The Mississippi River is the second-longest river and chief river of the second-largest drainage system on the North American continent, second only to the Hudson Bay drainage system. Its source is Lake Itasca in northern Minnesota and it flows south for 2,320 miles to the Mississippi River Delta in the Gulf of Mexico. With its many tributaries, the Mississippi's watershed drains all or parts of 32 U. S. two Canadian provinces between the Rocky and Appalachian mountains. The main stem is within the United States; the Mississippi ranks as the fifteenth-largest river by discharge in the world. The river either borders or passes through the states of Minnesota, Iowa, Missouri, Tennessee, Arkansas and Louisiana. Native Americans have lived along its tributaries for thousands of years. Most were hunter-gatherers, but some, such as the Mound Builders, formed prolific agricultural societies; the arrival of Europeans in the 16th century changed the native way of life as first explorers settlers, ventured into the basin in increasing numbers.
The river served first as a barrier, forming borders for New Spain, New France, the early United States, as a vital transportation artery and communications link. In the 19th century, during the height of the ideology of manifest destiny, the Mississippi and several western tributaries, most notably the Missouri, formed pathways for the western expansion of the United States. Formed from thick layers of the river's silt deposits, the Mississippi embayment is one of the most fertile regions of the United States. During the American Civil War, the Mississippi's capture by Union forces marked a turning point towards victory, due to the river's strategic importance to the Confederate war effort; because of substantial growth of cities and the larger ships and barges that replaced steamboats, the first decades of the 20th century saw the construction of massive engineering works such as levees and dams built in combination. A major focus of this work has been to prevent the lower Mississippi from shifting into the channel of the Atchafalaya River and bypassing New Orleans.
Since the 20th century, the Mississippi River has experienced major pollution and environmental problems – most notably elevated nutrient and chemical levels from agricultural runoff, the primary contributor to the Gulf of Mexico dead zone. The word Mississippi itself comes from Misi zipi, the French rendering of the Anishinaabe name for the river, Misi-ziibi. In the 18th century, the river was the primary western boundary of the young United States, since the country's expansion westward, the Mississippi River has been considered a convenient if approximate dividing line between the Eastern and Midwestern United States, the Western United States; this is exemplified by the Gateway Arch in St. Louis and the phrase "Trans-Mississippi" as used in the name of the Trans-Mississippi Exposition, it is common to qualify a regionally superlative landmark in relation to it, such as "the highest peak east of the Mississippi" or "the oldest city west of the Mississippi". The FCC uses it as the dividing line for broadcast call-signs, which begin with W to the east and K to the west, mixing together in media markets along the river.
The Mississippi River can be divided into three sections: the Upper Mississippi, the river from its headwaters to the confluence with the Missouri River. The Upper Mississippi runs from its headwaters to its confluence with the Missouri River at St. Louis, Missouri, it is divided into two sections: The headwaters, 493 miles from the source to Saint Anthony Falls in Minneapolis, Minnesota. The source of the Upper Mississippi branch is traditionally accepted as Lake Itasca, 1,475 feet above sea level in Itasca State Park in Clearwater County, Minnesota; the name "Itasca" was chosen to designate the "true head" of the Mississippi River as a combination of the last four letters of the Latin word for truth and the first two letters of the Latin word for head. However, the lake is in turn fed by a number of smaller streams. From its origin at Lake Itasca to St. Louis, the waterway's flow is moderated by 43 dams. Fourteen of these dams are located above Minneapolis in the headwaters region and serve multiple purposes, including power generation and recreation.
