Montreuil is a commune in the eastern suburbs of Paris, France. It is located 6.6 km from the center of Paris. It is the fourth most populous suburb of Paris. Montreuil is located near the Bois de Vincennes park; the name Montreuil was recorded for the first time in a royal edict of 722 as Monasteriolum, meaning "little monastery" in Medieval Latin. The settlement of Montreuil started as a group of houses built around a small monastery. Under the reigns of Louis XIV and Louis XVI the "Peach Walls" which provided the royal court with the fruits were located in Montreuil, it was later home to the Lumière brothers and George Méliès whose workshops were located in lower Montreuil. On 1 January 1860, the city of Paris was enlarged by annexing neighboring communes. On that occasion, the commune of Charonne was disbanded and divided between the city of Paris and Bagnolet. Montreuil received a small part of the territory of Charonne. Today Montreuil is divided into several districts: Le bas Montreuil (which joins together the old workshops, the marché aux puces, The Mairie, La Noue, Le Bel Air, La Boissière.
Decorations in the state school "Voltaire" by Maurice Boitel. Montreuil's inhabitants exaggeratedly nickname the town the "second Malian town after Bamako", or sometimes "Mali-sous-Bois" or "Bamako-sur-Seine" if the Seine doesn't cross the town. Montreuil has indeed a important Malian population: more than 2,000 inhabitants according to the INSEE in 1999, between 6,000 and 10,000 people according to the mairie, which estimates that Montreuil has the largest Malian community in France. 10 % of the population has Malian origins. The mayor of Montreuil is the member of Parti communiste français Patrice Bessac, elected on the second round of 2014 municipal elections, defeating the former ex-Communist mayor Jean-Pierre Brard in a four sides second round; the city is divided into two cantons: canton of Montreuil-1 and canton of Montreuil-2. Video game company Ubisoft has its corporate head office in Montreuil; the Air France Paris office is in Montreuil. The commune's educational services are operated out of the Opale B Administrative Building.
Montreuil has eight collèges, three lycées, two lycées techniques, the IUT of the University of Paris 8. Senior high schools/sixth form colleges: Lycée Eugénie-Cotton Lycée Jean Jaurès Lycée CondorcetThe Montreuil Library consists of the Robert-Desnos Central Library, the Daniel-Renoult Library, the Colonel-Fabien Library, the Paul-Eluard Library. Robert-Desnos, in a park near the commune's town hall, is the largest library in the commune, it houses a Internet access points. Daniel-Renoult, near Montreau Park, serves the Montreau-Ruffins Théophile Sueur community. Colonel-Fabien, in the Ramenas-Fabien-Léo Lagrange community, is near the Intercommunal Hospital. Paul-Eluard is near the La Grande Porte shopping centre and is within 50 metres of the Robespierre Paris Métro station and Rue de Paris. Pierre de Montreuil, famous 13th century architect, died in 1267 in Paris Gaston-Auguste Schweitzer, sculptor Djamel Abdoun, Algerian footballer who played at the 2010 FIFA World Cup Mehdi Abeid, Algerian footballer Oumar Bakari, footballer Rosette Bir, sculptor Souarata Cisse, basketball player Olivier Dacourt, footballer Emmanuel Flipo, artist Mamadou Samassa, footballer Tignous and activist killed in the Charlie Hebdo shooting Élodie Bouchez, actress Henri Decaë, cinematographer Nicolas Aithadi, Visual Effects, Guardians of the Galaxy Jean Delannoy, director Émile Reynaud, director Frédéric Verger, writer Christophe Guilluy, geographer Helno, singer with Lucrate Milk, Bérurier Noir & Les Négresses Vertes Montreuil is served by three stations on Paris Métro Line 9: Robespierre, Croix de Chavaux, Mairie de Montreuil.
