Flora McCrea Eaton, Lady Eaton was the wife of Toronto department store president and heir Sir John Craig Eaton. Raised in a large family in Omemee, Canada, Flora McCrea moved to Toronto to become a nurse at Rotherham House, a private hospital on Sherbourne Street. While working as a nurse, Flora met a young patient, John Craig Eaton, the son of Eaton's department store founder Timothy Eaton; the two fell in love, were married. They built a massive mansion in 1911 to accommodate their growing family. Named Ardwold, the home was one of the most lavish constructed in Toronto, they were one girl with one adopted daughter. In 1915, John Craig Eaton was knighted and became Sir John Craig Eaton, his wife became known as Lady Eaton. After her husband's death in 1922, Lady Eaton continued to live in the Ardwold mansion until the mid-1930s when she decided to retire to her summer residence, Eaton Hall in King City, north of Toronto; the contents of Ardwold were auctioned off and the mansion was demolished.
Lady Eaton was interested in the occult, had a séance room built in the turret of Eaton Hall. The ceiling of this circular room is painted with the zodiac; when she died in 1970, her maid was so distraught. Lady Eaton was a member of the Board of Directors of Eaton's of Canada and took an active role in the company, overseeing the development of restaurants in the Eaton's stores, she was very active with local charities and allowed Eaton Hall to be used as a military hospital for Canadian soldiers during the war. In addition to Eaton Hall, once part of Seneca College and now a public hotel, Lady Eaton Elementary School in Omemee, Lady Eaton College at Trent University, are named in her honour; the Eaton family donated several buildings to the village of Omemee including the United Church Rectory, Coronation Hall at the corner of King and Sturgeon Streets, as well as the pipe organ in Trinity United Church. The Eatons had proposed Omemee change its name to Eatonville and offered to be benefactors of the village.
The town fathers refused. In 1994 Royal Doulton produced a figurine in Lady Eaton's image. Limited to a production of 2,500, each figurine was marked with its production sequence, was intended to celebrate 125 years since the founding of the T. Eaton Co. Ltd. Chung, Andrew. "Deprived of an art deco wonder". Toronto Star. John Craig Eaton and Flora McCrea Eaton fonds, Archives of Ontario
Seneca College of Applied Arts and Technology is a multiple-campus public college located in the Greater Toronto Area of Ontario, Canada. It offers full-time and part-time programs at the baccalaureate, diploma and graduate levels. Seneca opened in 1967 as part of a provincial initiative to establish an Ontario-wide network of colleges of applied arts and technology providing career-oriented diploma and certificate courses as well as continuing education programs to Ontario communities; the province was responding to the increasing need for sophisticated applied learning as technology continued to change the nature of work and the provincial economy. General education was considered an important element in postsecondary education, breadth courses continue to be a part of every program. In 2001 the colleges were granted the ability to offer baccalaureate degrees. Seneca is one of six colleges that can offer up to 15 per cent of its program activity at the degree level. Seneca has four main campuses, a total of 10 campuses located throughout the Greater Toronto Area and in Peterborough.
Each campus has its own academic specialties. The Newnham Campus is one of the largest college campuses in Canada, it is home to more than 11,000 full-time students in business, aviation, early childhood education, opticianry and communications technology and liberal arts. The campus, named after founding president William T. Newnham, is the site of extensive continuing education activity during the evenings and weekends; the campus includes a 1,113-bed residence, sports centre and daycare centre. It is located west of the intersection of Finch Avenue East; the campus's first building over the years has involved various architects. In 1973 a 1,100 square foot domed planetarium was added to the Phase 3 section of the campus, but it has since closed. In fall 2011, Seneca's newest addition, designed for energy efficiency and environmental sustainability, was opened at the campus; the new building, designed by Craig Applegath of Dialog, features: three 80-seat classrooms. The atrium in the new space was named after Frederick Minkler, Seneca's first chair of the board of governors.