The remaining 29 dams, beginning in downtown Minneapolis, all contain locks and were constructed to improve commercial navigation of the upper river. Taken as a whole, these 43 dams shape the geography and influence the ecology of the upper river. Beginning just below Saint Paul and continuing throughout the upper and lower river, the Mississippi is further controlled by thousands of wing dikes that moderate the river's flow in order to maintain an open navigation channel and prevent the river from eroding its banks; the head of navigation on the Mississippi is the Coon Rapids Dam in Minnesota. Before it was built in 1913, steamboats could go upstream as far as Saint Cloud, depending on river conditions; the uppermost lock and dam on the Upper Mississippi River is the Upper St. Anthony Falls Lock an
Clark County, Wisconsin
Clark County is a county in the U. S. state of Wisconsin. As of the 2010 census, the population was 34,690, its county seat is Neillsville. Clark County was organized the following year, it was named for General George Rogers Clark. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,219 square miles, of which 1,210 square miles is land and 9.0 square miles is water. Taylor County – north Marathon County – east Wood County – southeast Jackson County – south Eau Claire County – west Chippewa County – northwest KVIQ - Neillsville Municipal Airport As of the census of 2000, there were 33,557 people, 12,047 households, 8,673 families residing in the county; the population density was 28 people per square mile. There were 13,531 housing units at an average density of 11 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 98.05% White, 0.13% Black or African American, 0.48% Native American, 0.30% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.56% from other races, 0.47% from two or more races. 1.20% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.
54.0% were of German, 9.0% Polish, 6.2% Norwegian and 6.1% United States or American ancestry according to Census 2000. 6.62 % reported speaking Pennsylvania German, or Dutch at home. There were 12,047 households out of which 35.00% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 61.20% were married couples living together, 6.50% had a female householder with no husband present, 28.00% were non-families. 23.80% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.60% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.73 and the average family size was 3.27. In the county, the population was spread out with 29.90% under the age of 18, 7.70% from 18 to 24, 26.20% from 25 to 44, 20.20% from 45 to 64, 16.00% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females there were 100.50 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 98.70 males. Curtiss Dorchester Granton Unity Withee Chili Humbird Kurth Maple Works Trow Worden In 2013 there were 16 Amish church districts in Clark County.
National Register of Historic Places listings in Clark County, Wisconsin Biographical History of Clark and Jackson Counties, Wisconsin. Chicago: Lewis Publishing, 1891. Clark County: The Garden of Wisconsin. Neillsville, Wis.: Satterlee and Tifft, 1890. Curtiss-Wedge, Franklyn History of Clark County Wisconsin. Chicago: H. C. Cooper, Jr. 1918. Clark County government website Clark County Economic Development Corporation Clark County map from the Wisconsin Department of Transportation
Eau Claire, Wisconsin
Eau Claire is a city in Chippewa and Eau Claire counties in the west-central part of the U. S. state of Wisconsin. Located entirely in Eau Claire County, for which it is the county seat, the city had a population of 65,883 at the 2010 census, making it the state's ninth-largest city. Eau Claire is the principal city of the Eau Claire, Wisconsin Metropolitan Statistical Area, a part of the Eau Claire-Menomonie Combined Statistical Area. Eau Claire took its name from Eau Claire County. "Eau Claire" is the singular form of the original French name, "Eaux Claires", meaning "Clear Waters", for the Eau Claire River. According to local legend, the river was so named because early French explorers journeying down the rain-muddied Chippewa River, happened upon the Eau Claire River, excitedly exclaiming "Voici l'eau claire!", the city motto, which appears on the city seal. Eau Claire is located at 44°49′N 91°30′W 90 miles east of Minneapolis and St. Paul, Minnesota; the city is located on the northern fringes of the Driftless Zone.
The city was founded near the confluence of the Eau Claire and Chippewa rivers as three separate settlements. The main section of downtown is on the site of the original village, where Stephen McCann, in partnership with J. C. Thomas, put up three buildings in 1845. Although these structures were erected to establish a claim to the land they stood on, the McCann family moved into one of them and became the first permanent settlers. West Eau Claire, founded in 1856, was across the river near the present-day county courthouse, incorporated in 1872. Between a mile and a half and two miles downstream, the Daniel Shaw & Co. lumber company founded Shawtown, beyond the west end of what is now the Water Street historic district. Shawtown was annexed to the city of Eau Claire by the 1930s. By the 1950s, the entire city had spread far enough to the east to adjoin Altoona. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 34.14 square miles, of which 32.04 square miles is land and 2.10 square miles is water.
