Fireworks (1947 film)
Fireworks is a homoerotic experimental film by Kenneth Anger. Filmed in his parents' home in Beverly Hills, over a long weekend while they were away, the film stars Anger and explicitly explores themes of homosexuality and sado-masochism, it is the earliest of his works to survive. Fireworks is known for being the first gay narrative film in the United States. Anger synopsizes the film thus: "A dissatisfied dreamer awakes, goes out in the night seeking a'light' and is drawn through the needle's eye. A dream of a dream, he returns to bed less empty than before." Adding "This flick is all I have to say about being seventeen, the United States Navy, American Christmas, the Fourth of July." The film opens with the image of a sailor holding a lifeless body. A sleeping man gets dressed; the dreamer walks through a door labeled to find himself in a bar. He admires the body of a muscular sailor and offers his cigarette, only for the sailor to attack him; the sailor uses a flaming bundle of sticks to light the dreamer's cigarette.
His smoking is interrupted by a group of sailors who pin him to the ground. They beat the reach into his chest to find a ticking meter inside him. White liquid pours down his body. A sailor unbuttons the crotch of his pants to reveal a Roman candle which shoots sparks into the air; the dreamer appears with a Christmas tree as a headdress, moving toward a fireplace in which several photographs of the opening shot are burning. The dreamer appears asleep in bed, next to a man whose head is radiating light. During the Zoot Suit Riots, Anger witnessed a group of sailors in white uniforms chase down Mexican men and attack them, he had a persistent dream of men in white uniforms attacking at night, which became a dream about people chasing him. This dream became the premise for Fireworks. Anger stars in Fireworks as the dreamer, Gordon Gray plays the sailor from the opening scene. According to Anger's account, he found the cast of Fireworks while sitting in on film classes at UCLA, he convinced some classmates who were in the Navy to steal a few thousand feet of Navy film stock for him to use.
They acted in his film. Ed Earle, a friend of Anger's, has disputed this account, saying that the cast were not sailors, but "people dressed up…He talked everyone into doing it because it was as though he was going to make the ultimate porno film." Anger upgraded from a spring-wound camera when his grandmother gave him a Bell & Howell 16 mm camera as a birthday gift, which allowed him to film at 24 frames per second. Anger placed the shoot at his parents' home in Beverly Hills over three days. One scene was shot in a public bathroom at a park in California; when editing the film, Anger directly scratched the film stock for two scenes. Worried that he might get in trouble trying to sell prints of Fireworks by mail, he scratched out his genitals from one brief shot in a public urinal. In the film's ending, Anger etched in a corona of light around a man's face, he scored the film with Ottorino Respighi's Pines of Rome. Anger was a disciple of occultist Aleister Crowley, through; the dreamer in the film follows a symbolic process of death and self-realization similar to the Liber Pyramidos, a ritual for self-initiation.
In this sense, the "light" sought by the dreamer is a pun. The opening scene in which a sailor carries the lifeless body of the dreamer follows the Christian image of the pietà, in which the Virgin Mary cradles the dead body of Jesus. Anger's camp re-creation is emphasized with intense, expressionistic lighting of the subject against a dark background; this scene and its reappearance as a photograph in the film conflate masochistic desire with redemptive suffering. Anger has described the role of the sailor by saying that he "was a kind of sex symbol on one level, on another level there was a great deal of ambivalence and hostility, fear in the image." Fireworks was screened several times before its public premiere. It first screened publicly in 1947 at the Coronet Theatre in Los Angeles. Anger sold the first print of Fireworks to Alfred Kinsey. Cinema 16 distributed the film. Anger continued to make changes to the film after its original release; these edits included truncating a scene where the dreamer writhes on a bathroom floor before the sailers attack him and shortening the moment when Gordon Gray unbuttons his pants to reveal a firecracker.
