Australian Capital Territory
The Australian Capital Territory is the federal district in the south east of Australia, enclaved within New South Wales. Its only city is Canberra, the city of Australia. The ACT has a strip of territory around the southern end of the Beecroft Peninsula. The need for a territory was flagged by colonial delegates during the Federation conventions of the late 19th century. Section 125 of the Australian Constitution provided that, following Federation in 1901, the territory was transferred to the Commonwealth by the state of New South Wales in 1911, two years prior to the naming of Canberra as the national capital in 1913. The floral emblem of the ACT is the royal bluebell and the emblem is the gang-gang cockatoo. The economic activity of the Australian Capital Territory is heavily concentrated around Canberra and this trend continued into 2016, when the territory was ranked the third best performing out of all of Australias states and territories. There is a proportion of young adults in the region compared with other Australian states or territories.
Approximately one-fifth of ACT residents were born outside of Australia, mainly in the United Kingdom, almost one-fifth speak a language other than English at home, the most common being Chinese. The ACT has a strip of territory around the southern end of the Beecroft Peninsula. Apart from the city of Canberra, the Australian Capital Territory contains agricultural land, small townships and communities located within the ACT include Williamsdale, Uriarra and Hall. There are a range of mountains and creeks in the Namadgi National Park. These include the Naas and Murrumbidgee Rivers, Canberra is noted for its warm to hot, dry summers, and cold winters with occasional fog and frequent frosts. Many of the mountains in the territorys south-west are snow-covered for at least part of the winter. Thunderstorms can occur between October and March, and annual rainfall is 623 mm, with rainfall highest in spring and summer, the highest maximum temperature recorded in the ACT was 42.8 °C at Acton on 11 January 1939.
The lowest minimum temperature was −14.6 °C at Gudgenby on 11 July 1971, notable geological formations in the Australian Capital Territory include the Canberra Formation, the Pittman Formation, Black Mountain Sandstone and State Circle Shale. In the 1840s fossils of brachiopods and trilobites from the Silurian period were discovered at Woolshed Creek near Duntroon, at the time, these were the oldest fossils discovered in Australia, though this record has now been far surpassed. Other specific geological places of interest include the State Circle cutting, the oldest rocks in the ACT date from the Ordovician around 480 million years ago
South Australia is a state in the southern central part of Australia. It covers some of the most arid parts of the country, with a total land area of 983,482 square kilometres, it is the fourth-largest of Australias states and territories. Other population centres in the state are relatively small, the state comprises less than 8 percent of the Australian population and ranks fifth in population among the six states and two territories. The majority of its people reside in Adelaide, most of the remainder are settled in fertile areas along the south-eastern coast and River Murray. The states colonial origins are unique in Australia as a settled, planned British province. Official settlement began on 28 December 1836, when the colony was proclaimed at the Old Gum Tree by Governor John Hindmarsh, as with the rest of the continent, the region had been long occupied by Aboriginal peoples, who were organised into numerous tribes and languages. The first British settlement to be established was Kingscote, Kangaroo Island, on 26 July 1836, the guiding principle behind settlement was that of systematic colonisation, a theory espoused by Edward Gibbon Wakefield that was employed by the New Zealand Company.
The goal was to establish the province as a centre of civilisation for free immigrants, promising civil liberties, although its history is marked by economic hardship, South Australia has remained politically innovative and culturally vibrant. Today, it is known for its wine and numerous cultural festivals. The states economy is dominated by the agricultural and mining industries, the state has an increasingly significant finance sector as well. Evidence of human activity in South Australia dates back as far as 20,000 years, with flint mining activity, in addition wooden spears and tools were made in an area now covered in peat bog in the South East. Kangaroo Island was inhabited long before the island was cut off by rising sea levels, thijssen named his discovery Pieter Nuyts Land, after the highest ranking individual on board. The complete coastline of South Australia was first mapped by Matthew Flinders, the land which now forms the state of South Australia was claimed for Britain in 1788 as part of the colony of New South Wales.