Montreuil is twinned with: Bistriţa, Bistrița-Năsăud County, Romania Cottbus, Germany Hornec gang Gaston-Auguste Schweitzer Birthplace of this sculptor Pierre de Montreuil Musée de l'Histoire vivante INSEE Official website
In many countries, Kilometre Zero or similar terms in other languages is a particular location from which distances are traditionally measured. They were markers where drivers could set their odometers to follow the directions in early guide books. One such marker is the Milliarium Aureum of the Roman Empire, believed to be the literal origin for the maxim that "all roads lead to Rome". Argentina marks Kilometre Zero with a monolith in Plaza Congreso in Buenos Aires; the work of the brothers Máximo and José Fioravanti, the structure was placed on the north side of Plaza Lorea on October 2, 1935. An image of Our Lady of Luján appears on the monolith's north face, a relief map of Argentina is on the south face, plaques in honor of José de San Martín are west, on its eastern side, the date of the decree and the name of the relevant authorities. Highways in Australia are built and maintained by the states and territories. In the state of New South Wales, highway distances were traditionally measured from a sandstone obelisk in Macquarie Place in Sydney, designed by Francis Greenway in 1818.
The obelisk lists the distances to various locations in New South Wales at the time. For the railway, it is located at platform 1 of Sydney Central Station; the General Post Office building in Melbourne traditionally serves this purpose in Victoria. In Western Australia, road distances are measured from Point Zero, by the old Treasury Building on the corner of Cathedral Avenue and St George's Terrace in Perth; the Byzantine Empire had an arched building, the Milion of Constantinople, as the starting-place for the measurement of distances for all the roads leading to the other cities. In the 1960s, some fragments were discovered and erected in its original location, now in the district of Eminönü, Turkey; the kilometre zero marker of the eastern origin of the Trans-Canada Highway is located in St. John's, Newfoundland. Coordinates: 47°33′39.78″N 52°42′44.33″W Altitude: 14.02 m The western origin of the Trans-Canada Highway in Victoria, British Columbia, is located on the southern end of Vancouver Island.
Mile zero of the Trans Canada Trail is located adjacent to the Railway Coastal Museum in St. John's, Newfoundland. Coordinates: 47°33′14.0″N 52°42′50.5″W Altitude: 4.5 m Mile zero for the Alaska Highway is located in Dawson Creek, British Columbia. All national distances from Santiago originate at the Km. 0 plaque, located at the Plaza de Armas main square in downtown Santiago. Chile's Autopista Central – Eje Norte-Sur has its Kilometre Zero at the intersection with the Alameda del Libertador Bernardo O'Higgins, the capital's main avenue. China Railway's 0 km is located at the entrance to the Fengtai Yard on the Jingguang Line just outside Beijing; this point was the start of the line. There is no ceremonial plaque; the kilometre zero point for highways is located at Tiananmen Square, just outside the Zhengyangmen Gate. It is marked with a plaque in the ground, with the four cardinal points, four animals, "Zero Point of Highways, China" in English and Chinese. Cuba's Kilometre Zero is located in its capital Havana in El Capitolio.
Embedded in the floor in the centre of the main hall is a replica 25 carat diamond, which marks Kilometre Zero for Cuba. The original diamond, said to have belonged to Tsar Nicholas II of Russia and have been sold to the Cuban state by a Turkish merchant, was stolen on 25 March 1946 and mysteriously returned to the President, Ramón Grau San Martín, on 2 June 1946, it was replaced in El Capitolio by a replica in 1973. Copenhagen Town hall square is the zero point. DR-1, DR-2, DR-3 all depart from Kilometre Zero from Santo Domingo's Parque de Independencia. Kilometre Zero in Egypt is located at the Attaba Square Post Office in 1st of Abdel Khaliq Sarwat Pasha Street, Cairo. Kilometre Zero in Ethiopia is in Addis Ababa, in front of St. George's Cathedral; the point was designated by Emperor Haile Selassie in 1930. Kilometre Zero of Finland is located at the Erottaja square in central Helsinki. Kilometre Zero of French national highways located in Paris on the square facing the main entrance of Notre-Dame is considered the official centre of Paris.