Seneca@York Campus, located on York University's Keele Campus, features the Stephen E. Quinlan Building, designed by architect Raymond Moriyama and named after Seneca's third president. Seneca shares the Victor Phillip Dahdaleh Building with York. Several schools are located at this Toronto campus, including Creative Arts and Animation, Biological Sciences & Applied Chemistry, English & Liberal Studies and Information & Communications Technology. King Campus is located in a natural setting of 282 hectares of woods and fields, it is home to full and part-time programs in applied arts and health sciences, including Early Childhood Education and Youth Worker, Behavioural Sciences, Police Foundations, Social Service Worker, Environmental Landscape Management and Leisure Services, Veterinary Technician. It offers training in Underwater Skills. There is a residence on campus. In June 2011, the Government of Ontario announced a $43 million project to expand services at the campus, including a new building with 25 classrooms, a library, computer services, health care training laboratories.
Once complete, it will support an additional 1,450 students, for a complement of 5,000 overall. A 25-acre parcel of the campus at the northwest corner of Dufferin Street and 15th Sideroad will house a community centre for King City; the township of King will lease the land for $1 per year for 60 years. Markham Campus opened its doors in 2005, becoming the first post-secondary education facility in the city of Markham, Ontario; the campus houses full and part-time programs in the areas of business and tourism, the college's departments of Finance, Human Resources and Information Technology Services. Since 2011 the campus has been home to the Confucius Institute. In 2017, York University announced its final plans to open a new campus west of the Markham Pan Am Centre in partnership with Seneca; this facility was expected to open in 2021. Funding of the project, $127 million, had been approved in June 2018 by the provincial government in power. On 23 October 2018 however, the new Provincial government withdrew the funding for plans such as this cancelling the York/Seneca satellite campus.
Jane Campus is home to Seneca's Centre for Advanced Technologies. Students studying at the campus pursue careers in the areas of Tool Design, Computer Numerical Control, Metals Machining Trades such as Tool & Die Maker and Mould Maker; the building is located at 21 Beverly Hills Drive in Toronto and can be seen from the westbound collector lanes of Highway 401. Peterborough Airport in Peterborough is the home of Seneca's aviation campus, including a fleet of aircraft and flight training devices used by students enrolled in the Bachelor of Aviation Program. Opened in January, 2014, in response to the pending closure of Buttonville Airport, the campus serves the second and fourth years of the degree program, while first-year students study at Newnham
Ontario is one of the 13 provinces and territories of Canada and is located in east-central Canada. It is Canada's most populous province accounting for 38.3 percent of the country's population, is the second-largest province in total area. Ontario is fourth-largest jurisdiction in total area when the territories of the Northwest Territories and Nunavut are included, it is home to the nation's capital city and the nation's most populous city, Ontario's provincial capital. Ontario is bordered by the province of Manitoba to the west, Hudson Bay and James Bay to the north, Quebec to the east and northeast, to the south by the U. S. states of Minnesota, Ohio and New York. All of Ontario's 2,700 km border with the United States follows inland waterways: from the west at Lake of the Woods, eastward along the major rivers and lakes of the Great Lakes/Saint Lawrence River drainage system; these are the Rainy River, the Pigeon River, Lake Superior, the St. Marys River, Lake Huron, the St. Clair River, Lake St. Clair, the Detroit River, Lake Erie, the Niagara River, Lake Ontario and along the St. Lawrence River from Kingston, Ontario, to the Quebec boundary just east of Cornwall, Ontario.