One version used hand tinting for the halo of light. The use of color bridged Fireworks with Anger's film Eaux d'Artifice, which ends with a hand-tinted object. Raymond Rohauer of the Coronet Theatre obtained a copy of the film. After screening Fireworks on October 11, 1957, Rohauer was arrested on obscenity charges. William C. Doran served as prosecutor, with much of his case focusing on the Coronet and its homosexual patrons rather than the content of the film. Doran zeroed in on the sailor with a firecracker and, despite the lack of nudity in Fireworks, persistently referred to it as "the penis scene". Rohauer was found guilty in February 1958 and received a sentence of three years probation with a $250 fine. Civil rights attorney Stanley Fleishman appealed the decision to the California Supreme Court, which ruled in favor of Rohauer; the court ruled that homosexuality was a valid subject of artistic expression and that overt reference to it could not be considered obscenity. This ruling became a lan
Experimental film, experimental cinema or avant-garde cinema is a mode of filmmaking that rigorously re-evaluates cinematic conventions and explores non-narrative forms and alternatives to traditional narratives or methods of working. Many experimental films early ones, relate to arts in other disciplines: painting, dance and poetry, or arise from research and development of new technical resources. While some experimental films have been distributed through mainstream channels or made within commercial studios, the vast majority have been produced on low budgets with a minimal crew or a single person and are either self-financed or supported through small grants. Experimental filmmakers begin as amateurs, some used experimental films as a springboard into commercial film making or transitioned into academic positions; the aim of experimental filmmaking is to render the personal vision of an artist, or to promote interest in new technology rather than to entertain or to generate revenue, as is the case with commercial films.
The term describes a range of filmmaking styles that are quite different from, opposed to, the practices of mainstream commercial and documentary filmmaking. Avant-garde is used, for the films shot in the twenties in the field of history's avant-gardes currents in France, Germany or Russia, to describe this work, "underground" was used in the sixties, though it has had other connotations. Today the term "experimental cinema" prevails, because it's possible to make experimental films without the presence of any avant-garde movement in the cultural field. While "experimental" covers a wide range of practice, an experimental film is characterized by the absence of linear narrative, the use of various abstracting techniques—out-of-focus, painting or scratching on film, rapid editing—the use of asynchronous sound or the absence of any sound track; the goal is to place the viewer in a more active and more thoughtful relationship to the film. At least through the 1960s, to some extent after, many experimental films took an oppositional stance toward mainstream culture.
Most such films are made on low budgets, self-financed or financed through small grants, with a minimal crew or a crew of only one person, the filmmaker. Some critics have argued that much experimental film is no longer in fact "experimental" but has in fact become a mainstream film genre. Many of its more typical features—such as a non-narrative, impressionistic, or poetic approaches to the film's construction—define what is understood to be "experimental". Two conditions made Europe in the 1920s ready for the emergence of experimental film. First, the cinema matured as a medium, highbrow resistance to the mass entertainment began to wane. Second, avant-garde movements in the visual arts flourished; the Dadaists and Surrealists in particular took to cinema. René Clair's Entr'acte featuring Francis Picabia, Marcel Duchamp, Man Ray, with music by Erik Satie, took madcap comedy into nonsequitur. Artists Hans Richter, Jean Cocteau, Marcel Duchamp, Germaine Dulac, Viking Eggeling all contributed Dadaist/Surrealist shorts.
Fernand Léger, Dudley Murphy, Man Ray created the film Ballet Mécanique, sometimes described as Dadaist, Cubist, or Futurist. Duchamp created the abstract film Anémic Cinéma. Alberto Cavalcanti directed Rien que les heures, Walter Ruttmann directed Berlin: Symphony of a Metropolis, Dziga Vertov filmed Man With a Movie Camera, experimental "city symphonies" of Paris and Kiev, respectively; the most famous experimental film is considered to be Luis Buñuel and Salvador Dalí's Un chien andalou. Hans Richter's animated shorts, Oskar Fischinger's abstract films, Len Lye's GPO films would be excellent examples of more abstract European avant-garde films. Working in France, another group of filmmakers financed films through patronage and distributed them through cine-clubs, yet they were narrative films not tied to an avant-garde school. Film scholar David Bordwell has dubbed these French Impressionists, included Abel Gance, Jean Epstein, Marcel L'Herbier, Dimitri Kirsanoff; these films combine narrative experimentation, rhythmic editing and camerawork, an emphasis on character subjectivity.