48.8534°N 2.3488°E / 48.8534. 52.510788°N 13.398964°E / 52.510788. Distances from London to most parts of the country are measured in miles from the original site of Charing Cross, on the southern side of Trafalgar Square. In Scotland, distances from Edinburgh are measured from the GPO building in Princes Street. See also: London Stone, Hicks Hall, St Mary-le-Bow, a church from which the distance of the original London to Lewes road is measured. In ancient Greece, distances were measured from the altar of twelve gods, located in the ancient agora of Athens. So, that altar can be considered the first kilometre zero in human history. Nowadays, the kilometre zero for Greek high
Courbevoie is a commune located 8.2 km from the center of Paris, France. The centre of Courbevoie is situated 2 kilometres from the outer limits of central Paris, it is one of the most densely populated municipalities in Europe, ranks as the third-best place to live in the Île-de-France region, after the neighbouring communes of Levallois-Perret and Neuilly-sur-Seine. La Défense, Paris's business district hosting the tallest buildings in the metropolitan area, spreads over the southern part of Courbevoie; the name Courbevoie comes from Latin Curva Via and means "curved highway" in reference to a Roman road from Paris to Normandy which made a sharp turn to climb the hill over which Courbevoie was built. Courbevoie is divided into two cantons: Canton of Courbevoie-1 and Canton of Courbevoie-2. A wooden bridge was built crossing the Seine at Courbevoie by order of King Henry IV when in 1606 his royal coach fell into the river while being transported by ferry. Rebuilt in stone during the eighteenth century, this was replaced by a metal bridge in 1946.
The Convent of the Penitents founded in 1658 by Jean-Baptiste Forne was located in Courbevoie until the Revolution of 1789. Located in the town was the barracks of the Swiss Guard of the monarchy. Courbevoie is served by two stations on the Transilien Paris – Saint-Lazare suburban rail line: Courbevoie and Bécon-les-Bruyères. Courbevoie is served by Esplanade de La Défense station on Paris Métro Line 1, in the business district of La Défense. There are a large number of city buses that come through the bustling La Défense station; when it comes to air transportation, Courbevoie can be served by Paris's Charles de Gaulle Airport as well as Paris-Orly to the south and Beauvais Airport to the north. Courbevoie has elementary schools. Junior high schools include: Collège Alfred de Vigny Collège Georges Pompidou Collège Georges Seurat Collège Les Bruyères Collège Les Renardières Collège Sainte GenevièveSenior high schools include: Lycée Paul Lapie de Courbevoie Lycée Paul Painlevé Courbevoie Collège Les renardières et Lycée Lucie Aubrac Groupe scolaire Montalembert Arletty and singer Henri Betti, composer Michel Delpech, singer Louis de Funès, comedy actor Colomba Fofana, athlete Albert Gleizes, cubist artist, theorist Lamine Kante, basketball player Massire Kante, footballer Henri Letocart and composer Marie-Bernadette Mbuyamba, basketball player William Remy, footballer Franck Tchiloemba, basketball player Michel Blanc, actor Louis-Ferdinand Céline, writer Hélène de Krzyżanowska-Dyhrn and relative of Chopin Jean-Pierre Worms, representative to the French Parliament Stephane Coquin, footballer Roy Benson, stage magician Courbevoie is twinned with: Forest-Vorst, Belgium Enfield Town, United Kingdom Freudenstadt, Germany Beit Mery, Lebanon Total S.
A. has its head office in Courbevoie. Areva has its head office in the Tour Areva in Courbevoie. Saint-Gobain has its head office in Courbevoie; the headquarters of INPI, the French government office for patents and trademarks, is in Courbevoie. La Défense business district. List of tallest structures in Paris Phare Tower, a 300-meter skyscraper now under construction Communes of the Hauts-de-Seine department INSEE Courbevoie official website Courbevoie Community portal blog about Courbevoie
Ermont is a commune in the northern suburbs of Paris, France. It is located 17.2 km from the center of Paris. It has around 28,000 inhabitants. Ermont has experienced rapid urbanization thanks to railway transport and industrialization, with the population of Ermonth being just 9000 after the Second World War to now more than 28,000. Ermont is served by Ermont – Eaubonne station, an interchange station on Paris RER line C, on the Transilien Paris – Nord suburban rail line, on the Transilien Paris – Saint-Lazare suburban rail line. Ermont is served by Gare de Cernay station, an interchange station on Paris RER line C and on the Transilien Paris – Nord suburban rail line. Ermont is served by two stations on the Transilien Paris – Nord suburban rail line: Ermont – Halte and Gros Noyer – Saint-Prix. Marc Foucan, athlete Yvonne Lefébure, concert pianist and teacher Pierre Leyris, translator Landing Sané, basketball player DJ Snake, DJ and record producer Alice Taglioni, actress Ermont is twinned with: Lampertheim, Germany Maldegem, Belgium Adria, Italy Wierden, Netherlands Banbury, United Kingdom Loja, Spain Communes of the Val-d'Oise department Raymond Couvègnes Official website Land use
Versailles is a city in the Yvelines département in the Île-de-France region, renowned worldwide for the Château de Versailles and the gardens of Versailles, designated UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Located in the western suburbs of the French capital, 17.1 km from the centre of Paris, Versailles is in the 21st century a wealthy suburb of Paris with a service-based economy and a major tourist destination as well. According to the 2008 census, the population of the city is 88,641 inhabitants, down from a peak of 94,145 in 1975. A new town founded at the will of King Louis XIV, Versailles was the de facto capital of the Kingdom of France for over a century, from 1682 to 1789, before becoming the cradle of the French Revolution. After having lost its status of royal city, it became the préfecture of the Seine-et-Oise département in 1790 of Yvelines in 1968, it is a Roman Catholic diocese. Versailles is known for numerous treaties such as the Treaty of Paris, which ended the American Revolution, the Treaty of Versailles, after World War I.