There is only about 1 km of land border made up of portages including Height of Land Portage on the Minnesota border. Ontario is sometimes conceptually divided into Northern Ontario and Southern Ontario; the great majority of Ontario's population and arable land is in the south. In contrast, the larger, northern part of Ontario is sparsely populated with cold winters and heavy forestation; the province is named after Lake Ontario, a term thought to be derived from Ontarí:io, a Huron word meaning "great lake", or skanadario, which means "beautiful water" in the Iroquoian languages. Ontario has about 250,000 freshwater lakes; the province consists of three main geographical regions: The thinly populated Canadian Shield in the northwestern and central portions, which comprises over half the land area of Ontario. Although this area does not support agriculture, it is rich in minerals and in part covered by the Central and Midwestern Canadian Shield forests, studded with lakes and rivers. Northern Ontario is subdivided into two sub-regions: Northeastern Ontario.
The unpopulated Hudson Bay Lowlands in the extreme north and northeast swampy and sparsely forested. Southern Ontario, further sub-divided into four regions. Despite the absence of any mountainous terrain in the province, there are large areas of uplands within the Canadian Shield which traverses the province from northwest to southeast and above the Niagara Escarpment which crosses the south; the highest point is Ishpatina Ridge at 693 metres above sea level in Temagami, Northeastern Ontario. In the south, elevations of over 500 m are surpassed near Collingwood, above the Blue Mountains in the Dundalk Highlands and in hilltops near the Madawaska River in Renfrew County; the Carolinian forest zone covers most of the southwestern region of the province. The temperate and fertile Great Lakes-Saint Lawrence Valley in the south is part of the Eastern Great Lakes lowland forests ecoregion where the forest has now been replaced by agriculture and urban development. A well-known geographic feature is part of the Niagara Escarpment.
The Saint Lawrence Seaway allows navigation to and from the Atlantic Ocean as far inland as Thunder Bay in Northwestern Ontario. Northern Ontario occupies 87 percent of the surface area of the province. Point Pelee is a peninsula of Lake Erie in southwestern Ontario, the southernmost extent of Canada's mainland. Pelee Island and Middle Island in Lake Erie extend farther. All are south of 42°N – farther south than the northern border of California; the climate of Ontario varies by location. It is affected by three air sources: cold, arctic air from the north; the effects of these major air masses on temperature and precipitation depend on latitude, proximity to major bodies of water and to a small extent, terrain relief. In general, most of Ontario's climate is classified as humid continental. Ontario has three main climatic regions; the surrounding Great Lakes influence the climatic region of southern Ontario. During the fall and winter months, heat stored from the lakes is released, moderating the climate near the shores of the lakes.
This gives some parts of southern Ontario milder winters than mid-continental areas at lower latitudes. Parts of Southwestern Ontario have a moderate humid continental climate, similar to that of the inland Mid-Atlantic states and the Great Lakes portion of the Midwestern United States; the region has warm to cold winters. Annual precipitation is well distributed throughout the year. Most of this region lies in the lee of the Great Lakes. In December 2010, the snowbelt set a new record when it was h
The term Norman architecture is used to categorise styles of Romanesque architecture developed by the Normans in the various lands under their dominion or influence in the 11th and 12th centuries. In particular the term is traditionally used for English Romanesque architecture; the Normans introduced large numbers of castles and fortifications including Norman keeps, at the same time monasteries, abbeys and cathedrals, in a style characterised by the usual Romanesque rounded arches and massive proportions compared to other regional variations of the style. These Romanesque styles originated in Normandy and became widespread in north western Europe in England, which contributed considerable development and has the largest number of surviving examples. At about the same time a Norman dynasty ruled in Sicily, producing a distinctive variation incorporating Byzantine and Saracen influences, known as Norman architecture, or alternatively as Sicilian Romanesque. Ancient Rome's invention of the arch is the basis of all Norman architecture.