Although the new colony included almost two-thirds of the continent, early settlements were all on the eastern coast and it took more than forty years before any serious proposal to establish settlements in the south-western portion of New South Wales were put forward. In 1834, the British Parliament passed the South Australia Act 1834, the act stated that 802,511 square kilometres would be allotted to the colony and it would be convict-free. In contrast to the rest of Australia, terra nullius did not apply to the new province, although the patent guaranteed land rights under force of law for the indigenous inhabitants it was ignored by the South Australian Company authorities and squatters. Settlement of seven vessels and 636 people was made at Kingscote on Kangaroo Island. The first immigrants arrived at Holdfast Bay in November 1836, the Colonisation Commissioners intended to establish a police service as soon as misconduct within the increasing population warranted it
Toowoomba is a city in the Darling Downs region in the Australian state of Queensland. It is located 125 km west of Queenslands capital city Brisbane by road, the estimated urban population of Toowoomba as of June 2015 was 114,622. A university and cathedral city, it hosts the Toowoomba Carnival of Flowers each September and national events for the sports of mountain biking. There are more than 150 public parks and gardens in Toowoomba and it has developed into a regional centre for business and government services. It is referred to as the capital of the Darling Downs and it is the 16th-largest city in Australia and the sixth-largest in Queensland after Brisbane, Gold Coast, Sunshine Coast and Cairns. Toowoomba is the most populous city in the country after the national capital of Canberra. Land for the town was first surveyed in 1849, again in 1853, horton is regarded as the true founder of Toowoomba, despite the fact that he was not the first man to live there. Drovers and wagon masters spread the news of the new settlement at Toowoomba, by 1858 Toowoomba was growing fast.
It had a population of 700, three hotels and many stores, Land selling at £4 an acre in 1850 was now £150 an acre. Governor Bowen granted the wish of locals and a new municipality was proclaimed on 24 November 1860, the first town council election took place on 4 January 1861 and William Henry Groom won. The railway from Ipswich was opened in 1867, bringing with it business development, in 1892, the Under Secretary of Public Land proclaimed Toowoomba and the surrounding areas as a township and in 1904 Toowoomba was declared a city. Pastoralism replaced agriculture and dairying by the 1900s, Toowoomba was named as Australias Tidiest Town in 2008. Toowoomba is situated on the crest of the Great Dividing Range, a few streets are on the eastern side of the edge of the range, but most of the city is west of the divide. The city occupies the edge of the range and the low ridges behind it, two valleys run north from the southern boundary, each arising from springs either side of Middle Ridge near Spring Street at an altitude of around 680 m.
These waterways, East Creek and West Creek, flow together just north of the CBD to form Gowrie Creek, Gowrie Creek drains to the west across the Darling Downs and is a tributary of the Condamine River, part of the Murray–Darling basin. The water flowing down Gowrie Creek makes its way some 3,000 km to the mouth of the Murray River near Adelaide in South Australia, rain which falls on the easternmost streets of Toowoomba flows east to Moreton Bay a distance of around 170 km. The rich volcanic soil in the region maintain the 150 public parks that are scattered across the city. Jacaranda, camphor laurel and plane trees line many of the city streets, the citys reputation as The Garden City is highlighted during the Australian Carnival of Flowers festival held in September each year
Melbourne is the capital and most populous city of the Australian state of Victoria, and the second-most populous city in Australia and Oceania. The name Melbourne refers to an urban agglomeration spanning 9,900 km2, the metropolis is located on the large natural bay of Port Phillip and expands into the hinterlands towards the Dandenong and Macedon mountain ranges, Mornington Peninsula and Yarra Valley. It has a population of 4,641,636 as of 2016, and its inhabitants are called Melburnians. Founded by free settlers from the British Crown colony of Van Diemens Land on 30 August 1835, in what was the colony of New South Wales, it was incorporated as a Crown settlement in 1837. It was named Melbourne by the Governor of New South Wales, Sir Richard Bourke, in honour of the British Prime Minister of the day, William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne. It was officially declared a city by Queen Victoria, to whom Lord Melbourne was close, in 1847, during the Victorian gold rush of the 1850s, it was transformed into one of the worlds largest and wealthiest cities.
