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Eugène de Malbos was a French Romantic painter known for his lithographs of the Pyrenees. Some of his works are hosted by the Paul-Dupuy Museum in Toulouse, his signature is: “E. de Mal.”. Un voyage d'artiste. Guide dans les Pyrénées par deux amis, Toulouse 1835, with Gustave de Clausade Croquis d'un élève de M. Latour, published by Constantin in Toulouse, 22 lithographs 48 x 33 drawn between 1825 and 1830 Une visite au bon roy Henry, suivie d'une excursion au Guispuscoa, par Bayonne, text of Gustave de Clausade, published by Constantin in Toulouse, 1843, 15 lithographs Les plus beaux sites des Pyrénées, published by Dufour in Tarbes, Frick imprimeur in Paris. 13 works + 16 works from Maxime Lalanne Les Pyrénées romantiques by Frédéric Soutras: with 9 lithographs Le Routier des Frontières Méridionales contain some lithographs Guide-album aux eaux des Pyrénées: Vallées du Lavedan. Argelès, Saint Savin, Gazost, Cauterets by Joseph-Bernard Abadie contain 16 colors lithographs Marguerite Gaston, Images romantiques des Pyrénées.
Les amis du musée pyrénéen. 1975. Christian de Seauve, Caraman 1581-1858. Chronique d’une maison l’hôtel de Malbos, son environnement catholique et protestant. Les collectionneurs amateurs 31460 Caraman. 1998 Bertrand de Viviés, Voyages romantiques en Languedoc, Catalogue de l’exposition du Musée des beaux-arts de Gaillac, château de Foucaud. Gaillac. 2002. Exhibition in the Paul-Dupuy Museum, in Toulouse: Les Pyrénées romantiques in 2002. Lithographs of Eugène de Malbos on Gallica, the digital library of Bibliothèque nationale de France Lithographs of Eugène de Malbos on Rosalis, the Toulouse digital library Lithographs of Eugène de Malbos on Joconde, the digital database of French museums
France the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean, it is bordered by Belgium and Germany to the northeast and Italy to the east, Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans; the country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Toulouse, Bordeaux and Nice. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia.
The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into Middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia which became the Kingdom of France in 987 emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages following its victory in the Hundred Years' War. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world; the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Protestants. France became Europe's dominant cultural and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, established one of modern history's earliest republics, saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. In the 19th century, Napoleon established the First French Empire, his subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870.
France was a major participant in World War I, from which it emerged victorious, was one of the Allies in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War; the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s and retained close economic and military connections with France. France has long been a global centre of art and philosophy, it hosts the world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country with the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, human development.
France is considered a great power in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member state of the European Union and the Eurozone, a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, La Francophonie. Applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name "France" comes from the Latin "Francia", or "country of the Franks". Modern France is still named today "Francia" in Italian and Spanish, "Frankreich" in German and "Frankrijk" in Dutch, all of which have more or less the same historical meaning. There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm, the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank in English, it has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation.
Another theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca. However, it has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around; the oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from 1.8 million years ago. Over the ensuing millennia, Humans were confronted by a harsh and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux. At the end of the last glacial period, the climate became milder. After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium working gold and bronze, iron. France has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptiona
Eaux-Bonnes is a commune in the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department in south-western France. The historian Auguste Lorieux died in Eaux-Bonnes. Nearby is the impressive villa Cockade, the construction of, detailed in Dornford Yates's novel The House That Berry Built. Gourette is a winter sports resort located in the commune on the high mountain pass Col d'Aubisque. Aas, a village in Eaux-Bonnes. Ossau Valley Communes of the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department INSEE
Pyrénées-Atlantiques is a department in the region of Nouvelle-Aquitaine, in southwestern France. It takes its name from the Atlantic Ocean, it covers the Béarn. Named Basses-Pyrénées, it is one of the first 83 departments of France created during the French Revolution, on 4 March 1790, it was created out of parts belonging to the former greater province of Guyenne and Gascony, as well as the Béarn-Navarre, i.e. the Basques provinces of Basse-Navarre, Labourd and Soule, Béarn. The 1790 administrative design brought about the end of native laws; the Basque third-estate representatives overtly opposed the new administrative layout since it suppressed their institutions and laws. The representatives of Lower Navarre refused to vote arguing that they were not part of the Kingdom of France, those of Soule voted against, while the brothers Garat, representing Labourd voted yes, thinking that would give them a say in upcoming political decisions. On 10 October 1969, Basses-Pyrénées was renamed Pyrénées-Atlantiques.