The terrain of the city is characterized by the river valleys, with steep slopes leading from the center to the eastern and southern sections of the city. The lands into which the urban area is expanding are hilly. There are two lakes in the city, Dells Pond, Half Moon Lake. Dells Pond is a reservoir created by a hydroelectric dam, was used as a holding pool for logs. Half Moon Lake is an oxbow lake created as part of the former course of the Chippewa River. In the Köppen climate classification, Eau Claire is classified as Dfa/Dfb borderline termed as the subtype of warm, sometimes hot, summer, its climate is due to its interior location in North America. The average annual temperature is only 46 °F. Although the extremes exceed 110 °F upwards and −40 °F, which demonstrates the four well-defined seasons of the year, with severe winters colder than the winters of European Russia south of Moscow at a much lower latitude; the amount of annual snowfall exceeds the amount of annual rainfall, the total precipitation is greater than other major cities in Wisconsin such as Milwaukee and Madison.
July has an average temperature of 71.6 °F and January an average of 14.4 °F, where temperatures below freezing point can remain for a long duration. As of 2000, the median income for a household in the city was $36,399, the median income for a family was $49,320. Males had a median income of $32,503 versus $23,418 for females; the per capita income for the city was $18,230. About 5.5% of families and 13.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 10.4% of those under age 18 and 7.4% of those age 65 or over. As of the most recent census, the Eau Claire County portion had a population of 63,902 inhabitants, while the Chippewa County portion was 1,981 inhabitants; as of the census of 2010, there were 65,883 people, 26,803 households, 14,293 families residing in the city. The population density was 2,056.3 inhabitants per square mile. There were 28,134 housing units at an average density of 878.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 91.4% White, 1.1% African American, 0.5% Native American, 4.6% Asian, 0.5% from other races, 1.8% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.9% of the population. There were 26,803 households of which 25.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 39.6% were married couples living together, 9.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.2% had a male householder with no wife present, 46.7% were non-families. 31.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.29 and the average family size was 2.89. The median age in the city was 29.8 years. 19.3% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 48.5% male and 51.5% female. As of 2010, there were 1,981 persons within the city limits in Chippewa County and 63,902 in Eau Claire County for a total of 65,883. Together with surrounding communities, the Eau Claire metropolitan area is home to 114,483 people, according to the 2000 census; the city forms the core of the United States Census Bureau's Eau Claire Metropolitan Statistical Area, which includes all of Eau Claire and Chippewa Counties.
Together with the Menomonie Micropolitan Statistical Area to the west, the Eau Claire metropolitan area, forms the C
Taylor County, Wisconsin
Taylor County is a county in the U. S. state of Wisconsin. As of the 2010 census, the population was 20,689, its county seat is Medford. The earliest recorded event in Taylor county occurred in 1661, when Wisconsin was part of New France. A band of Huron Indians from eastern Ontario had fled the Iroquois and taken refuge near the headwaters of the Black River around Lake Chelsea in the northeast part of the county. Father René Menard, a French Jesuit priest who had travelled up the Great Lakes as far as Keweenaw Bay in upper Michigan, heard that these Hurons were starving, he decided to try to reach them to baptize them, despite scant supplies. In mid-summer he and a French fur trader set out, following rivers and streams in birchbark canoes down into Wisconsin. A day's journey from the Huron camp, Father Menard separated from his travelling companion at a rapids to carry some supplies, he was never seen again. The place where he disappeared is believed to be the dells of the Big Rib River, below Goodrich in the southeast corner of Taylor county.
On June 8, 1847, before any settlers or loggers, a team of surveyors entered the county southwest of Medford, where County E now enters from Clark County. They were working for the U. S. government, marking a north–south line called the Fourth Principal Meridian, from which much of the land in the state would be measured. For six days they worked their way through woods and swamps, up what is now the southern part of E and across the valley, now the Mondeaux Flowage, before continuing north into what is now Price County; the head of the team wrote of the trip: During four consecutive weeks there was not a dry garment in the party, day or night... we were surrounded and as excoriated by swarms or rather clouds of mosquitoes, still more troublesome insects... On their way through the county and other surveyors recorded a forest dominated by hemlock, yellow birch and sugar maple, with white pine the fourth or sixth most frequent; the mix of tree species resembled today's Gerstberger Pines grove southeast of Rib Lake.