After the federation of Australia in 1901, it served as the interim seat of government until 1927. It is a financial centre in the Asia-Pacific region. It is recognised as a UNESCO City of Literature and a centre for street art, music. It was the host city of the 1956 Summer Olympics and the 2006 Commonwealth Games, the main passenger airport serving the metropolis and the state is Melbourne Airport, the second busiest in Australia. The Port of Melbourne is Australias busiest seaport for containerised and general cargo, Melbourne has an extensive transport network. The main metropolitan train terminus is Flinders Street Station, and the regional train. Melbourne is home to Australias most extensive network and has the worlds largest urban tram network. Before the arrival of settlers, humans had occupied the area for an estimated 31,000 to 40,000 years. At the time of European settlement, it was inhabited by under 2000 hunter-gatherers from three indigenous tribes, the Wurundjeri and Wathaurong.
The area was an important meeting place for the clans of the Kulin nation alliance and it would be 30 years before another settlement was attempted. Batman selected a site on the bank of the Yarra River. Batman returned to Launceston in Tasmania, in early August 1835 a different group of settlers, including John Pascoe Fawkner, left Launceston on the ship Enterprize
Gladstone /ˈɡlædstən/ is a city in the Gladstone Region, Australia. It is approximately 550 km by road north of Brisbane and 100 km south-east of Rockhampton, situated between the Calliope and Boyne Rivers, Gladstone is home to Queenslands largest multi-commodity shipping port. Gladstone, together with Boyne Island and Tannum Sands, had an urban population of 49,248 at June 2015. This urban area covers 240.2 km2, Gladstone is the largest settlement within and the seat of the Gladstone Regional Council, which formed in 2008 amalgamating three former local government areas. Before European settlement, the Gladstone region was home of the Toolooa, Meerooni, in May 1770, the HM Bark Endeavour, under the command of James Cook, sailed by the entrance to Gladstone Harbour under the cover of darkness. Matthew Flinders, during his 1801–1803 circumnavigation of Australia, became the first recorded European to sight the harbour in August 1802. He named the harbour Port Curtis, after Admiral Roger Curtis, John Oxley conducted further exploration of the harbour and surrounding countryside in November 1823.
Oxley was dismissive of the region, noting the harbour was difficult to enter, the countryside was too dry, nevertheless, a colony was eventually established at Port Curtis. Colonel George Barneys expedition was eventful, on 25 January 1847, the Lord Auckland, carrying 87 soldiers and convicts, arrived off the southern entrance of Port Curtis and promptly ran aground on shoals off the southern tip of Facing Island. The settlers spent seven weeks on the island before being rescued by the supply ship Thomas Lowry and delivered the intended site of settlement, on 30 January at a proclamation ceremony, Barney was sworn in as Lieutenant Governor of the colony of North Australia. The convict settlement lasted barely two months, a change of government in Britain ordered the withdrawal of Barney and the settlers. However, interest in the region remained, by 1853, Francis MacCabe was surveying the site of a new town on the shores of Port Curtis. Maurice OConnell was appointed government resident the following year, resulting in an influx of free settlers as land became available throughout the region, in 1863, the town became a Municipality with Richard Hetherington elected Gladstones first mayor.
The fledgling town was named after the British Prime Minister William Ewart Gladstone and has a 19th-century marble statue on display in its town museum, development of Gladstone was slow until 1893, when a meatworks was established at Parsons Point. On 2 March 1949, a cyclone hit Gladstone, doing extensive damage to the town. In 1963, Queensland Alumina Limited established its alumina refinery on the site of the old meatworks, Gladstones port facilities were expanded and the city launched into an era of industrial development and economic prosperity. William Robert Golding — builder, local government councillor, local government head, public servant, percival Albert Gourgaud — public servant, public servant head. Henry John Manning — company managing director, newspaper executive, frederick Woolnough Paterson — barrister, farmer, local government councillor, Member of Lower House, school teacher, soldier
Jervis Bay Territory
The Jervis Bay Territory is a territory of the Commonwealth of Australia. It was surrendered by the state of New South Wales to the Commonwealth Government in 1915 so the capital at Canberra would have access to the sea. It was administered by the Department of the Interior as if it were part of the Australian Capital Territory, although it has always been a separate Commonwealth territory. The perception that it is part of the ACT stems from the fact that under the terms of the Jervis Bay Territory Acceptance Act, the bay was sighted by Lieutenant James Cook aboard HMS Endeavour on 25 April 1770 and he named the southern headland Cape St George. In August 1791 the bay was entered and named by Lieutenant Richard Bowen aboard the transport ship Atlantic of the Third Fleet in honour of Admiral John Jervis. In November 1791 Master Matthew Weatherhead aboard the Matilda entered the bay to undertake repairs, survivors of the Sydney Cove shipwreck in 1797 reached the area by foot, heading to Port Jackson.
