Large yellow underwing
The large yellow underwing is a moth, the type species for the family Noctuidae. It is an abundant species throughout the Palearctic ecozone, one of the most common, in some years the species is highly migratory with large numbers appearing suddenly in marginal parts of the range. It is present in Europe, North Africa, Canary Islands, Middle East, Iraq, Afghanistan, northwest India, Novosibirsk Oblast, Transcaucasia and it was introduced into North America at Nova Scotia. It was first recorded in Pennsylvania in 1998, North Carolina and west to Colorado, California, British Columbia and this is a quite large and heavy moth with a wingspan of 50–60 mm. The forewings are variable from light brown to almost black. The darker individuals often have a streak along the costa. The hindwings are bright orange-yellow with a black sub-terminal band, as with other Noctua species, this contrast of bland-on-land and bright-in-flight is used to confuse potential predators. This species flies at night from July to September and is attracted to light and it will visit flowers such as Buddleia and red valerian.
The larva is green or brown with two rows of black dashes along the back and this is one of the notorious cutworms, causing fatal damage at the base of virtually any herbaceous plant, sometimes severing it completely. This ubiquitous species is one of the most hated of garden pests, the species overwinters as a larva and feeds on mild days throughout the winter. ^ The flight season refers to the British Isles and this may vary in other parts of the range. Collins Guide to the Insects of Britain and Western Europe, colour Identification Guide to Moths of the British Isles. Lepiforum Noctua pronuba at funet. fi Fauna Europaea
International Union for Conservation of Nature
The International Union for Conservation of Nature is an international organization working in the field of nature conservation and sustainable use of natural resources. It is involved in gathering and analysis, field projects, lobbying. IUCNs mission is to influence and assist societies throughout the world to conserve nature and to ensure that any use of resources is equitable. Over the past decades, IUCN has widened its focus beyond conservation ecology and now incorporates issues related to equality, poverty alleviation. Unlike other international NGOs, IUCN does not itself aim to mobilize the public in support of nature conservation and it tries to influence the actions of governments and other stakeholders by providing information and advice, and through lobbying and partnerships. The organization is best known to the public for compiling and publishing the IUCN Red List. IUCN has a membership of over 1200 governmental and non-governmental organizations, some 11,000 scientists and experts participate in the work of IUCN commissions on a voluntary basis.
It employs approximately 1000 full-time staff in more than 60 countries and its headquarters are in Gland, Switzerland. IUCN has observer and consultative status at the United Nations, and plays a role in the implementation of several conventions on nature conservation. It was involved in establishing the World Wide Fund for Nature, in the past, IUCN has been criticized for placing the interests of nature over those of indigenous peoples. In recent years, its relations with the business sector have caused controversy. It was previously called the International Union for Protection of Nature, establishment In 1947, the Swiss League for the Protection of Nature organised an international conference on the protection of nature in Brunnen. It is considered to be the first government-organized non-governmental organization, the initiative to set up the new organisation came from UNESCO and especially from its first Director General, the British biologist Julian Huxley. At the time of its founding IUPN was the international organisation focusing on the entire spectrum of nature conservation Early years.
Its secretariat was located in Brussels and its first work program focused on saving species and habitats and applying knowledge, advancing education, promoting international agreements and promoting conservation. Providing a solid base for conservation action was the heart of all activities. IUPN and UNESCO were closely associated and they jointly organized the 1949 Conference on Protection of Nature. In preparation for this conference a list of endangered species was drawn up for the first time
The region is known for supporting extensive cattle ranching and dry farming. The Canadian portion of the Plains is known as the Prairies, some geographers include some territory of northern Mexico in the Plains, but many stop at the Rio Grande. The term Great Plains is used in the United States to describe a sub-section of the even more vast Interior Plains physiographic division and it has currency as a region of human geography, referring to the Plains Indians or the Plains States. There is no region referred to as the Great Plains in The Atlas of Canada, in terms of human geography, the term prairie is more commonly used in Canada, and the region is known as the Prairie Provinces or simply the Prairies. The region is about 500 mi east to west and 2,000 mi north to south, much of the region was home to American bison herds until they were hunted to near extinction during the mid/late 19th century. It has an area of approximately 500,000 sq mi, current thinking regarding the geographic boundaries of the Great Plains is shown by this map at the Center for Great Plains Studies, University of Nebraska–Lincoln.