Pyrénées-Atlantiques is part of the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region of Southwest France. It is bordered by Hautes-Pyrénées, Gers departments and the Bay of Biscay. Principal settlements include Pau, Oloron-Sainte-Marie, Biarritz, Anglet, Saint-Jean-de-Luz and Hendaye. Lac Gentau is located here. Pyrénées-Atlantiques, a border province, has cultivated a number of economic and cultural links with Spain. Two urban concentrations exist in the east and west of the département: Pau, which has 145,000 inhabitants, 344,000 workers in the local area. Both the Gascon Bearnese variant and Basque language are indigenous to the region in their respective districts. Gascon in turn is a dialect of Occitan the main language of southern France, it is more related to Catalan than it is to French. Basque is a language isolate, not related to any known language. Today, the sole official language of the French Republic, is the predominant native language and is spoken by all inhabitants. Pyrénées-Atlantiques is home to a number of professional sports teams, including Aviron Bayonnais, Biarritz Olympique, Section Paloise, Élan Béarnais Pau-Orthez and Pau FC.
The Pau Grand Prix, an auto race first held in 1901, has hosted the World Touring Car Championship, British Formula Three, Formula 3 Euro Series and FIA European Formula 3 Championship. The coat of arms of Pyrénées-Atlantiques combines those of four traditional provinces: Béarn Labourd Lower Navarre Soule Arrondissements of the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department Cantons of the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department Communes of the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department General Council website Archives of the Pyrenees-Atlantiques department website Photography Panoramics 360° website Prefecture official website Pyrenees-Atlantiques at Curlie Pyrenees-Atlantiques Monuments, Villages and Attractions Information on living and visiting Pyrenees Atlantiques
The Pyrenees is a range of mountains in southwest Europe that forms a natural border between Spain and France. Reaching a height of 3,404 metres altitude at the peak of Aneto, the range separates the Iberian Peninsula from the rest of continental Europe, extends for about 491 km from the Bay of Biscay to the Mediterranean Sea. For the most part, the main crest forms a divide between Spain and France, with the microstate of Andorra sandwiched in between; the Principality of Catalonia alongside with the Kingdom of Aragon in the Crown of Aragon and the Kingdom of Navarre have extended on both sides of the mountain range, with smaller northern portions now in France and larger southern parts now in Spain. In Greek mythology, Pyrene is a princess; the Greek historian Herodotus says. According to Silius Italicus, she was the virgin daughter of Bebryx, a king in Mediterranean Gaul by whom the hero Hercules was given hospitality during his quest to steal the cattle of Geryon during his famous Labours.
Hercules, characteristically drunk and lustful, violates the sacred code of hospitality and rapes his host's daughter. Pyrene runs away to the woods, afraid that her father will be angry. Alone, she pours out her story to the trees, attracting the attention of wild beasts who tear her to pieces. After his victory over Geryon, Hercules passes through the kingdom of Bebryx again, finding the girl's lacerated remains; as is the case in stories of this hero, the sober Hercules responds with heartbroken grief and remorse at the actions of his darker self, lays Pyrene to rest tenderly, demanding that the surrounding geography join in mourning and preserve her name: "struck by Herculean voice, the mountaintops shudder at the ridges. … The mountains hold on to the wept-over name through the ages." Pliny the Elder connects the story of Hercules and Pyrene to Lusitania, but rejects it as fabulosa fictional. Other classical sources derived the name from the Greek word for fire, Ancient Greek: πῦρ. According to Greek historian Diodorus Siculus "..in ancient times, we are told, certain herdsmen left a fire and the whole area of the mountains was consumed.
The Spanish Pyrenees are part of the following provinces, from east to west: Girona, Lleida, Huesca and Gipuzkoa. The French Pyrenees are part of the following départements, from east to west: Pyrénées-Orientales, Ariège, Haute-Garonne, Hautes-Pyrénées, Pyrénées-Atlantiques; the independent principality of Andorra is sandwiched in the eastern portion of the mountain range between the Spanish Pyrenees and French Pyrenees. Physiographically, the Pyrenees may be divided into three sections: the Atlantic, the Central, the Eastern Pyrenees. Together, they form a distinct physiographic province of the larger Alpine System division. In the Western Pyrenees, from the Basque mountains near the Bay of Biscay of the Atlantic Ocean, the average elevation increases from west to east; the Central Pyrenees extend eastward from the Somport pass to the Aran Valley, they include the highest summits of this range: Pico d'Aneto 3,404 metres in the Maladeta ridge, Pico Posets 3,375 metres, Monte Perdido 3,355 metres.