Today, the Congress of France – the name given to the body created when both houses of the French Parliament, the National Assembly and the Senate, meet – gathers in the Château de Versailles to vote on revisions to the Constitution. The argument over the etymology of Versailles tends to privilege the Latin word versare, meaning "to keep turning, turn over and over", an expression used in medieval times for plowed lands, cleared lands; this word formation is similar to Latin seminare. During the Revolution of 1789, city officials had proposed to the Convention to rename Versailles Berceau-de-la-Liberté, but they had to retract their proposal when confronted with the objections of the majority of the population. From May 1682, when Louis XIV moved the court and government permanently to Versailles, until his death in September 1715, Versailles was the unofficial capital of the kingdom of France. For the next seven years, during the Régence of Philippe d'Orléans, the royal court of the young King Louis XV was the first in Paris, while the Regent governed from his Parisian residence, the Palais-Royal.
Versailles was again the unofficial capital of France from June 1722, when Louis XV returned to Versailles, until October 1789, when a Parisian mob forced Louis XVI and the royal family to move to Paris. Versailles again became the unofficial capital of France from March 1871, when Adolphe Thiers' government took refuge in Versailles, fleeing the insurrection of the Paris Commune, until November 1879, when the newly elected government and parliament returned to Paris. During the various periods when government affairs were conducted from Versailles, Paris remained the official capital of France. Versailles was made the préfecture of the Seine-et-Oise département at its inception in March 1790. By the 1960s, with the growth of the Paris suburbs, the Seine-et-Oise had reached more than 2 million inhabitants, was deemed too large and ungovernable, thus it was split into three départements in January 1968. Versailles was made the préfecture of the Yvelines département, the largest chunk of the former Seine-et-Oise.
At the 2006 census the Yvelines had 1,395,804 inhabitants. Versailles is the seat of a Roman Catholic diocese, created in 1790; the diocese of Versailles is subordinate to the archdiocese of Paris. In 1975, Versailles was made the seat of a Court of Appeal whose jurisdiction covers the western suburbs of Paris. Since 1972, Versailles has been the seat of one of France's 30 nationwide académies of the Ministry of National Education; the académie de Versailles, the largest of France's thirty académies by its number of pupils and students, is in charge of supervising all the elementary schools and high schools of the western suburbs of Paris. Versailles is an important node for the French army, a tradition going back to the monarchy with, for instance, the military camp of Satory and other institutions. Versailles is located 17.1 km west-southwest from the centre of Paris. The city sits on an elevated plateau, 130 to 140 metres above sea-level, surrounded by wooded hills: in the north the forests of Marly and Fausses-Reposes, in the south the forests of Satory and Meudon.
The city of Versailles has an area of 26.18 km2, a quarter of the area of the city of Paris. In 1989, Versailles had a population density of 3,344/km2, whereas Paris had a density of 20,696/km2. Born out of the will of a king, the city has a symmetrical grid of streets. By the standards of the 18th century, Versailles was a modern European city. Versailles was used as a model for the building of Washington, D. C. by Pierre Charles L'Enfant. The name of Versailles appears for the first time in a medieval document dated 1038. In the feudal system of medieval France, the lords of Versailles came directly under the king of France, with no intermediary overlords between them and the king. In the end of the 11th century, the village curled around a medieval castle and the Saint Julien church, its farming activity and its location on the road from Paris to Dreux and Normandy brought prosperity to the village, culminating in the end of the 13th century, the so-called "century of Saint Louis", famous for the prosperity of northern France and the building of Gothic cathedrals.