Logging began in the late 1850s. Loggers came from Cortland County, New York, Carroll County, New Hampshire, Orange County and Down East Maine in what is now Washington County and Hancock County, Maine; these were "Yankee" migrants, to say they were descended from the English Puritans who had settled New England during the 1600s. As a result of this heritage many of the towns in Taylor County are named after towns in New England such as Chelsea, named after Chelsea and Westboro, named after Westborough, Massachusetts. Medford was named after Massachusetts. Loggers came up the rivers and floated pine logs out in spring and early summer log drives, down the Big Rib River into the Wisconsin River, down the Black River to the south, west down the Jump and the Yellow River into the Chippewa. In 1872 and 73 the Wisconsin Central Railroad built its line up through Stetsonville, Whittlesey and Westboro, with a spur to Rib Lake, on its way to Ashland. To finance building this line, the U. S. Government gave the railroad half the land, the odd-numbered sections, of a good share of the county.
The railroad began to haul out the trees. Most early settlement was along this railroad, with few settlers in the west or east ends of the county by the 1890s. In 1875 Taylor County with its current boundaries was carved out of the larger Chippewa and Clark counties and a bit of Marathon, with the county seat at Medford; the county was named for Wisconsin's governor at the time, William Robert Taylor. At the time all of Taylor County's inhabitants were Yankee migrants from New England, which influenced the naming of the county, as William Robert Taylor was from Connecticut of English descent, it was divided into four towns—Westboro, Chelsea and Little Black—each stretching the width of the county. From around 1902 to 1905 the Stanley and Phillips Railway ran a line up the west end of the county through Polley, Gilman and Jump River. In 1902 the Eau Claire, Chippewa Falls, Northeastern Railroad pushed in from Holcombe through Hannibal to now-abandoned Hughey on the Yellow River. In 1905 the Wisconsin Central Railroad built its line through Clark, Polley and Donald, heading for Superior.
The SM&P and Omaha were logging railroads, which hauled out lumber and incidentally transported passengers and other cargo. With the lumber gone, the SM&P shut down in 1933. After the good timber was gone, the lumber companies sold many of the cutover forties to farm families, they tried making their living in various ways: selling milk, eggs and wool, growing cucumbers and peas, various other schemes. But before long dairy had become the predominant form of agriculture in the county. By 1923 Medford had the second largest co-op creamery in Wisconsin; the number of dairy farms peaked around 3,300 in the early 1940s and had dropped to 1,090 by 1995. Much of the cut-over north-central part of the county was designated part of the Chequamegon National Forest in 1933. Mondeaux Dam Recreation Area and other parts of the forest were developed by the Civilian Conservation Corps starting in 1933. CCC camps were at Mondeaux and near the current Jump River fire tower. Today hikers can follow the Ice Age National Scenic Trail through the national forest and the northeast corner of the county.
The major early industry was the production of sawlogs and shingles. Large sawmills were at Rib Lake. Medford and Rib Lake had tanneries, which used local hemlock bark i
Chippewa River (Wisconsin)
See Chippewa River for several other rivers of the same name. The Chippewa River in Wisconsin flows 183 miles through west-central and northwestern Wisconsin, it was once navigable for 50 miles of its length, from the Mississippi River, by Durand, northeast to Eau Claire. Its catchment defines a portion of the northern boundary of the Driftless Area; the river is accessible for bikers and pleasure seekers via the Chippewa River State Trail which follows the river from Eau Claire to Durand. The river is formed by the confluence of the West Fork Chippewa River, which rises at Chippewa Lake in southeastern Bayfield County, the East Fork Chippewa River, which rises in the swamps of the southern part of the Town of Knight in Iron County, Wisconsin; the rivers' confluence is at Lake Chippewa, a reservoir in central Sawyer County, the official "beginning" of the Chippewa River. The river flows from Sawyer County through Rusk, Eau Claire, Dunn and Buffalo Counties, in Wisconsin, before emptying out into the Mississippi River.