The term Great Plains, for the region west of about the 96th or 98th meridian, nevin Fennemans 1916 study, Physiographic Subdivision of the United States, brought the term Great Plains into more widespread usage. Before that the region was almost invariably called the High Plains, today the term High Plains is used for a subregion of the Great Plains. The Great Plains are the westernmost portion of the vast North American Interior Plains, during the Cretaceous Period, the Great Plains were covered by a shallow inland sea called the Western Interior Seaway. However, during the Late Cretaceous to the Paleocene, the seaway had begun to recede, leaving thick marine deposits. During the Cenozoic era, specifically about 25 million years ago during the Miocene and Pliocene epochs, existing forest biomes declined and grasslands became much more widespread. The grasslands provided a new niche for mammals, including many ungulates and glires, the spread of grasslands and the development of grazers have been strongly linked.
The vast majority of animals became extinct in North America at the end of the Pleistocene. In general, the Great Plains have a variety of weather through the year, with very cold and harsh winters and very hot. Wind speeds are very high, especially in winter. Grasslands are among the least protected biomes, humans have converted much of the prairies for agricultural purposes or to create pastures. The Great Plains have dust storms mostly every year or so, the 100th meridian roughly corresponds with the line that divides the Great Plains into an area that receive 20 in or more of rainfall per year and an area that receives less than 20 in. The region is subjected to extended periods of drought, high winds in the region may generate devastating dust storms
Great Lakes region
The region borders the Great Lakes and forms a distinctive historical and cultural identity. A portion of the region encompasses most of the Great Lakes Megalopolis. The Commissions authorities are confirmed by the Canadian and American federal governments, the states and provinces are represented in the Conference of Great Lakes and St. Lawrence Governors and Premiers. To the east, the rivers of St. Lawrence, Hudson, beyond the region, North American claims remained disputed among Britain, France and Russia. During the American Revolution, the region was contested between Britain and rebellious American colonies, which may have entertained ambitions to repossess the area if America failed to govern it, retained control over its forts and licensed fur trade for fifteen years. During the Confederacy Period of 1781–1789, the Continental Congress passed three ordinances whose authority was unclear regarding the regions governance on the American side, the Land Ordinance of 1784 established the broad outlines of future governance.
The territory would be divided into six states, which would be given powers of constitutional instituting. The Land Ordinance of 1785 specified the manner in which land would be distributed in the Territory, the Northwest Ordinance of 1787 defined the political protocols by which American states south of the lakes would enter the union as political equals with the original thirteen colonies. The ordinance prohibited the establishment of religion and established civic rights that foreshadowed the United States Bill of Rights. Civil rights included freedom from cruel and unusual punishment, trial by jury, States were authorized to organize constitutional conventions and petition for admission as states equal to the original thirteen. Five states evolved from its provisions, Indiana, Illinois, the northeastern section of Minnesota, from the Mississippi to St. Croix River, fell under ordinance jurisdiction and extended the constitution and culture of the Old Northwest to the Dakotas. The surge of settlement generated tension culminating in the Battle of Fallen Timbers in 1794, the region on both sides of the border became a vast research and design laboratory for agricultural machinery and techniques.
Owner-operator family farms transformed both demographics and ecology into a vast terrain of farmlands, producing wheat and corn. In western New York and northeast Ohio, the St. Mining, primarily soft metals of copper and lead, the regions alliance of antislavery with free soil movements contributed troops and agricultural goods that proved critical in the Unions victory. The Homestead and Morrill Acts, donating land to extend the agrarian economic franchise. Like the provisions of the ordinance, Ontario prohibited slavery, made provisions for land distribution to farmers who owned their own land, Industrial production and technology have made the region among the worlds most productive manufacturing centers. The region hosted the worlds greatest concentrations of production for oil, steel, synthetic rubber, agricultural machinery, agronomy industrialized as well, in meat processing, packaged cereal products, and processed dairy products. State universities, professional work, and unemployment and workers compensation were some of the regions permanent contributions to American social policy
Animals are multicellular, eukaryotic organisms of the kingdom Animalia. The animal kingdom emerged as a clade within Apoikozoa as the group to the choanoflagellates. Animals are motile, meaning they can move spontaneously and independently at some point in their lives and their body plan eventually becomes fixed as they develop, although some undergo a process of metamorphosis in their lives. All animals are heterotrophs, they must ingest other organisms or their products for sustenance, most known animal phyla appeared in the fossil record as marine species during the Cambrian explosion, about 542 million years ago. Animals can be divided broadly into vertebrates and invertebrates, vertebrates have a backbone or spine, and amount to less than five percent of all described animal species. They include fish, reptiles and mammals, the remaining animals are the invertebrates, which lack a backbone. These include molluscs, annelids, flatworms, ctenophores, the study of animals is called zoology.