The 14th century brought the Black Death and t
Budenheim is a municipality in the Mainz-Bingen district in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany. Unlike other municipalities in Mainz-Bingen, it does not belong to any Verbandsgemeinde; the Municipality of Budenheim is the only Verbandsgemeinde-free municipality in Mainz-Bingen. The municipality lies in Rhenish Hesse, 9 km west of Rhineland-Palatinate’s capital Mainz, is bordered by the north-flowing Rhine and the Lennebergwald on the residential community’s south and west. Budenheim’s greatest elevation is the Lenneberg at 176.8 m, in the Lennebergwald. At this spot stands the Lennebergturm, dedicated in 1880 and belonging to the Wander- und Lennebergverein Rheingold Mainz e. V.. Budenheim had its first documentary mention – albeit undated – as Butenheim in the Lorsch codex in a listing of the Lorsch Abbey’s holdings in and around Mainz; the council is made up of 25 council members, counting the fulltime mayor, with seats apportioned thus: Eaubonne, Val-d'Oise, France Isola della Scala, Province of Verona, Italy Wiesmoor, Aurich district, Lower SaxonyThe third place listed here is a town in East Frisia with which Budenheim fosters “friendly relations”.
The municipality’s arms might be described thus: Gules on a base sable Saint Pancras in armour with a sword on his belt all argent, in his hand dexter a flagpole argent bendwise flying from which the banner of Saint Pancras, argent a cross gules, standing on his foot sinister a shield argent charged with a cross gules. Heraldry of the World shows a different coat of arms for Budenheim, with the same charges but in different tinctures; the shield at Saint Pancras’s foot, for instance, is Or, including the cross with which it is charged, the cross on Saint Pancras’s banner is sable instead of gules. Heraldry of the World shows a proposed coat of arms for Budenheim put forth in 1956, which failed to win any great support, it is charged with Saint Pancras's banner only with a golden flagpole. Saint Pancras is Budenheim’s patron saint, which explains why he was chosen as a charge for the municipality’s arms; the arms are based on a 16th-century village seal, the tinctures are those from the arms borne by Electoral Mainz.
These were chosen. In 1911, the most important and finest specimen of a rhinoceros, some 20 million years old from the Miocene, was unearthed in Budenheim; the fossil is displayed at the Senckenberg Museum in Frankfurt. It is a complete specimen, 85 cm tall, of the subspecies Dicerorhinus tagicus moguntianus; this is a forerunner to the Sumatran Rhinoceros, which reaches a shoulder height of 110 to 150 cm, and, now threatened with extinction. Crocodile fossils have been unearthed in Budenheim. At the Naturhistorisches Museum Mainz stands a copy of the 20,000,000-year-old rhinoceros presented as the Budenheimer Nashorn in view of the place where it was found; the Budenheim Flower Festival has since 1955 been celebrated at the onset of the blossoming season each year on the last weekend in April by choosing a Flower Queen. There are two Flower Princesses to go with the Queen, for one year they represent the Municipality of Budenheim on special occasions; the Budenheim Street Festival had its beginnings in the municipality’s 1,200-year jubilee in 1978.
This folk festival is staged by the association of Budenheim’s clubs along with the individual clubs therein. The festival is held over four days and includes the last weekend in the Rhineland-Palatinate summer holidays; the Budenheim kermis goes back to the consecration of the Catholic Saint Pancras’s Church on 3 September 1747 and is held over four days, each year over the third weekend in September. The Chemische Fabrik Budenheim belongs to Dr. August Oetker KG and for decades has been a world leader in manufacturing phosphoric acid and phosphates. For years, “the Budenheim” has been shorthand in international communication for this chemical plant and has taken the municipality’s name throughout the world; the Autobahn A 643 can be reached through the Mainz-Mombach interchange about 4 km away. Budenheim is a stop for local trains on Deutsche Bahn’s West Rhine Railway. Travel time to the main railway station in Mainz ranges from 6 to 10 minutes. Budenheim is the last stop on the route of the city bus run by the Mainzer Verkehrsgesellschaft.
