A tributary or affluent is a stream or river that flows into a larger stream or main stem river or a lake. A tributary does not flow directly into a ocean. Tributaries and the main stem river drain the surrounding drainage basin of its surface water and groundwater, leading the water out into an ocean. A confluence, where two or more bodies of water meet together refers to the joining of tributaries; the opposite to a tributary is a distributary, a river or stream that branches off from and flows away from the main stream. Distributaries are most found in river deltas. "Right tributary" and "left tributary" are terms stating the orientation of the tributary relative to the flow of the main stem river. These terms are defined from the perspective of looking downstream. In the United States, where tributaries sometimes have the same name as the river into which they feed, they are called forks; these are designated by compass direction. For example, the American River receives flow from its North and South forks.
The Chicago River's North Branch has the East and Middle Fork. Forks are sometimes left. Here, the "handedness" is from the point of view of an observer facing upstream. For instance, Steer Creek has a left tributary, called Right Fork Steer Creek. Tributaries are sometimes listed starting with those nearest to the source of the river and ending with those nearest to the mouth of the river; the Strahler Stream Order examines the arrangement of tributaries in a hierarchy of first, second and higher orders, with the first-order tributary being the least in size. For example, a second-order tributary would be the result of two or more first-order tributaries combining to form the second-order tributary. Another method is to list tributaries from mouth to source, in the form of a tree structure, stored as a tree data structure. A gallery of major river basins with tributaries Estuary
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
St. Croix County, Wisconsin
St. Croix County is a county in the U. S. state of Wisconsin. As of the 2010 census, the population was 84,345, its county seat is Hudson. The county was created in 1840 and organized in 1849. St. Croix County is part of the Minneapolis-St. Paul-Bloomington, MN-WI Metropolitan Statistical Area. Between 2000 and 2010, it was the fastest-growing county in Wisconsin. St. Croix County was created on August 1840 by the legislature of the Wisconsin Territory, it was named after the river on its western border. Sources vary on the origin of the name. Another account credits Father Hennepin with giving this region the French name Ste Croix because of the burial markers located at the mouth of the river. La Pointe County was created from the northern portions of Wisconsin Territory's St. Croix County on February 19, 1845; when Wisconsin was admitted into the union as a state on May 29, 1848, the territorial St. Croix County was further divided, with the territory from the Mississippi River to the current border of Minnesota continuing as de facto Wisconsin Territory until on March 3, 1849, it and unorganized federal territory lying north of Iowa were used in the creation of the Minnesota Territory.
Itasca, Washington and Benton Counties were created by the Minnesota Territory on October 27, 1849 from the de facto Wisconsin Territory, separated from the Wisconsin Territory's La Pointe County. The part of St. Croix County allocated to Wisconsin became the parental county to Pierce and Polk Counties, formed significant portions of Dunn, Barron and Burnett Counties. On June 12, 1899, a deadly F5 tornado struck New Richmond; the tornado's damage path was 46 miles long. The tornado formed on the banks of the St. Croix River, south of Hudson. Moving to the northeast across St. Croix County, the tornado passed through the villages of Burkhardt and Boardman before striking New Richmond head on leveling the entire business district and half the town's residences; the storm continued on towards the northeast, narrowly missing the town of Deer Park before crossing into Polk County, where it again narrowly missed the towns of Clear Lake and Clayton. Once the tornado passed into Barron County, it struck the village of Arland before breaking up southwest of Barron.
The tornado killed 117 people, including at least 20 people who died from their injuries in the days after the storm. In thanks to state aid and donations, most of the town was rebuilt by the following winter. Today, the tornado stands as the deadliest recorded in Wisconsin and the 9th deadliest tornado in U. S. history. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 736 square miles, of which 722 square miles is land and 13 square miles is water. New Richmond Regional Airport serves surrounding communities. Saint Croix National Scenic Riverway Polk County - north Barron County - northeast Dunn County - east Pierce County - south Washington County, Minnesota - west As of the census of 2000, there were 63,155 people, 23,410 households, 16,948 families residing in the county; the population density was 88 people per square mile. There were 24,265 housing units at an average density of 34 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 97.85% White, 0.28% Black or African American, 0.25% Native American, 0.62% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.22% from other races, 0.76% from two or more races.