In 1952, the Lettrists avant-garde movement in France, caused riots at the Cannes Film Festival, when Isidore Isou's Traité de bave et d'éternité was screened. After their criticism of Charlie Chaplin at the 1952 press conference in Paris for Chaplin's Limelight, there was a split within the movement; the Ultra-Lettrists continued to cause disruptions when they announced the death of cinema and showed their new hypergraphical techniques. The Soviet filmmakers, found a counterpart to modernist painting and photography in their theories of montage; the films of Dziga Vertov, Sergei Eisenstein, Lev Kuleshov, Alexander Dovzhenko, Vsevolod Pudovkin were instrumental in providing an alternative model from that offered by classical Hollywood. While not experimental films per se, they contributed to the film language of the avant-garde; the U. S. had some avant-garde films before World War II, such as Manhatta by Charles Sheeler and Paul Strand, The Life and Death of 9413: a Hollywood Extra by Slavko Vorkapich and Robert Florey.
However, much pre-war experimental film culture consisted of artists working in isolation, on film projects. Painter Emlen Etting directed dance films in the early 1930s. Commercial artist and
Federico Fellini, Cavaliere di Gran Croce OMRI was an Italian film director and screenwriter. Known for his distinct style that blends fantasy and baroque images with earthiness, he is recognized as one of the greatest and most influential filmmakers of all time, his films have ranked, in polls such as Cahiers du cinéma and Sight & Sound, as some of the greatest films of all time. Sight & Sound lists his 1963 film 8½ as the 10th-greatest film of all time. In a career spanning fifty years, Fellini won the Palme d'Or for La Dolce Vita, was nominated for twelve Academy Awards, won four in the category of Best Foreign Language Film, the most for any director in the history of the Academy. At the 65th Annual Academy Awards in Los Angeles, he received an honorary award for Lifetime Achievement. Besides La Dolce Vita and 8½, his other well-known films include La Strada, Nights of Cabiria, Juliet of the Spirits, Satyricon and Fellini's Casanova. Fellini was born on 20 January 1920, to middle-class parents in Rimini a small town on the Adriatic Sea.
His father, Urbano Fellini, born to a family of Romagnol peasants and small landholders from Gambettola, moved to Rome in 1915 as a baker apprenticed to the Pantanella pasta factory. His mother, Ida Barbiani, came from a bourgeiois Catholic family of Roman merchants. Despite her family's vehement disapproval, she had eloped with Urbano in 1917 to live at his parents' home in Gambettola. A civil marriage followed in 1918 with the religious ceremony held at Santa Maria Maggiore in Rome a year later; the couple settled in Rimini where Urbano became wholesale vendor. Fellini had two siblings: Riccardo, a documentary director for RAI Television, Maria Maddalena. In 1924, Fellini started primary school in an institute run by the nuns of San Vincenzo in Rimini, attending the Carlo Tonni public school two years later. An attentive student, he spent his leisure time drawing, staging puppet shows, reading Il corriere dei piccoli, the popular children's magazine that reproduced traditional American cartoons by Winsor McCay, George McManus and Frederick Burr Opper.
In 1926, he discovered the world of Grand Guignol, the circus with Pierino the Clown, the movies. Guido Brignone’s Maciste all’Inferno, the first film he saw, would mark him in ways linked to Dante and the cinema throughout his entire career. Enrolled at the Ginnasio Giulio Cesare in 1929, he made friends with Luigi ‘Titta’ Benzi a prominent Rimini lawyer. In Mussolini’s Italy and Riccardo became members of the Avanguardista, the compulsory Fascist youth group for males, he visited Rome with his parents for the first time in 1933, the year of the maiden voyage of the transatlantic ocean liner SS Rex. The sea creature found on the beach at the end of La Dolce Vita has its basis in a giant fish marooned on a Rimini beach during a storm in 1934. Although Fellini adapted key events from his childhood and adolescence in films such as I Vitelloni, 8½, Amarcord, he insisted that such autobiographical memories were inventions: It is not memory that dominates my films. To say that my films are autobiographical is an overly facile liquidation, a hasty classification.
It seems to me that I have invented everything: childhood, nostalgias, memories, for the pleasure of being able to recount them. In 1937, Fellini opened a portrait shop in Rimini, with the painter Demos Bonini, his first humorous article appeared in the "Postcards to Our Readers" section of Milan's Domenica del Corriere. Deciding on a career as a caricaturist and gag writer, Fellini travelled to Florence in 1938, where he published his first cartoon in the weekly 420. According to a biographer, Fellini found school "exasperating" and, in one year, had 67 absences. Failing his military culture exam, he graduated from high school in July 1938 after doubling the exam. In September 1939, he enrolled in law school at the University of Rome to please his parents. Biographer Hollis Alpert reports that "there is no record of his having attended a class". Installed in a family pensione, he met the painter Rinaldo Geleng. Poor, they unsuccessfully joined forces to draw sketches of restaurant and café patrons.