Travel time to the main railway station in Mainz is 29 minutes. Bild von Budenheim aus J. F. Dielmann, A. Fay, J. Becker: F. C. Vogels Panorama des Rheins, Bilder des rechten und linken Rheinufers, Lithographische Anstalt F. C. Vogel, Frankfurt 1833 Municipality’s official webpage Information about Budenheim
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of 105 square kilometres and an official estimated population of 2,140,526 residents as of 1 January 2019. Since the 17th century, Paris has been one of Europe's major centres of finance, commerce, fashion and the arts; the City of Paris is the centre and seat of government of the Île-de-France, or Paris Region, which has an estimated official 2019 population of 12,213,364, or about 18 percent of the population of France. The Paris Region had a GDP of €681 billion in 2016, accounting for 31 percent of the GDP of France, was the 5th largest region by GDP in the world. According to the Economist Intelligence Unit Worldwide Cost of Living Survey in 2018, Paris was the second most expensive city in the world, after Singapore, ahead of Zurich, Hong Kong and Geneva. Another source ranked Paris as most expensive, on a par with Singapore and Hong-Kong, in 2018; the city is a major rail and air-transport hub served by two international airports: Paris-Charles de Gaulle and Paris-Orly.
Opened in 1900, the city's subway system, the Paris Métro, serves 5.23 million passengers daily, is the second busiest metro system in Europe after Moscow Metro. Gare du Nord is the 24th busiest railway station in the world, the first located outside Japan, with 262 million passengers in 2015. Paris is known for its museums and architectural landmarks: the Louvre was the most visited art museum in the world in 2018, with 10.2 million visitors. The Musée d'Orsay and Musée de l'Orangerie are noted for their collections of French Impressionist art, the Pompidou Centre Musée National d'Art Moderne has the largest collection of modern and contemporary art in Europe; the historical district along the Seine in the city centre is classified as a UNESCO Heritage Site. Popular landmarks in the centre of the city include the Cathedral of Notre Dame de Paris and the Gothic royal chapel of Sainte-Chapelle, both on the Île de la Cité. Paris received 23 million visitors in 2017, measured by hotel stays, with the largest numbers of foreign visitors coming from the United States, the UK, Germany and China.
It was ranked as the third most visited travel destination in the world in 2017, after Bangkok and London. The football club Paris Saint-Germain and the rugby union club Stade Français are based in Paris; the 80,000-seat Stade de France, built for the 1998 FIFA World Cup, is located just north of Paris in the neighbouring commune of Saint-Denis. Paris hosts the annual French Open Grand Slam tennis tournament on the red clay of Roland Garros. Paris will host the 2024 Summer Olympics; the 1938 and 1998 FIFA World Cups, the 2007 Rugby World Cup, the 1960, 1984, 2016 UEFA European Championships were held in the city and, every July, the Tour de France bicycle race finishes there. The name "Paris" is derived from the Celtic Parisii tribe; the city's name is not related to the Paris of Greek mythology. Paris is referred to as the City of Light, both because of its leading role during the Age of Enlightenment and more because Paris was one of the first large European cities to use gas street lighting on a grand scale on its boulevards and monuments.
Gas lights were installed on the Place du Carousel, Rue de Rivoli and Place Vendome in 1829. By 1857, the Grand boulevards were lit. By the 1860s, the boulevards and streets of Paris were illuminated by 56,000 gas lamps. Since the late 19th century, Paris has been known as Panam in French slang. Inhabitants are known in French as Parisiens, they are pejoratively called Parigots. The Parisii, a sub-tribe of the Celtic Senones, inhabited the Paris area from around the middle of the 3rd century BC. One of the area's major north–south trade routes crossed the Seine on the île de la Cité; the Parisii minted their own coins for that purpose. The Romans began their settlement on Paris' Left Bank; the Roman town was called Lutetia. It became a prosperous city with a forum, temples, an amphitheatre. By the end of the Western Roman Empire, the town was known as Parisius, a Latin name that would become Paris in French. Christianity was introduced in the middle of the 3rd century AD by Saint Denis, the first Bishop of Paris: according to legend, when he refused to renounce his faith before the Roman occupiers, he was beheaded on the hill which became known as Mons Martyrum "Montmartre", from where he walked headless to the north of the city.
Clovis the Frank, the first king of the Merovingian dynasty, made the city his capital from 508. As the Frankish domination of Gaul began, there was a gradual immigration by the Franks to Paris and the Parisian Francien dialects were born. Fortification of the Île-de-la-Citie failed to avert sacking by Vikings in 845, but Paris' strategic importance—with its bridges prevent