The term may have originated with eighteenth-century antiquarians, but its usage in a sequence of styles has been attributed to Thomas Rickman in his 1817 work An Attempt to Discriminate the Styles of English Architecture from the Conquest to the Reformation which used the labels "Norman, Early English and Perpendicular". The more inclusive term romanesque was used of the Romance languages in English by 1715, was applied to architecture of the eleventh and twelfth centuries from 1819. Although Edward the Confessor built Westminster Abbey in Romanesque style just before the Conquest, still believed to be the earliest major Romanesque building in England, no significant remaining Romanesque architecture in Britain can be shown to predate the Conquest, although historians believe that many surviving "Norman" elements in buildings, nearly all churches, may well in fact be Anglo-Saxon; the Norman arch is a defining point of Norman architecture. Grand archways are designed to evoke feelings of awe and are commonly seen as the entrance to large religious buildings such as cathedrals.
Viking invaders arrived at the mouth of the river Seine in 911, at a time when Franks were fighting on horseback and Frankish lords were building castles. Over the next century the population of the territory ceded to the Vikings, now called Normans, adopted these customs as well as Christianity and the langue d'oïl. Norman barons built timber castles on earthen mounds, beginning the development of motte-and-bailey castles, great stone churches in the Romanesque style of the Franks. By 950, they were building stone; the Normans were among the most travelled peoples of Europe, exposing them to a wide variety of cultural influences which became incorporated in their art and architecture. They elaborated on the early Christian basilica plan. Longitudinal with side aisles and an apse they began to add in towers, as at the Church of Saint-Étienne]] at Caen, in 1067; this would form a model for the larger English cathedrals some 20 years later. In England, Norman nobles and bishops had influence before the Norman Conquest of 1066, Norman influences affected late Anglo-Saxon architecture.
Edward the Confessor was brought up in Normandy and in 1042 brought masons to work on the first Romanesque building in England, Westminster Abbey. In 1051 he brought in Norman knights. Following the invasion, Normans constructed motte-and-bailey castles along with churches and more elaborate fortifications such as Norman stone keeps; the buildings show massive proportions in simple geometries using small bands of sculpture. Paying attention to the concentrated spaces of capitals and round doorways as well as the tympanum under an arch; the "Norman arch" is the rounded with mouldings carved or incised onto it for decoration. Chevron patterns termed "zig-zag mouldings", were a frequent signature of the Normans; the cruciform churches had deep chancels and a square crossing tower which has remained a feature of English ecclesiastical architecture. Hundreds of parish churches were built and the great English cathedrals were founded from 1083. After a fire damaged Canterbury Cathedral in 1174 Norman masons introduced the new Gothic architecture.
Around 1191 Wells Cathedral and Lincoln Cathedral brought in the English Gothic style, Norman became a modest style of provincial building. Oxford Castle 1074: church tower doubles as a place of refuge St John's Chapel, Tower of London Durham Cathedral was the first to employ a ribbed vault system with pointed arches Winchester Cathedral Ely Cathedral Peterborough Cathedral Kilpeck Church, Herefordshire St Nicholas Church, Surrey Southwell Minster St Mary the Virgin, Oxfordshire St Swithun's in Nately Scures, Hampshire, an example of a Norman single-cell apsidal church. Norwich Cathedral St Edward's Church St Botolph's Priory, Colchester St John's Abbey, Colchester St Peter’s Church, Rutland – Norman chancel Dunstable PrioryBibliography Sedding, Edmund H. Norman Architecture in Cornwall: a handbook to old ecclesiastical architecture. With over 160 plates. London: Ward & Co. White Tower Rochester Castle Norwich Castle Colchester Castle, the largest Norman castle built and the first stone Keep in England Hedingham Castle, Essex Jew's House, Lincoln Boothby Pagnell Manor, Lincolnshire Oakham Castle, Rutland Moyse's Hall Museum Bury St Edmunds Suffolk Scotland came under early
King City, Ontario
King City is an unincorporated Canadian community in King, Ontario located north of Toronto. It is the largest community in King Township, with 2,396 dwellings and a population of 6,970 as of the Canada 2016 Census. In 1836, a settlement styled Springhill was established in King. With the arrival of the Ontario and Huron railway in 1853, the settlement began to expand. In 1890, the reeve of King township James Whiting Crossley incorporated King City by merging the hamlets of Springhill, Kinghorn and Eversley. King City is characterized by rolling hills and clustered temperate forests in the Eastern Great Lakes lowland forests ecoregion. Numerous kettle lakes and ponds dot the area. Creeks and streams from King City, the surrounding area, as far west as Bolton and as far east as Stouffville are the origin for the East Humber River. Situated on the southern slope of the central portion of the Oak Ridges Moraine and its watershed, numerous disputes about planning and development have occurred municipally, such as installation of a sewerage system connecting the community to the Durham-York Sewage System in the 2000s.