Sediment build-up at the river's mouth forms a delta that protrudes into the Mississippi, creating Lake Pepin in the process. Along the last 15 miles of its course, the main channel forms the county boundary between Pepin and Buffalo Counties. Major lakes along the river's route include the Radisson and Holcombe Flowages, Lake Wissota and Dell's Pond, all of which are reservoirs; the largest reservoir by far is the Chippewa Flowage, the 3rd largest lake in Wisconsin. The river's primary tributaries include the Couderay, Flambeau, Jump, Yellow, Eau Claire, Red Cedar and Eau Galle Rivers; the river's confluence with the Red Cedar is just north of the Driftless Zone, at which point its floodplain widens out and includes numerous riverine islands. The primary settlements along the river's course include Cornell, Chippewa Falls, Eau Claire, Durand; the Chippewa River was important as a floatway for lumbering and papermaking. The river has a deep wide canyon due to larger water discharges during Laurentide Ice Sheet retreat.
Chippewa River Bottoms is located along the river. The 1742 Carte de la Louisiane et du Cours du Mississipi as "Rivière de bon Secours ou Hahatonouadeba", in the 1757 edition of the Mitchell Map as "Hahatonadeba River", the maps show the transliteration of the Dakota language name for the river Ḣaḣatuŋatpa; the word "Chippewa" is a rendering of "Ojibwe." The Ojibwe people controlled most of the upper Chippewa Valley and its tributaries until the Treaty of St. Peters in 1837. Of the pine forests in Wisconsin in the 1800s, the Chippewa River system held more than the Wisconsin River, it is estimated that the Chippewa system drained 34% of Wisconsin's pineries, as compared to 21% for the Wisconsin, 14% for the St. Croix, 7% for the Black. Before logging, the Chippewa Valley held about 46,000,000,000 board feet of lumber. Frederick Weyerhaeuser described it as "a logger's paradise, a large part of its area being forested with the finest quality of white pine timber, while rivers and lakes offered an excellent network of transportation facilities."The first sawmill in the Chippewa Valley was functioning at what would become Menomonie around 1831.
By 1840 Jean Brunet and associates were sawing wood at Chippewa Falls. Floods destroyed these early mills, the lumbermen rebuilt them. In the late 1800s, Chippewa Falls was said to have the largest sawmill under one roof in the world. By the 1850s the loggers were binding the sawed pine lumber into rafts which were guided down the lower Chippewa to markets on the Mississippi. Above Chippewa Falls, the river was too rough and rocky for large rafts. Masses of individual logs were driven down by log drivers, sometimes called "river pigs." To make the drives more efficient and reliable, the loggers changed the river somewhat, dynamiting troublesome rocks, cutting trees that would snag logs, building up the banks in places, damming the river and its tributaries. Around 1876 a dam and log-sorting works was built between Chippewa Falls. In 1878 a large splash dam was built at Little Falls, with so much capacity that when opened it could raise the Chippewa three feet 100 miles downstream. Over the Chippewa and its tributaries the loggers built at least 148 logging dams, of various sizes and purposes.
The Chippewa River is a popular destination for recreational canoers. Paddlers experience a variety of conditions on the river, from calm, slow-moving water to small rapids and whitewater. Fishing is a popular activity: the river is known for musky, smallmouth bass and northern pike. List of Wisconsin rivers Diary of Chippewa River Trip in 1868, C. H. Cooke, published in Eau Claire Leader Telegram in 1917. Cooke describes his canoe trip up the river from Eau Claire during the spring log drive of 1868. "Early Lumbering on the Chippewa", Vinette and William W. Bartlett, Wisconsin Magazine of History, 1926, Wisconsin Historical Society. Contains an early first-person account of logging and rafting on the Chippewa, with old photos. "Our Story 1776-1976 - The Chippewa Valley and Beyond" was an insert published by the Eau Claire Leader Telegram in 1976, edited by Arnie Hoffman. It includes articles on various aspects of local history, with local information and photos that are hard to find elsewhere
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti