Russia the Russian Federation, is a transcontinental country in Eastern Europe and North Asia. At 17,125,200 square kilometres, Russia is by far or by a considerable margin the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, the ninth most populous, with about 146.77 million people as of 2019, including Crimea. About 77 % of the population live in the European part of the country. Russia's capital, Moscow, is one of the largest cities in the world and the second largest city in Europe. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Estonia, Latvia and Poland, Ukraine, Azerbaijan, China and North Korea, it shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U. S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. However, Russia recognises two more countries that border it, Abkhazia and South Ossetia, both of which are internationally recognized as parts of Georgia.
The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' disintegrated into a number of smaller states; the Grand Duchy of Moscow reunified the surrounding Russian principalities and achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had expanded through conquest and exploration to become the Russian Empire, the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state; the Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War.
The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Belarus, Uzbekistan, Azerbaijan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Lithuania, it is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. Russia's economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2018. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally; the country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction.
Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation, the G20, the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the World Trade Organization, as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States, the Collective Security Treaty Organization and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union, along with Armenia, Belarus and Kyrgyzstan; the name Russia is derived from Rus', a medieval state populated by the East Slavs. However, this proper name became more prominent in the history, the country was called by its inhabitants "Русская Земля", which can be translated as "Russian Land" or "Land of Rus'". In order to distinguish this state from other states derived from it, it is denoted as Kievan Rus' by modern historiography.
The name Rus itself comes from the early medieval Rus' people, Swedish merchants and warriors who relocated from across the Baltic Sea and founded a state centered on Novgorod that became Kievan Rus. An old Latin version of the name Rus' was Ruthenia applied to the western and southern regions of Rus' that were adjacent to Catholic Europe; the current name of the country, Россия, comes from the Byzantine Greek designation of the Rus', Ρωσσία Rossía—spelled Ρωσία in Modern Greek. The standard way to refer to citizens of Russia is rossiyane in Russian. There are two Russian words which are commonly
AutoCAD is a commercial computer-aided design and drafting software application. Developed and marketed by Autodesk, AutoCAD was first released in December 1982 as a desktop app running on microcomputers with internal graphics controllers. Before AutoCAD was introduced, most commercial CAD programs ran on mainframe computers or minicomputers, with each CAD operator working at a separate graphics terminal. Since 2010, AutoCAD was released as a mobile- and web app as well, marketed as AutoCAD 360. AutoCAD is used in the industry, by architects, project managers, graphic designers, city planners and other professionals, it was supported by 750 training centers worldwide in 1994. AutoCAD was derived from a program that began in 1977, released in 1979 called Interact CAD referred to in early Autodesk documents as MicroCAD, written prior to Autodesk's formation by Autodesk cofounder Michael Riddle; the first version by Autodesk was released that December. AutoCAD supported CP/M-80 computers; as Autodesk's flagship product, by March 1986 AutoCAD had become the most ubiquitous CAD program worldwide.
The 2020 release marked the 34th major release of AutoCAD for Windows. The 2019 release marked the ninth consecutive year of AutoCAD for Mac; the native file format of AutoCAD is.dwg. This and, to a lesser extent, its interchange file format DXF, have become de facto, if proprietary, standards for CAD data interoperability for 2D drawing exchange. AutoCAD has included support for.dwf, a format developed and promoted by Autodesk, for publishing CAD data. ESRI ArcMap 10 permits export as AutoCAD drawing files. Civil 3D permits export as AutoCAD objects and as LandXML. Third-party file converters exist for specific formats such as Bentley MX GENIO Extension, PISTE Extension, ISYBAU, OKSTRA and Microdrainage. For example, jagged edges may appear. Several vendors provide online conversions for free such as Cometdocs.autoCAD use in all purposes. Auto CAD and AutoCAD LT are available for English, French, Spanish, Chinese Simplified, Chinese Traditional, Brazilian Portuguese, Czech and Hungarian, Albanian.