The word animal comes from the Latin animalis, meaning having breath, the biological definition of the word refers to all members of the kingdom Animalia, encompassing creatures as diverse as sponges, jellyfish and humans. Aristotle divided the world between animals and plants, and this was followed by Carl Linnaeus, in the first hierarchical classification. In Linnaeuss original scheme, the animals were one of three kingdoms, divided into the classes of Vermes, Pisces, Amphibia and Mammalia. Since the last four have all been subsumed into a single phylum, in 1874, Ernst Haeckel divided the animal kingdom into two subkingdoms and Protozoa. The protozoa were moved to the kingdom Protista, leaving only the metazoa, thus Metazoa is now considered a synonym of Animalia. Animals have several characteristics that set apart from other living things. Animals are eukaryotic and multicellular, which separates them from bacteria and they are heterotrophic, generally digesting food in an internal chamber, which separates them from plants and algae.
They are distinguished from plants and fungi by lacking cell walls. All animals are motile, if only at life stages. In most animals, embryos pass through a stage, which is a characteristic exclusive to animals. With a few exceptions, most notably the sponges and Placozoa and these include muscles, which are able to contract and control locomotion, and nerve tissues, which send and process signals
White-nose syndrome is an emerging disease in North American bats which by 2012 was associated with at least 5.7 million bat deaths. By September 2016, the fungus had been found in caves and mines of 29 states throughout the Northeastern US and 5 eastern Canadian provinces, in March 2016, it reached the West Coast, when it was confirmed in a little brown bat in the state of Washington. The disease is caused by the fungus Pseudogymnoascus destructans, which colonizes the bats skin, no obvious treatment or means of preventing transmission is known, and some species have declined >90% within five years of the disease reaching a site. The US Fish and Wildlife Service has called for a moratorium on caving activities in affected areas, the National Speleological Society maintains an up-to-date page to keep cavers apprised of current events and advisories. As of 2012 white nose syndrome was estimated to have caused at least 5.7 million to 6.7 million bat deaths in North America. ever seen. In 2016, it was reported that bat populations in the caves and mines of Georgia had been decimated in a similar fashion, as of 2012 four species have suffered substantial declines and extinction of at least one species was predicted.
Declines included species already listed as endangered in the US, such as the Indiana bat, the once-common little brown bat has suffered a major population collapse in the northeastern US. In 2012 the northern long-eared myotis was reported to be extirpated from all sites where the disease has been present for >4 years, in 2009, the Virginia big-eared bat, the official state bat of Virginia, and the gray bat had yet to suffer measurable declines. Beyond the direct effect on bat populations, WNS has broader ecological implications and it is estimated that bats save farmers in the U. S.3 billion dollars annually in pest control services. In addition, numerous bat species provide crucial pollination and seed dispersal services and they developed a geographic database to track the location of sites, where WNS has been found. The Fish and Wildlife Service has been partnering with the Northeastern Cave Conservancy to track movements of cavers that have visited affected sites in New York, in 2009, the Service advised closing caves to explorers in 20 states, from the Midwest to New England.
This directive was supposed to be extended to 13 southern states, one Virginia scientist stated, If it gets into caves more to our south, in places like Tennessee, Kentucky and Alabama, we’re going to be talking deaths in the millions. In March 2012, WNS was discovered on some tri-colored bats in Russell Cave in Jackson County, the fungus Pseudogymnoascus destructans is the primary cause of WNS. It preferably grows in the 4–15 °C range and will not grow at temperatures above 20 °C and it is cold loving or psychrophilic. It is phylogenetically related to Geomyces spp. but with a morphology distinct from characterized members of this genus. Early laboratory research placed the fungus in the genus Geomyces, a 2011 study found that 100% of healthy North American bats infected with the fungus cultured from infected bats exhibit lesions consistent with the disease. Direct microscopy and culture analyses demonstrated that the skin of the WNS-affected bats is colonized by the fungus, the species has been found in healthy bats in Europe, although as of 2010 it was not clear whether it was introduced into North America from Europe or Asia. A laboratory experiment suggests that physical contact is required for one bat to infect another and this implies that the fungus is not airborne, or at least, is not transmitted from bat to bat through the air
Johann Christian Daniel von Schreber
Johann Christian Daniel von Schreber, often styled J. C. D. von Schreber, was a German naturalist. He was appointed professor of materia medica at the University of Erlangen in 1769, in 1774 he began writing a multi-volume set of books entitled Die Säugethiere in Abbildungen nach der Natur mit Beschreibungen, which focused on the mammals of the world. Many of the animals included were given a name for the first time. From 1791 until his death in 1810, he was the President of the German Academy of Sciences Leopoldina and he was elected a member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences in 1787. In April 1795 he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society Numerous honors were bestowed on him including the office of a count palatine. Schreber wrote on entomology notably Schreberi Novae Species Insectorvm and his herbarium collection has been preserved in the Botanische Staatssammlung München since 1813
Mammals are any vertebrates within the class Mammalia, a clade of endothermic amniotes distinguished from reptiles by the possession of a neocortex, three middle ear bones and mammary glands. All female mammals nurse their young with milk, secreted from the mammary glands, Mammals include the largest animals on the planet, the great whales. The basic body type is a quadruped, but some mammals are adapted for life at sea, in the air, in trees. The largest group of mammals, the placentals, have a placenta, Mammals range in size from the 30–40 mm bumblebee bat to the 30-meter blue whale. With the exception of the five species of monotreme, all modern mammals give birth to live young, most mammals, including the six most species-rich orders, belong to the placental group. The largest orders are the rodents and Soricomorpha, the next three biggest orders, depending on the biological classification scheme used, are the Primates, the Cetartiodactyla, and the Carnivora. Living mammals are divided into the Yinotheria and Theriiformes There are around 5450 species of mammal, in some classifications, extant mammals are divided into two subclasses, the Prototheria, that is, the order Monotremata, and the Theria, or the infraclasses Metatheria and Eutheria.