Fellini found work as a cub reporter on the dailies Il Piccolo and Il Popolo di Roma, but quit after a short stint, bored by the local court news assignments. Four months after publishing his first article in Marc’Aurelio, the influential biweekly humour magazine, he joined the editorial board, achieving success with a regular column titled But Are You Listening? Described as “the determining moment in Fellini’s life”, the magazine gave him steady employment between 1939 and 1942, when he interacted with writers and scriptwriters; these encounters led to opportunities in show business and cinema. Among his collaborators on the magazine's editorial board were the future director Ettore Scola, Marxist theorist and scriptwriter Cesare Zavattini, Bernardino Zapponi, a future Fellini screenwriter. Conducting interviews for CineMagazzino proved congenial: when asked to interview Aldo Fabrizi, Italy's most popular variety performer, he established such immediate personal rapport with the man that they collaborated professionally.
Specializing in humorous monologues, Fabrizi commissioned material from his young protégé. Retained on business
Tivoli is a town and comune in Lazio, central Italy, about 30 kilometres east-north-east of Rome, at the falls of the Aniene river where it issues from the Sabine hills. The city offers a wide view over the Roman Campagna. Gaius Julius Solinus cites Cato the Elder's lost Origines for the story that the city was founded by Catillus the Arcadian, a son of Amphiaraus, who came there having escaped the slaughter at Thebes, Greece. Catillus and his three sons Tiburtus and Catillus drove out the Siculi from the Aniene plateau and founded a city they named Tibur in honor of Tiburtus. According to a more historical account, Tibur was instead a colony of Alba Longa. Historical traces of settlement in the area date back to the 13th century BC; the city's name may share a common root with the Latin praenomen Tiberius. Virgil in his Aeneid makes Coras and the younger Catillus twin brothers and the leaders of military forces from Tibur aiding Turnus. From Etruscan times Tibur, a Sabine city, was the seat of the Tiburtine Sibyl.
There are two small temples above the falls, the rotunda traditionally associated with Vesta and the rectangular one with the Sibyl of Tibur, whom Varro calls Albunea, the water nymph, worshipped on the banks of the Anio as a tenth Sibyl added to the nine mentioned by the Greek writers. In the nearby woods, Faunus had a sacred grove. During the Roman age Tibur maintained a certain importance, being on the way that Romans had to follow to cross the mountain regions of the Apennines towards the Abruzzo, the region where lived some of its fiercest enemies such as Volsci and Samnites. At first an independent ally of Rome, Tibur allied itself with the Gauls in 361 BC. Vestiges remain in opus quadratum. In 338 BC, Tibur was defeated and absorbed by the Romans; the city acquired Roman citizenship in 90 BC and became a resort area famed for its beauty and its good water, was enriched by many Roman villas. The most famous one, of which the ruins remain, is the Villa Adriana. Maecenas and Augustus had villas at Tibur, the poet Horace had a modest villa: he and Catullus and Statius all mention Tibur in their poems.
In 273, the captive queen of Palmyra, was assigned a residence here by the Emperor Aurelian. The 2nd-century temple of Hercules Victor is being excavated; the present Piazza del Duomo occupies the Roman forum. The name of the city came to be used in diminutive form as Tiburi instead of Tibur and so transformed through Tibori to Tiboli and to Tivoli, but its inhabitants are still called Tiburtini and not Tivolesi. In 547, in the course of the Gothic War, the city was fortified by the Byzantine general Belisarius, but was destroyed by Totila's army. After the end of the war it became a Byzantine duchy absorbed into the Patrimony of St. Peter. After Italy was conquered by Charlemagne, Tivoli was under the authority of a count, representing the emperor. From the 10th century onwards, Tivoli, as an independent commune governed by its elected consuls, was the fiercest rival of Rome in the struggle for the control over the impoverished central Lazio. Emperor Otto III conquered it in 1001, Tivoli fell under the papal control.