The extent of localization varies from full translation of the product to documentation only. The AutoCAD command set is localized as a part of the software localization. AutoCAD supports a number of APIs for automation; these include AutoLISP, Visual LISP, VBA. NET and ObjectARX. ObjectARX is a C++ class library, the base for: products extending AutoCAD functionality to specific fields creating products such as AutoCAD Architecture, AutoCAD Electrical, AutoCAD Civil 3D third-party AutoCAD-based applicationThere are a large number of AutoCAD plugins available on the application store Autodesk Exchange Apps. AutoCAD's DXF, drawing exchange format, allows exporting drawing information. Autodesk has developed a few vertical programs for discipline-specific enhancements such as: AutoCAD Advance Steel AutoCAD Architecture AutoCAD CIVIL 3D AutoCAD Electrical AutoCAD ecscad AutoCAD Map 3D AutoCAD Mech AutoCAD MEP AutoCAD Structural Detailing AutoCAD Utility Design AutoCAD P&ID AutoCAD Plant 3DSince AutoCAD 2019 several verticals are included with AutoCAD subscription as Industry-Specific Toolset.
For example, AutoCAD Architecture permits architectural designers to draw 3D objects, such as walls and windows, with more intelligent data associated with them rather than simple objects, such as lines and circles. The data can be programmed to represent specific architectural products sold in the construction industry, or extracted into a data file for pricing, materials estimation, other values related to the objects represented. Additional tools generate standard 2D drawings, such as elevations and sections, from a 3D architectural model. Civil Design, Civil Design 3D, Civil Design Professional support data-specific objects facilitating easy standard civil engineering calculations and representations. Softdesk Civil was developed as an AutoCAD add-on by a company in New Hampshire called Softdesk. Softdesk was acquired by Autodesk, Civil became Land Development Desktop renamed Land Desktop. Civil 3D was developed and Land Desktop was retired. AutoCAD LT is the lower cost version of AutoCAD, with reduced capabilities, first released in November 1993.
Autodesk developed AutoCAD LT to have an entry-level CAD package to compete in the lower price level. Priced at $495, it became the first AutoCAD product priced below $1000, it was sold directly by Autodesk and in computer stores unlike the full version of AutoCAD, which must be purchased from official Autodesk dealers. AutoCAD LT 2015 introduced Desktop Subscription from $360 per year. While there are hundreds of small differences between the full AutoCAD package and AutoCAD LT, there are a few recognized major differences in the software's features: 3D Capabilities: AutoCAD LT lacks the ability to create and render 3D models as well as 3D printing. Network Licensing: AutoCAD LT cannot be used on multiple machines over a network. Customization: AutoCAD LT does not support customization with LISP, ARX. NET and VBA. Management and automation capabilities with Sheet Set Manager and Action Recorder. CAD standards management tools. Marketed as AutoCAD WS, AutoCAD 360 is an account-based mobile and web application enabling re
Application software is software designed to perform a group of coordinated functions, tasks, or activities for the benefit of the user. Examples of an application include a word processor, a spreadsheet, an accounting application, a web browser, an email client,a media player, a file viewer, an aeronautical flight simulator, a console game or a photo editor; the collective noun application software refers to all applications collectively. This contrasts with system software, involved with running the computer. Applications may be bundled with the computer and its system software or published separately, may be coded as proprietary, open-source or university projects. Apps built for mobile platforms are called mobile apps. In information technology, an application, application program or software application is a computer program designed to help people perform an activity. An application thus differs from an operating system, a utility, a programming tool. Depending on the activity for which it was designed, an application can manipulate text, audio, graphics, or a combination of these elements.
Some application packages focus on a single task, such as word processing. User-written software tailors systems to meet the user's specific needs. User-written software includes spreadsheet templates, word processor macros, scientific simulations, audio and animation scripts. Email filters are a kind of user software. Users create this software themselves and overlook how important it is; the delineation between system software such as operating systems and application software is not exact, is the object of controversy. For example, one of the key questions in the United States v. Microsoft Corp. antitrust trial was whether Microsoft's Internet Explorer web browser was part of its Windows operating system or a separable piece of application software. As another example, the GNU/Linux naming controversy is, in part, due to disagreement about the relationship between the Linux kernel and the operating systems built over this kernel. In some types of embedded systems, the application software and the operating system software may be indistinguishable to the user, as in the case of software used to control a VCR, DVD player or microwave oven.
The above definitions may exclude some applications that may exist on some computers in large organizations. For an alternative definition of an app: see Application Portfolio Management; the word "application", once used as an adjective, is not restricted to the "of or pertaining to application software" meaning. For example, concepts such as application programming interface, application server, application virtualization, application lifecycle management and portable application apply to all computer programs alike, not just application software; some applications are available in versions for several different platforms. Sometimes a new and popular application arises which only runs on one platform, increasing the desirability of that platform; this is called a killer killer app. For example, VisiCalc was the first modern spreadsheet software for the Apple II and helped selling the then-new personal computers into offices. For Blackberry it was their email software. In recent years, the shortened term "app" has become popular to refer to applications for mobile devices such as smartphones and tablets, the shortened form matching their smaller scope compared to applications on PCs.