Numerous stables and other farms have been established on the 147.938 square kilometres of land area occupied by the township. The provincially significant King-Vaughan Wetland Complex consists of 23 individual wetlands, it is composed of clay and silt soils on a site, palustrine or isolated. Vegetation found on this wetland includes tall shrubs, deciduous trees, dead trees and shrubs, narrow-leaved emergents. King Forest is a 60-hectare forest with steep valleys containing the narrow flood plain of the East Humber River; the valley walls are of dry-mesic nature, supporting Eastern White Cedar, Eastern Hemlock and Sugar Maple. It is a regenerating forest containing 85 ground-cover species; the flood plain consists of Eastern White Cedar, Sugar Maple and some White Ash, though 26 species do thrive in the area. The King City Wetland Complex contains eight wetlands over 49 hectares, it is a palustrine formation composed 70% of clay, loam or silt soils, 30% organic soils. It has varied vegetation, including tall shrubs, deciduous trees, robust emergents, narrow-leaved emergents and submergent vegetation.
The King-Vaughan Forest straddles King City and portions of Vaughan. It is similar to the King Forest, composed of forest areas on steep valley walls containing the flood plain of the Humber River; the dominant species on the valley walls are Sugar Maple and Eastern Hemlock, which are regenerative in the forest. On the flood plain, a greater variety of species may be observed. Immature stands of Manitoba Maple and Eastern White Cedar and American Elm can be found here, as can an extensive Hawthorn scrubland. King City has a continental climate moderated by the Great Lakes and influenced by warm, moist air masses from the south, cold, dry air from the north; the Oak Ridges Moraine affects levels of precipitation: as an air mass arrives from Lake Ontario and reaches the elevated ground surface of the moraine, it rises causing precipitation. King City does not have its own municipal government. Ward 1 covers King City east of Keele St, includes the communities of Eversley and Temperanceville. Ward 5 includes the western part of King City to Highway 400.
King City was served by septic systems. In 2001, York Region took control of planning for King Township's sewage collection system; the Township's council at the time opposed the installation of a sewage system in King City, brought the issue to court. Control of the system was returned to King Township after the 2003 municipal elections, which resulted in a council favourable to installation of a sewage system in the community and its connection to the York-Durham Sewage System, so that the township could request grants for the project from provincial and federal sources. Proponents of the link cited health concerns about the septic systems in the community, the occasional spill, as reasons to link to the Durham-York system. Opponents stated that the health issues of the septic systems were embellished, that the link would result in poorly controlled growth in the community, hence urban sprawl; the King City Sanitary Servicing Project began construction in early 2005, jointly funded by King Township and York Region.
A by-law was passed in April 2005 that made it mandatory for residents to connect to the new sewer system. Installation of the near $50 million project was funded through tax receipts, which included system linkage for public facilities such as municipal offices and the library; this cost included only the provision of a sewerage connection at the property line. In addition, homeowners are required to install piping from the home to the sewerage connection at their expense. Decommissioning and infilling septic tanks is mandatory. Installation of the wastewater system was followed by numerous applications for development of residential subdivisions. By 2012, there were at least eight subdivision developments under construction and two expansions within King City, which are expected to add 690 detached houses, 299 townhouses, a 134-unit four-storey condominium complex, as well as expanding the York Region Seniors Housing centre by 40 units. Through traffic on King Road has become a concern in the past decade, as the number of heavy vehicles has increased significantly.