0.76% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 34.4 % were of 8.2 % Irish and 5.4 % Swedish ancestry. There were 23,410 households out of which 38.00% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 61.60% were married couples living together, 7.00% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.60% were non-families. 21.20% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.30% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.66 and the average family size was 3.12. In the county, the population was spread out with 27.90% under the age of 18, 8.20% from 18 to 24, 32.20% from 25 to 44, 21.90% from 45 to 64, 9.90% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females there were 100.20 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 98.50 males. Glenwood City Hudson New Richmond River Falls Emerald Houlton National Register of Historic Places listings in St. Croix County, Wisconsin Johnson, Helen Sophia.
Early History of St. Croix County, Wisconsin. Madison: University of Wisconsin, 1921. St. Croix County government website St. Croix County map at the Wisconsin Department of Transportation
Pepin County, Wisconsin
Pepin County is a county in the U. S. state of Wisconsin. As of the 2010 census, the population was 7,469, making it the fourth-least populous county in Wisconsin, its county seat is Durand. Pepin County is the birthplace of Laura Ingalls Wilder, the author of the Little House on the Prairie children's books. Pepin County was formed in the year 1858 from portions of neighboring Dunn County. Both the town of Pepin, the village of Pepin were named after Lake Pepin, a broadening of the Mississippi River between Pepin County, the Counties of Goodhue and Wabasha in the state of Minnesota; the lake itself is named for one or more of the Pepin families from the French Canadian city of Trois-Rivières in Quebec, Canada. Several Pepins appear in the early records records, including the senior figure Guillaume dit Tranchemontagne and his descendants Pierre and Jean Pepin du Chardonnets, it is probable that one or both of the latter accompanied Daniel Greysolon, the Sieur du Lhut, from Montreal to what is now Duluth, Minnesota, in 1679.
When the body of water was first named Pepin is not known, but the name has been used as early as 1700, making it by far one of the oldest recorded place names in Wisconsin. The name was well-accepted by the mid-1760s when Jonathan Carver wrote in his journal, "Arrived at Lake Pepin called by some Lake St. Anthony." According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 249 square miles, of which 232 square miles is land and 17 square miles is water, it is the smallest county in Wisconsin by land area. Pierce County – northwest Dunn County – north Eau Claire County – east Buffalo County – south Wabasha County, Minnesota – southwest Goodhue County, Minnesota – west U. S. Highway 10 Highway 25 Highway 35 Highway 85 As of the census of 2000, there were 7,213 people, 2,759 households, 1,934 families residing in the county; the population density was 31 people per square mile. There were 3,036 housing units at an average density of 13 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 98.90% White, 0.08% Black or African American, 0.19% Native American, 0.21% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 0.08% from other races, 0.49% from two or more races.
0.35% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 41.6% were of German, 13.5% Norwegian, 9.9% Austrian and 6.8% Swedish ancestry according to Census 2000. 95.2 % spoke 3.4 % German as their first language. There were 2,759 households out of which 32.40% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 59.90% were married couples living together, 6.80% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.90% were non-families. 26.10% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.60% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.57 and the average family size was 3.13. In the county, the population was spread out with 26.50% under the age of 18, 7.90% from 18 to 24, 25.90% from 25 to 44, 22.80% from 45 to 64, 16.80% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females there were 101.10 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 100.20 males. Pepin County has a 12-member board of supervisors. Prior to the election of 2016, the last time Pepin County voted for the Republican candidate was in 1972, when voters backed President Richard Nixon over George McGovern.
Note: In 1928, Progressive candidate Robert M. La Follette, Sr. came in second in Pepin County. Durand Pepin Stockholm Arkansaw National Register of Historic Places listings in Pepin County, Wisconsin Curtiss-Wedge, Franklyn. History of Buffalo and Pepin Counties. Winona, Minn.: H. C. Cooper, Jr. 1919. Pepin County Pepin County map from the Wisconsin Department of Transportation
Henry Gannett was an American geographer, described as the "Father of the Quadrangle", the basis for topographical maps in the United States. He was born in Bath, Maine August 24, 1846, graduated with a B. S. at Harvard University in 1869 and at the Hooper Mining School in 1870 at Harvard. In 1871 he was simultaneously offered positions with Charles Francis Hall on what would become the ill-fated Polaris Expedition or going with Ferdinand Vandeveer Hayden to survey Yellowstone National Park, he chose the Hayden adventure and would map the western portion of the Hayden's division until 1879. On July 26, 1872, while climbing the unnamed highest mountain in the Gallatin Mountains, he and his party experienced electric shocks following a lightning event near the summit, he was to name the mountain Electric Peak. He married Mary E. Chase on November 24, 1874. In 1879 he was among those lobbying for centralizing the mapping functions into one government agency. Individual mapmakers and agencies had to compete for money from Congress for funds for projects.