More the shortened version is used for desktop application software as well. There are many different and not alternative ways in order to order and classify application software. By the legal point of view, application software is classified with a black box approach, in relation to the rights of its final end-users or subscribers. Software applications are classified in respect of the programming language in which the source code is written or executed, respect of their purpose and outputs. Application software is distinguished among two main classes: closed source vs open source software applications, among free or proprietary software applications. Proprietary software is placed under the exclusive copyright, a software license grants limited usage rights; the open-closed principle states that software may be "open only for extension, but not for modification". Such applications can only get add-on by third-parties. Free and open-source software shall be run, sold or extended for any purpose, -being open- shall be modified or reversed in the same way.
An operating system is system software that manages computer hardware and software resources and provides common services for computer programs. Time-sharing operating systems schedule tasks for efficient use of the system and may include accounting software for cost allocation of processor time, mass storage and other resources. For hardware functions such as input and output and memory allocation, the operating system acts as an intermediary between programs and the computer hardware, although the application code is executed directly by the hardware and makes system calls to an OS function or is interrupted by it. Operating systems are found on many devices that contain a computer – from cellular phones and video game consoles to web servers and supercomputers; the dominant desktop operating system is Microsoft Windows with a market share of around 82.74%. MacOS by Apple Inc. is in second place, the varieties of Linux are collectively in third place. In the mobile sector, use in 2017 is up to 70% of Google's Android and according to third quarter 2016 data, Android on smartphones is dominant with 87.5 percent and a growth rate 10.3 percent per year, followed by Apple's iOS with 12.1 percent and a per year decrease in market share of 5.2 percent, while other operating systems amount to just 0.3 percent.
Linux distributions are dominant in supercomputing sectors. Other specialized classes of operating systems, such as embedded and real-time systems, exist for many applications. A single-tasking system can only run one program at a time, while a multi-tasking operating system allows more than one program to be running in concurrency; this is achieved by time-sharing, where the available processor time is divided between multiple processes. These processes are each interrupted in time slices by a task-scheduling subsystem of the operating system. Multi-tasking may be characterized in co-operative types. In preemptive multitasking, the operating system slices the CPU time and dedicates a slot to each of the programs. Unix-like operating systems, such as Solaris and Linux—as well as non-Unix-like, such as AmigaOS—support preemptive multitasking. Cooperative multitasking is achieved by relying on each process to provide time to the other processes in a defined manner. 16-bit versions of Microsoft Windows used cooperative multi-tasking.
32-bit versions of both Windows NT and Win9x, used preemptive multi-tasking. Single-user operating systems have no facilities to distinguish users, but may allow multiple programs to run in tandem. A multi-user operating system extends the basic concept of multi-tasking with facilities that identify processes and resources, such as disk space, belonging to multiple users, the system permits multiple users to interact with the system at the same time. Time-sharing operating systems schedule tasks for efficient use of the system and may include accounting software for cost allocation of processor time, mass storage and other resources to multiple users. A distributed operating system manages a group of distinct computers and makes them appear to be a single computer; the development of networked computers that could be linked and communicate with each other gave rise to distributed computing. Distributed computations are carried out on more than one machine; when computers in a group work in cooperation, they form a distributed system.
In an OS, distributed and cloud computing context, templating refers to creating a single virtual machine image as a guest operating system saving it as a tool for multiple running virtual machines. The technique is used both in virtualization and cloud computing management, is common in large server warehouses. Embedded operating systems are designed to be used in embedded computer systems, they are designed to operate on small machines like PDAs with less autonomy. They are able to operate with a limited number of resources, they are compact and efficient by design. Windows CE and Minix 3 are some examples of embedded operating systems. A real-time operating system is an operating system that guarantees to process events or data by a specific moment in time. A real-time operating system may be single- or multi-tasking, but when multitasking, it uses specialized scheduling algorithms so that a deterministic nature of behavior is achieved. An event-driven system switches between tasks based on their priorities or external events while time-sharing operating systems switch tasks based on clock interrupts.