In the Eastern Pyrenees, with the exception of one break at the eastern extremity of the Pyrénées Ariègeoises in the Ariège area, the mean elevation is remarkably uniform until a sudden decline occurs in the easternmost portion of the chain known as the Albères. Most foothills of the Pyrenees are on the Spanish side, where there is a large and complex system of ranges stretching from Spanish Navarre, across northern Aragon and into Catalonia reaching the Mediterranean coast with summits reaching 2,600 m. At the eastern end on the southern side lies a distinct area known as the Sub-Pyrenees. On the French side the slopes of the main range descend abruptly and there are no foothills except in the Corbières Massif in the northeastern corner of the mountain system; the Pyrenees are older than the Alps: their sediments were first deposited in coastal basins during the Paleozoic and Mesozoic eras. Between 100 and 150 million years ago, during the Lower Cretaceous Period, the Bay of Biscay fanned out, pushing present-day Spain against France and applying intense compressional pressure to large layers of sedimentary rock.
The intense pressure and uplifting of the Earth's crust first affected the eastern part and moved progressively to the entire chain, culminating in the Eocene Epoch. The eastern part of the Pyrenees consists of granite and gneissose rocks, while in the western part the granite peaks are flanked by layers of limestone; the massive and unworn character of the chain comes from its abundance of granite, resistant to erosion, as well as weak glacial development. The upper parts of the Pyrenees contain low-relief surfaces forming a peneplain; this peneplain originated no earlier than in Late Miocene times. It formed at height as extensive sedimentation raised the local base
A spa town is a resort town based on a mineral spa. Patrons visit spas to "take the waters" for their purported health benefits; the word spa is derived from the name of a town in Belgium. Thomas Guidott set up a medical practice in the English town of Bath in 1668, he became interested in the curative properties of the hot mineral waters there and in 1676 wrote A discourse of Bathe, the hot waters there. Some Enquiries into the Nature of the water; this brought the purported health-giving properties of the waters to the attention of the aristocracy, who started to partake in them soon after. The term spa is used for towns or resorts offering hydrotherapy, which can include cold water or mineral water treatments and geothermal baths. Termas de Rio Hondo Presidencia Roque Sáenz Peña Most of the mineral springs in Australia are in the Central Highlands of Victoria, although there are a few springs in South Australia, New South Wales and Queensland. Most are within 30 km of Daylesford, Victoria: the Daylesford and Hepburn Springs call themselves'Spa Country' and the'Spa Centre of Australia'.
Chaudfontaine Ostend Spa See: List of spa towns in Bosnia and Herzegovina Banja Vrućica, Teslić Brazil has a growing number of spa towns. The traditional ones are: Águas de Lindoia, Serra Negra, Águas de São Pedro, Caxambu, Poços de Caldas, Caldas Novas, Araxá, São Lourenço. See: List of spa towns in Bulgaria Bulgaria is known for its more than 500 mineral springs, including the hottest spring in the Balkans at Sapareva Banya - 103 °C. Other famous spa towns include Sandanski, Bankya, Kyustendil, Velingard. In Bulgarian, the word for a spa is баня. See: List of spa towns in Canada Harrison Hot Springs is one of the oldest among 18 in British Columbia. See: List of spa towns in Croatia In Croatia, the word Toplice implies a spa town; the most famous spa towns in Croatia are Šibenik and Sisak. See: Spa towns in the Czech Republic In the Czech Language, the word Lázně implies a spa town; the most famous spa towns in Czech Republic are Karlovy Vary, Františkovy Lázně and Mariánské Lázně. See: List of spa towns in France In France, the words bains and eaux in city names imply a spa town.
There are more than 50 spa towns in France, including Vichy, Aix-les-Bains, Bagnoles-de-l'Orne and Enghien-les-Bains. Borjomi See: List of spa towns in Germany In Germany, the word Bad implies a spa town. Among the many famous spa towns in Germany are Bad Aachen, Baden-Baden, Bad Brückenau, Bad Ems, Bad Homburg, Bad Honnef, Bad Kissingen, Bad Kreuznach, Bad Mergentheim, Bad Muskau, Bad Pyrmont, Bad Reichenhall, Bad Saarow, Bad Schandau, Bad Segeberg, Bad Soden, Bad Tölz, Bad Wildbad, Bad Wimpfen, Bad Wildstein, Binz, Heiligendamm, Kampen, Königstein, Schwangau, St. Blasien, Tegernsee, Travemünde and Zingst. Wiesbaden is the largest spa town in Germany. See: List of spa towns in Greece The most famous spa towns in Greece are Aidipsos and Loutraki. See: List of spa towns in Hungary In Hungary, the word fürdő or the more archaic füred, fürdőváros or fürdőhely implies a spa town. Hungary is rich in thermal waters with health benefits, many spa towns are popular tourist destinations. Budapest has several spas, including Turkish style spas dating back to the 16th century.