Explorer George Bass entered the bay on 10 December 1797, John Oxley, an English explorer and surveyor, travelled from Sydney by sea to explore the bay in 1819. Jervis Bay was selected to be that federal port, the crown land in the area was granted by New South Wales to the Commonwealth in 1909 at the same time that the ACT was surrendered to the Commonwealth. In 1915 the jurisdiction over the Jervis Bay Territory was surrendered to the Commonwealth, NSW granted to Commonwealth permission to build a rail corridor linking the two territories but this was never implemented. At the 2011 census, an estimated 377 people lived in the territory, the area of land and water owned by the Wreck Bay Aboriginal Community Council in the JBT is approximately 68 km2, which is about 90% of the land. The remaining land in the JBT is managed by the Department of Infrastructure, There is an Aboriginal community at Wreck Bay in the Booderee National Park. Vincentia is the nearest town, roughly 3 km north of the border, Jervis Bay Territory is administered by the Department of Infrastructure and Regional Development.
However, it is counted as part of the ACT for the purpose of the ACTs representation in the Senate, residents have access to the courts of the ACT, but are not separately represented in the ACT Legislative Assembly. The Jervis Bay Territory is in the Commonwealth Electoral Division of Fenner, Jervis Bay Territory residents are not represented at the local or State government level but have access to the decision-making process through community organisations. Having 65.7 km2 of land and 8.9 km2 marine reserve, Jervis Bay is a natural harbour 16 km north-south and 10 km east-west, opening to the east onto the Pacific Ocean. The bay is situated about 198 km south of the city of Sydney, the nearest city is Nowra, about 40 km on the Shoalhaven River to the north. The majority of Jervis Bay embayment is part of Jervis Bay Marine Park, the park itself encompasses approximately 90% of the territory of Jervis Bay and covers the overlap between Australias northern and southern climatic zones. Ancient sand dunes overlay the bedrock formations formed from upheaval of the surrounding marine environment 280–225 million years ago
Brisbane is the capital of and most populous city in the Australian state of Queensland, and the third most populous city in Australia. Brisbanes metropolitan area has a population of 2.35 million, the Brisbane central business district stands on the original European settlement and is situated inside a bend of the Brisbane River, about 15 kilometres from its mouth at Moreton Bay. The demonym of Brisbane is Brisbanite, one of the oldest cities in Australia, Brisbane was founded upon the ancient homelands of the indigenous Turrbal and Jagera peoples. A penal settlement was founded in 1824 at Redcliffe,28 kilometres north of the business district. The city was marred by the Australian frontier wars between 1843 and 1855, and development was set back by the Great Fire of Brisbane. Brisbane was chosen as the capital when Queensland was proclaimed a colony from New South Wales in 1859. During World War II, Brisbane played a role in the Allied campaign. Today, Brisbane is well known for its distinct Queenslander architecture which forms much of the built heritage.
It receives attention for its damaging flood events, most notably in 1974 and 2011. Several large cultural and sporting events have held at Brisbane, including the 1982 Commonwealth Games, World Expo 88, the final Goodwill Games in 2001. Prior to white settlement, the Brisbane area was inhabited by the Turrbal and they knew the area that is now the central business district as Mian-jin, meaning place shaped as a spike. The Moreton Bay area was explored by Matthew Flinders. On 17 July 1799, Flinders landed at what is now known as Woody Point, in 1823 Governor of New South Wales Sir Thomas Brisbane instructed that a new northern penal settlement be developed, and an exploration party led by John Oxley further explored Moreton Bay. Oxley discovered and explored the Brisbane River as far as Goodna,20 kilometres upstream from the Brisbane central business district, Oxley recommended Red Cliff Point for the new colony, reporting that ships could land at any tide and easily get close to the shore.
The party settled in Redcliffe on 13 September 1824, under the command of Lieutenant Henry Miller with 14 soldiers and 29 convicts. However, this settlement was abandoned after a year and the colony was moved to a site on the Brisbane River now known as North Quay,28 km south, chief Justice Forbes gave the new settlement the name of Edenglassie before it was named Brisbane. Non-convict European settlement of the Brisbane region commenced in 1838, German missionaries settled at Zions Hill, Nundah as early as 1837, five years before Brisbane was officially declared a free settlement. The band consisted of ministers Christopher Eipper and Carl Wilhelm Schmidt and lay missionaries Haussmann, Johann Gottried Wagner, Hartenstein, Franz, Rode and they were allocated 260 hectares and set about establishing the mission, which became known as the German Station
Tasmania is an island state of the Commonwealth of Australia. It is located 240 km to the south of the Australian mainland, the state encompasses the main island of Tasmania, the 26th-largest island in the world, and the surrounding 334 islands. The state has a population of around 519,100, just over forty percent of which resides in the Greater Hobart precinct, Tasmanias area is 68,401 km2, of which the main island covers 64,519 km2. Though an island state, due to an error the state shares a land border with Victoria at its northernmost terrestrial point, Boundary Islet. The Bishop and Clerk Islets, about 37 km south of Macquarie Island, are the southernmost terrestrial point of the state of Tasmania, the island is believed to have been occupied by Aboriginals for 40,000 years before British colonisation. It is thought Tasmanian Aboriginals were separated from the mainland Aboriginal groups about 10,000 years ago when the sea rose to form Bass Strait. The conflict, which peaked between 1825 and 1831 and led to more than three years of law, cost the lives of almost 1100 Aboriginals and settlers.
The near-destruction of Tasmanias Aboriginal population has been described by historians as an act of genocide by the British. The island was part of the Colony of New South Wales. In 1854 the present Constitution of Tasmania was passed and the year the state received permission to change its name to Tasmania. In 1901 it became a state through the process of the Federation of Australia, the state is named after Dutch explorer Abel Tasman, who made the first reported European sighting of the island on 24 November 1642. Tasman named the island Anthony van Diemens Land after his sponsor Anthony van Diemen, the name was shortened to Van Diemens Land by the British. It was officially renamed Tasmania in honour of its first European discoverer on 1 January 1856, Tasmania was sometimes referred to as Dervon, as mentioned in the Jerilderie Letter written by the notorious Australian bushranger Ned Kelly in 1879. The colloquial expression for the state is Tassie, Tasmania is colloquially shortened to Tas, especially when used in business names and website addresses.
TAS is the Australia Post abbreviation for the state, the reconstructed Palawa kani language name for Tasmania is Lutriwita. The island was adjoined to the mainland of Australia until the end of the last glacial period about 10,000 years ago, much of the island is composed of Jurassic dolerite intrusions through other rock types, sometimes forming large columnar joints. Tasmania has the worlds largest areas of dolerite, with many distinctive mountains, the central plateau and the southeast portions of the island are mostly dolerite. Mount Wellington above Hobart is an example, showing distinct columns known as the Organ Pipes
New South Wales
New South Wales is a state on the east coast of Australia. It borders Queensland to the north, Victoria to the south and it has a coast line with the Tasman Sea on its east side. The Australian Capital Territory is an enclave within the state, New South Wales state capital is Sydney, which is Australias most populous city. In March 2014, the population of New South Wales was 7.5 million. Just under two-thirds of the population,4.67 million. Inhabitants of New South Wales are referred to as New South Welshmen, the Colony of New South Wales was founded as a penal colony in 1788. It originally comprised a more than half of the Australian mainland with its western boundary set at 129th meridian east in 1825, in addition, the colony included the island territories of New Zealand, Van Diemens Land, Lord Howe Island, and Norfolk Island. During the 19th century, most of the area was detached to form separate British colonies that eventually became New Zealand. However, the Swan River Colony has never administered as part of New South Wales.
Lord Howe Island remains part of New South Wales, while Norfolk Island has become a federal Territory, as have the now known as the Australian Capital Territory. The prior inhabitants of New South Wales were the Aboriginal tribes who arrived in Australia about 40,000 to 60,000 years ago, before European settlement there were an estimated 250,000 Aboriginal people in the region. The Wodi Wodi people are the custodians of the Illawarra region of South Sydney. The Bundjalung people are the custodians of parts of the northern coastal areas. The European discovery of New South Wales was made by Captain James Cook during his 1770 survey along the eastern coast of the Dutch-named continent of New Holland. In his original journal covering the survey, in triplicate to satisfy Admiralty Orders, Cook first named the land New Wales, however, in the copy held by the Admiralty, he revised the wording to New South Wales. After years of chaos and anarchy after the overthrow of Governor William Bligh, macquaries legacy is still evident today.
During the 19th century, large areas were separated to form the British colonies of Tasmania, South Australia, Victoria. Responsible government was granted to the New South Wales colony in 1855, following the Treaty of Waitangi, William Hobson declared British sovereignty over New Zealand in 1840
Coffs Harbour, in Australia, is a coastal city located on the Mid North Coast of New South Wales about 540 km north of Sydney, and 390 km south of Brisbane. It is one of the largest urban centres in the North Coast region, Coffs Harbour won an international Bloom award for population 20, 001–75,000 in 2002. In addition an Enhancement of the Landscape in 2004 from the same organisation, Coffs Harbours economy was once based mainly on bananas, now being superseded by blueberries as well as tourism and fishing. The wider region is known as the Bananacoast, the city has a campus of Southern Cross University, a public and a private hospital, several radio stations, and three major shopping centres. Coffs Harbour is near numerous national parks, including a national park. There are regular passenger flights each day to Sydney and Melbourne departing from Coffs Harbour Airport, Coffs Harbour is accessible by road, by NSW TrainLink trains, and by regular bus services. Coffs Harbour is a city along the Pacific Highway between Newcastle and The Gold Coast.
It has become a service centre for those living between South West Rocks in the south and Grafton to the north. Sawtell,10 km south along Hogbin Drive from the city has become a suburb of Coffs Harbour. The surrounding region is dominated by resorts and apartments with hinterland hills and mountains covered by forests, banana plantations. It is the place in New South Wales where the Great Dividing Range meets the Pacific Ocean. The Bananacoast Community Credit Union is headquartered in Coffs Harbour, the city is relatively sunny, receiving 122.1 clear days annually, higher than Brisbane and Cairns. Summers are warm and humid, winters are mild and drier. By the early 1900s, the Coffs Harbour area had become an important timber production centre, before the opening of the North Coast Railway Line, the only way to transport large items of heavy but low value, such as timber, was by coastal shipping. This meant sawmillers on the North Coast were dependent on jetties either in rivers or off beaches for exporting their timber, timber tramways were constructed to connect the timber-getting areas, the sawmills and jetties built into the ocean at Coffs Harbour.
Coffs Harbour owes its name to John Korff, who named the area Korffs Harbour when he was forced to shelter from storm in the area in 1847. Its name was changed by the surveyor for the crown when he reserved land in the area during 1861. Coffs Harbour was the hub for a thriving banana industry, one of the biggest attractions is the Big Banana, one of the first of Australias Big Things, with the Worlds Largest Banana celebrating the regions best known export
Gold Coast, Queensland
Gold Coast is a coastal city in the Australian state of Queensland, approximately 66 kilometres south-southeast of the state capital Brisbane and immediately north of the border with New South Wales. With a census-estimated 2016 population of 638,090, The Gold Coast is the sixth-largest city in Australia, making it the largest non-capital city, the first settlement in what is now South East Queensland was as a penal colony at Redcliffe. The Gold Coast region remained uninhabited by Europeans until 1823 when explorer John Oxley landed at Mermaid Beach. The hinterlands red cedar supply attracted people to the area in the mid-19th century, in 1875, Southport was surveyed and established and grew a reputation as a secluded holiday destination for wealthy Brisbane residents. The Gold Coast region grew significantly after the establishment of the Surfers Paradise hotel in the late 1920s and it is the major film production hub for Queensland. Gold Coast will host the 2018 Commonwealth Games, lieutenant James Cook became the first European to note the region when he sailed along the coast on 16 May 1770 in the HM Bark Endeavour.