The marsupials constitute the group of the Metatheria, and include all living metatherians as well as many extinct ones. Much of the changes reflect the advances of cladistic analysis and molecular genetics, findings from molecular genetics, for example, have prompted adopting new groups, such as the Afrotheria, and abandoning traditional groups, such as the Insectivora. The mammals represent the only living Synapsida, which together with the Sauropsida form the Amniota clade, the early synapsid mammalian ancestors were sphenacodont pelycosaurs, a group that produced the non-mammalian Dimetrodon. At the end of the Carboniferous period, this group diverged from the line that led to todays reptiles. Some mammals are intelligent, with some possessing large brains, self-awareness, Mammals can communicate and vocalize in several different ways, including the production of ultrasound, scent-marking, alarm signals and echolocation. Mammals can organize themselves into fission-fusion societies and hierarchies, most mammals are polygynous, but some can be monogamous or polyandrous.
They provided, and continue to provide, power for transport and agriculture, as well as commodities such as meat, dairy products, wool. Mammals are hunted or raced for sport, and are used as model organisms in science, Mammals have been depicted in art since Palaeolithic times, and appear in literature, film and religion. Defaunation of mammals is primarily driven by anthropogenic factors, such as poaching and habitat destruction, Mammal classification has been through several iterations since Carl Linnaeus initially defined the class. No classification system is accepted, McKenna & Bell and Wilson & Reader provide useful recent compendiums. Though field work gradually made Simpsons classification outdated, it remains the closest thing to a classification of mammals
Tent caterpillars are moderately sized caterpillars, or moth larvae, belonging to the genus Malacosoma in the family Lasiocampidae. Twenty-six species have been described, six of which occur in North America, some species are considered to have subspecies as well. They are often considered pests due to their habit of defoliating trees and they are among the most social of all caterpillars and exhibit many noteworthy behaviors. Tent caterpillars are readily recognized because they are social, diurnal, whereas tent caterpillars make their tents in the nodes and branches of a trees limbs, webworms enclose leaves and small branches at the ends of the limbs. The following description of the tent caterpillar life cycle is based on that of the tent caterpillar. The details of the histories of other species vary to a small extent. Tent caterpillars hatch from their eggs in the spring at the time the leaves of their host trees are just unfolding. The caterpillars establish their tent soon after they eclose, the tent is constructed at a site that intercepts the early morning sun.
The position of the tent is critical because the caterpillars must bask in the sun to elevate their temperatures above the ambient temperatures that occur in the early spring. Studies have shown that when the temperature of a caterpillar is less than about 15 °C. The tent consists of layers of silk separated by gaps. Caterpillars can adjust their body temperatures by moving from one compartment to another, on cool mornings they typically rest in a tight aggregate just under a sunlit surface of the tent. It is not uncommon to find that the temperature of the aggregate is as much as 30°C warmer than the air temperature on cold. Later on in the spring, temperatures may become excessive at midday, at the onset of a bout of foraging, caterpillars leave the tent en masse, moving to distant feeding sites. Immediately after feeding the caterpillars return to the tent and aggregate in sunlight to facilitate the digestive process, eastern tent caterpillars are central place foragers. In contrast, the forest tent caterpillar is a forager that establishes a series of temporary resting sites during the course of its larval development.
