located on the property are a contributing marker erected by Haviland over the grave of Major Saunders, one time commander of Forts Nelson and Norfolk, who died March 15, 1810; the hospital staff has a long tradition of providing service to the fleet. In the summer of 1832 during a massive cholera outbreak naval doctors and attendants remained on duty caring for patients throughout the epidemic and worked heroically to check the ravages of the disease and allayed people’s fears.
Official website Portsmouth Naval Hospital, Bounded by Elizabeth River, Crawford Street, Portsmouth General Hospital, Parkview Avenue, & Scotts Creek, Portsmouth, VA at the Historic American Buildings Survey Portsmouth Naval Hospital, Hospital Building, Rixey Place, bounded by Williamson Drive, Holcomb Road, & The Circle, Portsmouth, VA at HABS Portsmouth Naval Hospital, Medical Ward A, The Circle, Portsmouth, VA at HABS Portsmouth Naval Hospital, Medical Ward B, North corner, intersection of The Circle & Barton Avenue, Portsmouth, VA at HABS Portsmouth Naval Hospital, Medical Ward C, East corner, intersection of The Circle & Barton Avenue, Portsmouth, VA at HABS Portsmouth Naval Hospital, Medical Officer's Quarters B, West side Williamson Drive, 500 feet South of Rixey Place, Portsmouth, VA at HABS Portsmouth Naval Hospital, Medical Officer's Quarters C, West side Williamson Drive, 400 feet South of Rixey Drive, Portsmouth, VA at HABS Portsmouth Naval Hospital, Junior Officers' Quarters D, Williamson Drive, Portsmouth, VA at HABS Portsmouth Naval Hospital, Junior Officers' Quarters E, Williamson Drive, Portsmouth, VA at HABS Portsmouth Naval Hospital, Pharmacist's Quarters F, Williamson Drive, Portsmouth, VA at HABS Portsmouth Naval Hospital, Pharmacist's Quarters G, Williamson Drive, Portsmouth, VA at HABS Portsmouth Naval Hospital, Pharmacist's Quarters H, Williamson Drive, Portsmouth, VA at HABS Portsmouth Naval Hospital, Central Power House, West corner, intersection of The Circle & Barton Avenue, Portsmouth, VA at HABS Portsmouth Naval Hospital, Medical Storage Building, South corner of The Circle & Barton Avenue, Portsmouth, VA at HABS Portsmouth Naval Hospital, Recreation Building, Green Street, Portsmouth, VA at HABS Portsmouth Naval Hospital, Shower Room & Swimming Pool, Green Street, Portsmouth, VA at HABS Portsmouth Naval Hospital, Service Building, Between Williamson Drive & Green Street, adjacent to northern driveway behind Medical Officer's Quarters C, Portsmouth, VA at HABS Portsmouth Naval Hospital, Carpenter & Paint Shop, Green Street, Portsmouth, VA at HABS Portsmouth Naval Hospital, Gardener's Tool Shed, Between Williamson Drive & Green Street, adjacent to northern driveway behind Medical Officer's Quarters C, Portsmouth, VA at HABS
Fort Belvoir Community Hospital
Fort Belvoir Community Hospital is a military treatment facility operated by the Department of Defense. Located at Fort Belvoir, south of Washington D. C. the hospital is part of an integrated health care system under the National Capital Region Medical Directorate providing health care to members of the United States Armed Forces and their families. The $1.03 billion, 1.3 million-square-foot facility replaced DeWitt Army Community Hospital located on Fort Belvoir and integrated various aspects of the former Walter Reed Army Medical Center, Washington, D. C. in August 2011 in accordance with 2005 Base Realignment and Closure Law. The former DeWitt Army Community Hospital at Fort Belvoir, Va. for which Fort Belvoir Community Hospital replaced, was named in honor of Brigadier General Wallace DeWitt, Sr. a surgeon who served in World War I and World War II. The DeWitt Army Community Hospital opened in 1957, it was the second of nine hospitals planned by the Army during the building program following the Korean War.
DeWitt was a 46-bed Joint Commission-accredited facility and the only military inpatient facility in Northern Virginia. It was the center of the DeWitt Health Care Network, which featured the Andrew Rader Army Health Clinic at Fort Myer, Fort A. P. Hill, the Family Health Centers of Woodbridge and Fairfax in Virginia; as part of a Base Realignment and Closure announcement on May 13, 2005, the Department of Defense proposed closing Walter Reed Army Medical Center and merging it with the National Naval Medical Center located in Bethesda, MD, DeWitt Army Community Hospital. Moving nearly half of Walter Reed’s services to DeWitt would expand the hospital’s mission. In November 2007, ground was broken on Fort Belvoir’s South Post golf course for the new Fort Belvoir Community Hospital; as part of the effort to transform service specific medical facilities into joint service facilities, Fort Belvoir Community Hospital’s staff includes Army and Air Force medical personnel, making it one of the first joint medical facilities within the Department of Defense.
The modern, 120-bed facility incorporates natural elements and themes. Fort Belvoir’s new hospital has a seven-story main structure, flanked on each side by two outpatient clinic areas providing both primary and specialty care. In total, it consists of five total buildings, 3500 parking spaces, 44 clinics, expanded pharmacy services, 430 exam rooms, 10 operating rooms, two DaVinci surgical systems, two linear accelerator cancer/oncology systems, one of the military’s only dedicated substance abuse programs. Inpatient services were tripled in volume over the old hospital, the expanded outpatient specialty care center offers services as a more local and convenient alternative than Walter Reed National Military Medical Center, located over 30 miles away on congested highways; the hospital incorporates evidence-based design principles in its treatment approach. Department of Defense officials project the eligible beneficiary population will increase to more than 220,000 with 40 percent of the expanded health care system enrolled population consisting of retirees and their family members.
The anticipated outpatient workload is expected to grow to more than 600,000 visits per year in primary and ancillary clinics. Selected specialty clinics such as Cardiology, Medical Oncology, Radiation Oncology and Urology alone will generate 54,000 appointments per year; the hospital’s Labor and Delivery service delivered 104 babies in its first month of operations. This article incorporates public domain material from the United States Government document "Fort Belvoir Community Hospital". "Medical care expands under BRAC". 2007-04-05. Retrieved 2007-04-26. Fort Belvoir Community Hospital Fort Belvoir Community Hospital on Facebook Fort Belvoir Community Hospital on Flickr Fort Belvoir Community Hospital on Twitter