Notably, dump trucks serving new subdivision construction sites in nearby Oak Ridges use King Road to reach Highway
Timothy Eaton was an Irish businessman who founded the Eaton's department store, one of the most important retail businesses in Canada's history. He was born in County Antrim, Ireland, his parents were John Eaton and Margaret Craig. As a 20-year-old Irish apprentice shopkeeper, Timothy Eaton sailed from Ireland to settle with other family members in southern Ontario, Canada. On 28 May 1862, Eaton married Margaret Wilson Beattie, they had three daughters. Among the sons were John Craig Eaton and Edward Young Eaton. One of the daughters, Josephine Smyth Eaton, survived the sinking of the RMS Lusitania off the Irish coast in 1915, his granddaughter, Iris Burnside, was lost in that sinking. In 1854, he worked for a short time in a haberdashery store in Ontario, his sister married William Reid. In 1865, with the help of his brothers and James, Timothy Eaton set up a bakery business in the town of Kirkton, which went under after only a few months. Undaunted, he opened a dry goods store in Ontario. In 1869, Eaton purchased an existing dry-goods and haberdashery business at 178 Yonge Street in Toronto.
In promoting his new business, Eaton embraced two retail practices that were ground-breaking at the time: first, all goods had one price with no credit given, second, all purchases came with a money-back guarantee. Starting in 1884, Eaton introduced Canada to the wonders of the mail-order catalogue, reaching thousands of small towns and rural communities with an array of products unattainable. In these tiny communities, the arrival of Eaton's catalogue was a major event. More than clothing, furniture, or the latest in kitchen gadgetry, the catalogue offered such practical items as milking machines, in addition to just about every other contraption or new invention desirable. And, when rendered obsolete by the new season's catalogue, it served another important use in the outdoor privy of most every rural home. Eaton spawned a colossal retail empire that his offspring would expand coast to coast, reaching its high point during World War II, when the T. Eaton Co. Limited employed more than 70,000 people.
Although Eaton did not invent the department store, nor was he the first retailer in the world to implement a money-back guarantee, the chain he founded popularized both concepts and revolutionized retailing in Canada. Eaton died of pneumonia on 31 January 1907, is buried in Mount Pleasant Cemetery in Toronto, he was succeeded by John Craig Eaton. In 1919, two life-sized statues of Timothy Eaton were donated by the Eaton's employees to the Toronto and Winnipeg stores in celebration of the 50th anniversary of the company. For years, it was tradition for customers in both Toronto and Winnipeg to rub the toe of the statue for good luck; the Toronto statue is now housed by the Royal Ontario Museum, the Winnipeg statue sits in the city's new arena, Bell MTS Place, in exactly the same spot where it stood in the now demolished Eaton's store. Museum-goers in Toronto and hockey fans in Winnipeg continue to rub Timothy Eaton's toe for luck, his grandson was flying ace Henry John Burden. In 1985, his great-great granddaughter, Nancy Eaton, was murdered by a childhood friend, found not guilty by reason of insanity.
Timothy Eaton Memorial Church, in Toronto, was erected in 1914. The town of Eatonia, Saskatchewan was named after Timothy Eaton; the ground of Ballymena RFC the sports grounds of the Mid-Antrim Sports Association, is called Eaton Park. A school in Scarborough, Timothy Eaton Business and Technical Institute, was named after him, it opened in 1971 for classes and closed its doors permanently in 2009. Robert Simpson John Wanamaker Biography at the Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online Media related to Timothy Eaton at Wikimedia Commons
A château is a manor house or residence of the lord of the manor or a country house of nobility or gentry, with or without fortifications, originally—and still most frequently—in French-speaking regions. The word "chateau" is a French word that has entered the English language, where its meaning is more specific than it is in French; the French word "chateau" denotes buildings as diverse as a medieval fortress, a Renaissance palace and a 19th-century country house. Care should therefore be taken when translating the French word château into English, noting the nature of the building in question. Most French châteaux are "palaces" or "country houses" and not "castles", for these the English word "chateau" is appropriate. Sometimes the word "palace" is more appropriate. To give an outstanding example, the Château de Versailles is so called because it was located in the countryside when it was built, but it does not bear any resemblance to a castle, so it is known in English as the Palace of Versailles.