He lobbied to call the new organization "United States Geological and Geographical Survey" although the name United States Geological Survey would be approved. His first job in the new organization under its first director Clarence King was geographer of the United States Census, 1880, he laid out 2,000 enumeration districts with such precision that for the first time each census enumerator knew in advance the metes and bounds of his particular district. The completion of this work on July 1, 1882 is considered the start of true topographical work in the United States and the birth of the quad, he was promoted to Chief Geographer for the Geological Society by John Wesley Powell and would hold the position until 1896. In 1884 he published his first Dictionary of Altitudes which listed all known survey altitudes in the United States as well as the source of the survey, he was to persuade various organizations doing the surveys including the railroads to begin using similar datums so the data could interconnect.
In 1885 he published Boundaries of the United States and of the Several States and Territories, with a Historical Sketch of the Territorial Changes, the first attempt to standardize the history of the boundaries in the country. In 1888 Gannett was one of founding members of the National Geographic Society, he served as its first secretary, as treasurer vice-president, president, in 1909. He was a member of the Washington Academy of Sciences until his death, he was chief geographer for the United States Census, 1890 and United States Census, 1900 In 1890 he and Thomas Corwin Mendenhall of the U. S. National Geodetic Survey campaigned to establish the United States Board on Geographic Names to create official names for locations in the United States. In 1893 A Manual of Topographic Methods, the basis for standardizing survey and mapping processes. In 1896 in his last year with the USGS, he started the use of the Benchmark. In 1899, he was invited with other elite scientists on the Harriman Alaska Expedition.
In 1904 he was among the founders of the American Association of Geographers. In 1906 Gannett Peak, the highest peak in Wyoming, was named for him. In 1911, Lawrence Martin named Mount Gannett, a 10,000-foot peak in the Chugach Mountains of eastern Alaska, for Henry Gannett. In 1909 he was named chairman of a special committee to examine and verify the records of Robert E. Peary in the controversy with Frederick Cook over, the first to reach the North Pole, he was assistant director of the census of the Philippines and of Cuba. From 1897 to 1909, he was a vice president of the American Statistical Association. Works by or about Henry Gannett at Internet Archive Works by Henry Gannett at LibriVox Individual titlesBoundaries of the United States and of the Several States and Territories, with a Historical Sketch of the Territorial Changes A Manual of Topographic Methods Dictionary of Altitudes The Building of a Nation A Gazetteer of Porto Rico A Gazetteer of Cuba Gazetteer of Texas Origin of Certain Place Names in the United States The forests of Oregon USGS Professional Paper No. 4 The forests of Washington USGS Professional Paper No. 5 A dictionary of altitudes in the United States
Eau Gallie River
Eau Gallie River is a 3.9-mile-long river in Eau Gallie, United States. It is a tributary of the Indian River, with its mouth near Hawthorne Point; the Eau Gallie River was named Elbow Creek. Elbow Creek is a branch and tributary of the Eau Gallie River. In 1895, a bridge was built across the Eau Gallie River. In 1907, the Eau Gallie Yacht Club was formed as yachting became popular in the area. In 1910, the Eau Gallie Yacht Club built a clubhouse along the Eau Gallie River and remained at that location until 1960. In 2011, residents and people using the river complained that sediment was preventing navigation by small boats; the 625,000 cubic yards of sediment was caused from nitrogen and phosphorus from fertilizers, as well as clay deposits. This sediment has killed life in the river; the Orlando Melbourne International Airport drains into the river. A study estimates; the priority for this was low. In 2015, the ability to clean up estuaries was improved by the county taxpayers approving a half-cent sales tax.
As a result, the county planned on removing 632,000 yards equivalent to 42,000 dump trucks worth of muck from the river, as well as from its tributary, Elbow Creek. Included in the removal is 1,200 short tons of nitrogen and 260 short tons of phosphorus. Ballard Park Eau Gallie, Florida Indian River