A library operating system is one in which the services that a typical operating system provides, such as networking, are provided in the form of libraries and composed with the application and configuration code to construct a unikernel: a specialized, single address space, machine image that can be deployed to cloud or embedded environments. Early computers were built to perform a series of single tasks, like a calculator. Basic operating system features were developed in the 1950s, such as resident monitor functions that could automatically run different programs in succession to speed up processing. Operating systems did not exist in their more complex forms until the early 1960s. Hardware features were added, that enabled use of runtime libraries and parallel processing; when personal computers became popular in the 1980s, operating systems were made for them similar in concept to those used on larger computers. In the 1940s, the earliest electronic digital systems had no operating systems.
Electronic systems of this time were programmed on rows of mechanical switches or by jumper wires on plug boards. These were special-purpose systems that, for example, generated ballistics tables for the military or controlled the pri
Microsoft Windows is a group of several graphical operating system families, all of which are developed and sold by Microsoft. Each family caters to a certain sector of the computing industry. Active Windows families include Windows Embedded. Defunct Windows families include Windows Mobile and Windows Phone. Microsoft introduced an operating environment named Windows on November 20, 1985, as a graphical operating system shell for MS-DOS in response to the growing interest in graphical user interfaces. Microsoft Windows came to dominate the world's personal computer market with over 90% market share, overtaking Mac OS, introduced in 1984. Apple came to see Windows as an unfair encroachment on their innovation in GUI development as implemented on products such as the Lisa and Macintosh. On PCs, Windows is still the most popular operating system. However, in 2014, Microsoft admitted losing the majority of the overall operating system market to Android, because of the massive growth in sales of Android smartphones.
In 2014, the number of Windows devices sold was less than 25 %. This comparison however may not be relevant, as the two operating systems traditionally target different platforms. Still, numbers for server use of Windows show one third market share, similar to that for end user use; as of October 2018, the most recent version of Windows for PCs, tablets and embedded devices is Windows 10. The most recent versions for server computers is Windows Server 2019. A specialized version of Windows runs on the Xbox One video game console. Microsoft, the developer of Windows, has registered several trademarks, each of which denote a family of Windows operating systems that target a specific sector of the computing industry; as of 2014, the following Windows families are being developed: Windows NT: Started as a family of operating systems with Windows NT 3.1, an operating system for server computers and workstations. It now consists of three operating system subfamilies that are released at the same time and share the same kernel: Windows: The operating system for mainstream personal computers and smartphones.
The latest version is Windows 10. The main competitor of this family is macOS by Apple for personal computers and Android for mobile devices. Windows Server: The operating system for server computers; the latest version is Windows Server 2019. Unlike its client sibling, it has adopted a strong naming scheme; the main competitor of this family is Linux. Windows PE: A lightweight version of its Windows sibling, meant to operate as a live operating system, used for installing Windows on bare-metal computers, recovery or troubleshooting purposes; the latest version is Windows PE 10. Windows IoT: Initially, Microsoft developed Windows CE as a general-purpose operating system for every device, too resource-limited to be called a full-fledged computer. However, Windows CE was renamed Windows Embedded Compact and was folded under Windows Compact trademark which consists of Windows Embedded Industry, Windows Embedded Professional, Windows Embedded Standard, Windows Embedded Handheld and Windows Embedded Automotive.
The following Windows families are no longer being developed: Windows 9x: An operating system that targeted consumers market. Discontinued because of suboptimal performance. Microsoft now caters to the consumer market with Windows NT. Windows Mobile: The predecessor to Windows Phone, it was a mobile phone operating system; the first version was called Pocket PC 2000. The last version is Windows Mobile 6.5. Windows Phone: An operating system sold only to manufacturers of smartphones; the first version was Windows Phone 7, followed by Windows Phone 8, the last version Windows Phone 8.1. It was succeeded by Windows 10 Mobile; the term Windows collectively describes any or all of several generations of Microsoft operating system products. These products are categorized as follows: The history of Windows dates back to 1981, when Microsoft started work on a program called "Interface Manager", it was announced in November 1983 under the name "Windows", but Windows 1.0 was not released until November 1985.