In French where clarification is needed, the term château fort is used to describe a castle, such as Château fort de Roquetaillade. The urban counterpart of château is palais, which in French is applied only to grand houses in a city; this usage is again different from that of the term "palace" in English, where there is no requirement that a palace must be in a city, but the word is used for buildings other than the grandest royal residences. The expression hôtel particulier is used for an urban "private house" of a grand sort. A château is a "power house", as Sir John Summerson dubbed the British and Irish "stately homes" that are the British Isles' architectural counterparts to French châteaux, it is the personal badge of a family that, with some official rank, locally represents the royal authority. However, the quality of the residences could vary from royal châteaux owned by royalty and the wealthy elite near larger towns to run-down châteaux vacated by poor nobility and officials in the countryside isolated and vulnerable.
A château was supported by its terres, composing a demesne that rendered the society of the château self-sufficient, in the manner of the historic Roman and Early Medieval villa system. The open villas of Rome in the times of Pliny the Elder and Emperor Tiberius began to be walled-in, fortified in the 3rd century AD, thus evolving to castellar "châteaux". In modern usage, a château retains some enclosures that are distant descendants of these fortifying outworks: a fenced, closeable forecourt a gatehouse or a keeper's lodge, supporting outbuildings. Besides the cour d'honneur entrance, the château might have an inner cour, inside, in the private residence, the château faces a and discreetly enclosed park. In the city of Paris, the Louvre and the Luxembourg represented the original château but lost their château etymology, becoming "palaces" when the City enclosed them. In the U. S. the word château took root selectively, in the Gilded Age resort town of Newport, Rhode Island, the châteaux were called "cottages", north of Wilmington, Delaware, in the rich, rural "Château Country" centred upon the powerful Du Pont family, château is used with its original definition.
In Canada in English, château denotes a hotel, not a house, applies only to the largest, most elaborate railway hotels built in the Canadian Railroad golden age, such as the Château Lake Louise, in Lake Louise, the Château Laurier, in Ottawa, the Château Montebello, in Montebello and the most famous Château Frontenac, in Quebec City. Moreover, in other French-speaking European regions, such as Wallonia, the word Château is used with the same definition. In Belgium, a strong French architectural influence is evident in the seventeenth-century Château des Comtes de Marchin and the eighteenth-century Château de Seneffe. There are many estates with true châteaux on them in Bordeaux, but it is customary for any wine-producing estate, no matter how humble, to prefix its name with "Château". If there were any trace of doubt that the Roman villas of Aquitaine evolved into fortified self-contained châteaux, the wine-producing châteaux would dispel it. On the other hand, there are many striking châteaux in the Bordeaux region still depicting this Roman villa style of architecture, an example of this being Château Lagorce in Haux.
The Loire Valley is home to more than 300 châteaux. They were built between the 10th and 20th centuries, firstly by the French kings followed soon thereafter by the nobility. Alternatively, due to its moderate climate, wine growing soils and rich agricultural land, the Loire Valley is referred to as "The Garden of France"; the châteaux range from the large to more'human-scale' châteaux such as the Château de Beaulieu in Saumur or the medieval Château du Rivau close to Chinon which were built of the local tuffeau stone. The Château de Chenonceau is a French château spanning the River Cher, near the small village of Chenonceaux in the Indre-et-Loire department of the Loire Valley in France, it is one