Studies have shown that eastern tent caterpillars recruit their tent mates to go on food finds, caterpillars move from the tent in search of food, laying down an exploratory pheromone trail as they pass over the branches of the host tree. These chemical exploratory trails allow caterpillars to find their way back to the tent, if a caterpillar finds food and feeds to repletion, it returns to the tent, laying down a recruitment trail that serves to recruit hungry tent mates to its food find
Lasiurus is the genus comprising hairy-tailed bats. The generic name Lasiurus is derived from the Greek lasios and oura and it contains some of the most attractive bats in the whole continent of North America, including such species as the eastern red bat, L. borealis, and the hoary bat, L. cinereus. They are very robust and long-winged, with fast and strong flight, several species fly during parts of the day, the hoary bat and red bat will often fly in daylight during winter. When roosting, this group is interesting as they hang from twigs, usually hidden by leaves in trees and they are, as a genus, being the only bats apart from the parti-coloured bat Vespertilio murinus to possess an extra pair of nipples. This allows them to more than the usual one pup per season that most bats produce
Bermuda is a British Overseas Territory in the North Atlantic Ocean. It is approximately 1,070 km east-southeast of Cape Hatteras, North Carolina,1,236 km south of Cape Sable Island, Nova Scotia, Bermuda is an associate member of Caribbean Community. The first person known to have reached Bermuda was the Spanish sea captain Juan de Bermúdez in 1503 and he claimed the islands for the Spanish Empire. Bermúdez never landed on the islands, but made two visits to the archipelago, of which he created a recognisable map, shipwrecked Portuguese mariners are now thought to have been responsible for the 1543 inscription on Portuguese Rock. Subsequent Spanish or other European parties are believed to have released pigs there, the island was administered as an extension of Virginia by the Company until 1614. Its spin-off, the Somers Isles Company, took over in 1615, at that time, the companys charter was revoked, and the English Crown took over administration. The islands became a British colony following the 1707 unification of the parliaments of Scotland and England, after 1949, when Newfoundland became part of Canada, Bermuda became the oldest remaining British Overseas Territory.
Since the return of Hong Kong to China in 1997, it is the most populous Territory and its first capital, St. Georges, was established in 1612 and is the oldest continuously inhabited English town in the New World. Bermudas economy is based on insurance and reinsurance, and tourism. Bermuda had one of the worlds highest GDP per capita for most of the 20th century, its economic status has been affected by the global recession. The island is in the belt and prone to severe weather. However, it is protected from the full force of a hurricane by the coral reef that surrounds the island. It is 898 nautical miles northeast of Miami, and 667 nautical miles from Cape Sable Island, in Nova Scotia, Canada. The islands lie due east of Fripp Island, South Carolina, west-northwest of Cape Verde, southeast of New York City, New York, north-northwest of Brazil and north of San Juan, Puerto Rico. The archipelago is formed by points on the rim of the caldera of a submarine volcano that forms a seamount. The volcano is one part of a range that was formed as part of the process that formed the floor of the Atlantic.
It has 103 km of coastline, the two incorporated municipalities in Bermuda are the City of Hamilton and the Town of St George. Bermuda is divided into nine parishes, which have some localities called villages, such as Flatts Village, although usually referred to in the singular, the territory consists of 181 islands, with a total area of 53.3 square kilometres
These are misspellings of Laspeyresia, which was invalidly established for the genus Cydia and actually refers to the noctuid moth genus Laspeyria. Cydia is a genus of tortrix moths, belonging to the tribe Grapholitini of subfamily Olethreutinae. Its distinctness from and delimitation versus the tribes type genus Grapholita requires further study, moths in this genus are generally small and dull brown, their caterpillars are yellow or white and wormlike. Cydia includes many species of importance due to the damage their caterpillars inflict as pests of agricultural crops, especially fruit. On the other hand, some Snake species have used for biological control of invasive weeds. A few species from the Hawaiian Islands are suspected to be due to disappearance of their food plants. Another well-known species is the jumping bean moth, whose live in Sebastiania seeds. But the type species of the two is Tortrix mediana, and that of the third is Orchemia gallicana. Baixeras, J. Brown, J. W. & Gilligan, online World Catalogue of the Tortricidae – Cydia genus account.
Baixeras, J. Brown, J. W. & Gilligan, online World Catalogue of the Tortricidae – Cydia species list. Baixeras, J. Brown, J. W. & Gilligan, online World Catalogue of the Tortricidae – Pammene genus account. Savela, Markku Savelas Lepidoptera and some life forms – Cydia. Savela, Markku Savelas Lepidoptera and some life forms – Grapholita. Hawaiian Cydia Photos and descriptions of species Eurasian Cydia of Economic Importance