Windows 1.0 was to achieved little popularity. Windows 1.0 is not a complete operating system. The shell of Windows 1.0 is a program known as the MS-DOS Executive. Components included Calculator, Cardfile, Clipboard viewer, Control Panel, Paint, Reversi and Write. Windows 1.0 does not allow overlapping windows. Instead all windows are tiled. Only modal dialog boxes may appear over other windows. Microsoft sold as included Windows Development libraries with the C development environment, which included numerous windows samples. Windows 2.0 was released in December 1987, was more popular than its predecessor. It features several improvements to the user memory management. Windows 2.03 changed the OS from tiled windows to overlapping windows. The result of this change led to Apple Computer filing a suit against Microsoft alleging infringement on Apple's copyrights. Windows 2.0
In computer graphics, image tracing, raster-to-vector conversion or vectorization is the conversion of raster graphics into vector graphics. An image does not have any structure: it is just a collection of marks on paper, grains in film, or pixels in a bitmap. While such an image is useful, it has some limits. If the image is magnified enough, its artifacts appear; the halftone dots, film grains and pixels become apparent. Images of sharp edges become jagged. See, for example, pixelation. Ideally, a vector image does not have the same problem. Edges and filled areas are represented as mathematical curves or gradients, they can be magnified arbitrarily; the task in vectorization is to convert a two-dimensional image into a two-dimensional vector representation of the image. It is not examining the image and attempting to recognize or extract a three-dimensional model which may be depicted. For most applications, vectorization does not involve optical character recognition. In vectorization the shape of the character is preserved, so artistic embellishments remain.
Synthetic images such as maps, logos, clip art, technical drawings are suitable for vectorization. Those images could have been made as vector images because they are based on geometric shapes or drawn with simple curves. Continuous tone photographs are not good candidates for vectorization; the input to vectorization is an image, but an image may come in many forms such as a photograph, a drawing on paper, or one of several raster file formats. Programs that do raster-to-vector conversion may accept bitmap formats such as TIFF, BMP and PNG; the output is a vector file format. Common vector formats are SVG, DXF, EPS, EMF and AI. Vectorization can be used to recover work. Personal computers come with a simple paint program that produces a bitmap output file; these programs allow users to make simple illustrations by adding text, drawing outlines, filling outline with a specific color. Only the results of these operations are saved in the resulting bitmap. Vectorization can be used to recapture some of the information, lost.
Vectorization is used to recover information, in a vector format but has been lost or has become unavailable. A company may have commissioned a logo from a graphic arts firm. Although the graphics firm used a vector format, the client company may not have received a copy of that format; the company may acquire a vector format by scanning and vectorizing a paper copy of the logo. Vectorization starts with an image; the image can be vectorized manually. A person could look at the image, make some measurements, write the output file by hand; that was the case for the vectorization of a technical illustration about neutrinos. The illustration has a lot of text; the original image did not have any curves, so the conversion is straightforward. Curves make the conversion more complicated. Manual vectorization of complicated shapes can be facilitated by the tracing function built into some vector graphics editing programs. If the image is not yet in machine readable form it has to be scanned into a usable file format.
Once there is a machine-readable bitmap, the image can be imported into a graphics editing program. A person can manually trace the elements of the image using the program's editing features. Curves in the original image can be approximated with lines, Bézier curves. An illustration program allows spline knots to be adjusted for a close fit. Manual vectorization is possible. Although graphics drawing programs have been around for a long time, artists may find the freehand drawing facilities are awkward when a drawing tablet is used. Instead of using a program, Pepper recommends making an initial sketch on paper. Instead of scanning the sketch and tracing it freehand in the computer, Pepper states: "Those proficient with a graphic tablet and stylus could make the following changes directly in CorelDRAW by using a scan of the sketch as an underlay and drawing over it. I prefer to use pen and ink, a light table"; the line-drawing image was scanned at 600 dpi, cleaned up in a paint program, automatically traced with a program.
Once the black and white image was in the graphics program, some other elements were added and the figure was colored. Ploch recreated a design from a digital photograph; the JPEG was imported and some "basic shapes" were traced by hand and colored in the graphics drawing program. Ploch used a bitmap editor to crop the more complex image components, he printed the image and traced it by hand onto tracing paper to get a clean black and white line drawing. That drawing was scanned and vectorized with a program. There are programs. Example programs are Adobe Streamline, Corel's PowerTRACE, Potrace; some of these programs have a command line interface while others are interactive that allow the user to adjust the conversion settings and view the result. Adobe Streamline is not only an interactive program, but it allows a user to manually edit the input bitmap and the output curves. Corel's PowerTRACE is accessed through CorelDRA