Eger has a Turkish spa. Other famous spas include the ones at Hévíz, Harkány, Bük, Hajdúszoboszló, Bogács, Bükkszék, the Cave Bath at Miskolctapolca and the Zsóry-fürdő at Mezőkövesd. Bali Batam See: List of spa towns in Italy In Italy, spa towns, called città termale, are numerous all over the country because of the intense geological activity of the territory; these places were used since the Roman age. Mondorf-les-Bains Druskininkai - is known for mineral springs; the name comes from Lithuanian word druska - salt. Birštonas - is known for mineral springs and curative mud applications. Bad Nieuweschans in the North with "Bad" implying a spa town. Valkenburg near Maastricht, which wants to be a "city of wellness". Rotorua Hanmer Springs Ngawha Springs See: List of spa towns in Poland Most spa towns in Poland are located in the Lesser Poland and Lower Silesian Voivodeships; some of them have an affix "Zdrój" in their name, meaning "water spring", to denote their spa status, but this is not a general rule.
Portugal is well known by famous spa towns throughout of the country. Due to its high quality, as well as the landscape where are located, the most important ones are: Caldas da Rainha Caldas das Taipas Caldas de Monchique Caldas de Vizela Pedras Salgadas Vidago Chaves Sao Pedro do Sul Caldas da Felgueira located in Viseu District, 5km from Nelas town. See: List of spa towns in Romania In Romania, the word Băile implies a spa town; the most famous spa towns in Romania are Băile Herculane, Băile Felix, Covasna, Călimănești & Borsec. See: List of spa towns in Serbia Serbia is known for its many spa cities; some of the best known springs are the Vrnjačka Banja, Bukovička Banja, Sokobanja and Niška Banja. The hottest spring in Serbia is at Vranjska Banja. See: Spa towns in Slovakia Slovakia is well known by its spa towns; the most famous is Piešťany. The most important spa towns in Slovakia are: Bardejovské Kúpele Dudince Liptovský Ján Lúčky Piešťany Rajecké Teplice Kúpele Sliač Smrdáky Trenčianske Teplice Turčianske Teplice Bojnice Spa towns in Slove
Laruns is a commune in the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department in south-western France. It is situated at the confluence of two mountain streams, the Gave d'Ossau and its tributary, the Valentin. Part of the province of Béarn, Laruns is now within the département of Pyrénées-Atlantiques, itself in France's Nouvelle-Aquitaine région, it forms part of the arrondissement of Oloron-Sainte-Marie, of the canton of Oloron-Sainte-Marie-2. Laruns is geographically the third-largest commune in metropolitan France, after Arles and Saintes-Maries-de-la-Mer, it includes a large area of upland and between the Gave d'Ossau and its tributaries, stretching as far as the border with Spain at the Col du Pourtalet, 30 km to the south of the village of Laruns. The principal artery of communications through the commune is the D934 road, which runs south from the town of Pau, 40 km to the north, to the Col du Pourtalet; the D918 road branches off the D934 in Laruns village, follows the Valentin before crossing the Col d'Aubisque to Argelès-Gazost in the next major valley to the east.
There are no direct roads westward from Laruns. Because of its large geographic size, the Laruns contains several recognisably distinct communities in addition to Laruns itself; these include: Pon, an area of Laruns Espalungue, an area of Laruns Gêtre, an area of Laruns Gabas, a hamlet below the Pic du Midi d'Ossau, where the valley road is crossed by the GR10 long distance footpath that runs the length of the Pyrenees Geteu, a former commune merged into Laruns in 1828 Goust, a small plateau with an ambiguous international status. Eaux-Chaudes, a spa situated at the southern entrance to the Gorge du Hourat Artouste-Fabrèges, a ski resort situated in the valley of the Gave du Brousset, the beginning of the summer scenic route to the Lac d'Artouste via the Petit train d'Artouste MiegebatNeighboring communes and municipalities: North: Gère-Bélesten and Aste-Béon East: Arrens-Marsous, Louvie-Soubiron, Béost and Eaux-Bonnes West: Aydius, Cette-Eygun and Urdos South: Sallent de Gállego. Ossau Valley Communes of the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department INSEE commune file Laruns website Laruns website