Captain Matthew Flinders, an explorer charting the continent north from the colony of New South Wales, escaped convicts from the Moreton Bay penal settlement hid in the region. The region remained uninhabited by Europeans until 1823 when explorer John Oxley landed at Mermaid Beach. The hinterlands red cedar supply attracted people to the area in the mid-19th century, a number of small townships developed along coast and in the hinterland. The western suburb of Nerang was surveyed and established as a base for the industry, by 1873, the town reserve of Burleigh Heads had been surveyed and successful land sales had taken place. Southport quickly grew a reputation as a holiday destination for wealthy Brisbane residents. Gold Coast was originally known as the South Coast, inflated prices for real estate and other goods and services led to the nickname of Gold Coast from 1950. South Coast locals initially considered the name Gold Coast derogatory, soon the Gold Coast simply became a convenient way to refer to the holiday strip from Southport to Coolangatta.
As the tourism grew into the 1950s, local businesses began to adopt the term in their names. The area was proclaimed a city less than one year later, in 2007, Gold Coast overtook the population of Newcastle, New South Wales to become the sixth largest city in Australia and the largest non-capital city. The Gold Coast is approximately covered by forests of various types. This includes small patches of near-pristine ancient rainforest, mangrove-covered islands, of the plantation pine forests that were planted in the 1950s and 1960s, when commercial forest planting for tax minimisation was encouraged by the Commonwealth government, tiny remnants remain. Gold Coast City lies in the southeast corner of Queensland, to the south of Brisbane, the Albert River separates Gold Coast from Logan City, a suburban area of Brisbane
Hervey Bay /ˈhɑːrvi ˈbeɪ/ is a city in the state of Queensland, Australia. The city is situated approximately 290 kilometres or 3½ hours highway drive north of the state capital and it is a natural bay between the Queensland mainland and nearby Fraser Island. At June 2015, Hervey Bay had an urban population of 52,288. At 1.2 percent, the 5-year average annual growth is modest compared to 1.5 percent nationally. It has an age of 45, significantly higher than the national average of 37. The indigenous Butchulla people are the residents of Hervey Bay. The first recorded European sighting of Hervey Bay was made by James Cook while carrying out his survey of the east coast of Australia. By noon Cooks ship was in a position a little over half-way across the opening of Hervey Bay heading for Bundaberg. Cook named the bay Herveys Bay after Augustus John Hervey, Third Earl of Bristol, a naval officer who became a Lord of the Admiralty the year Endeavour returned. Until around the mid-1980s the area was serviced by a link from the Main North Coast line that diverted from Aldershot and went through Takura, Nikenbah on to Pialba.
The line was a major point for the Port of Maryborough. In 1984, Hervey Bay was officially known as the City of Hervey Bay and it was known as a city because of its large growth in business, population and industry. Although it was now being known as a city, it remained a small seaside village to most of the local residents. Hervey Bay has a number of heritage-listed sites, Fraser Island is listed on the World Heritage List. The Woody Island Lighthouses are listed on the Queensland Heritage Register, Hervey Bay is situated approximately 3½ hours drive north of Brisbane, via the Bruce Highway and 30 minutes drive north-east of Maryborough. The city is served by the high-speed Tilt Train, which has connections from Maryborough West or nearby Howard. The city is served by the Hervey Bay Airport, with flights from Brisbane. The City of Hervey Bay has released a master plan which includes future provision of a taxiway parallel to the main runway, additional car parking