Tivoli however managed to keep a level of independence until the 15th century: symbols of the city's strength were the Palace of Arengo, the Torre del Comune and the church of St. Michael, all built in this period, as well as the new line of walls, needed to house the increasing population. Reminders of the internal turbulence of communal life are the tower houses that may be seen in Vicolo dei Ferri, Via di Postera, Via del Seminario and Via del Colle. In the 13th century Rome imposed a tribute on the city, gave itself the right to appoint a count to govern it in conjunction with the local consuls. In the 14th century Tivoli sided with the Guelphs and supported Urban VI against Antipope Clement VII. King Ladislaus of Sicily was twice repulsed from the city, as was the famous condottiero Braccio da Montone. In the city there was a Jewish community. During the Renaissance and cardinals did not limit their embellishment program to Rome. In 1461 Pope Pius II built the massive Rocca Pia to control the always restive population, as a symbol of the permanence of papal temporal power here.
From the 16th century the city saw further construction of villas. The most famous of these is the Villa d'Este, a World Heritage Site, whose construction was started in 1550 by Pirro Ligorio for Cardinal Ippolito II d'Este and, richly decorated with an ambitious program of frescoes by famous painters of late Roman Mannerism, such Girolamo Muziano, Livio Agresti or Federico Zuccari. In 1527 Tivoli was sacked by bands of the supporters of the emperor and the Colonna, important archives being destroyed during the attack. In 1547 it was again occupied, by the Duke of Alba in a war against Paul IV, in 1744 by the Austrians. In 1835 Pope Gregory XVI added the Villa Gregoriana, a villa complex pivoting around the Aniene's falls; the "Great Waterfall" was created through a tunnel in the Monte Catillo, to give an outlet to the waters of the Aniene sufficient to preserve the city from inundations like the devastating flood of 1826. In 1944, Tivoli suffered heavy damage under an Allied bombing, which destroyed the Jesuit Church of Jesus.
Tivoli has a Mediterranean climate with cool and wet winters. Villa Adriana, part of the UNESCO World Heritage site list from 1999 Villa d'Este, part of the UNESCO World Heritage site list since 2001 Villa Gregoriana Rocca Pia, a 15th-century fo
Italy the Italian Republic, is a country in Southern Europe. Located in the middle of the Mediterranean Sea, Italy shares open land borders with France, Austria and the enclaved microstates San Marino and Vatican City. Italy covers an area of 301,340 km2 and has a temperate seasonal and Mediterranean climate. With around 61 million inhabitants, it is the fourth-most populous EU member state and the most populous country in Southern Europe. Due to its central geographic location in Southern Europe and the Mediterranean, Italy has been home to a myriad of peoples and cultures. In addition to the various ancient peoples dispersed throughout modern-day Italy, the most famous of which being the Indo-European Italics who gave the peninsula its name, beginning from the classical era and Carthaginians founded colonies in insular Italy and Genoa, Greeks established settlements in the so-called Magna Graecia, while Etruscans and Celts inhabited central and northern Italy respectively; the Italic tribe known as the Latins formed the Roman Kingdom in the 8th century BC, which became a republic with a government of the Senate and the People.
The Roman Republic conquered and assimilated its neighbours on the peninsula, in some cases through the establishment of federations, the Republic expanded and conquered parts of Europe, North Africa and the Middle East. By the first century BC, the Roman Empire emerged as the dominant power in the Mediterranean Basin and became the leading cultural and religious centre of Western civilisation, inaugurating the Pax Romana, a period of more than 200 years during which Italy's technology, economy and literature flourished. Italy remained the metropole of the Roman Empire; the legacy of the Roman Empire endured its fall and can be observed in the global distribution of culture, governments and the Latin script. During the Early Middle Ages, Italy endured sociopolitical collapse and barbarian invasions, but by the 11th century, numerous rival city-states and maritime republics in the northern and central regions of Italy, rose to great prosperity through shipping and banking, laying the groundwork for modern capitalism.
These independent statelets served as Europe's main trading hubs with Asia and the Near East enjoying a greater degree of democracy than the larger feudal monarchies that were consolidating throughout Europe. The Renaissance began in Italy and spread to the rest of Europe, bringing a renewed interest in humanism, science and art. Italian culture flourished, producing famous scholars and polymaths such as Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael and Machiavelli. During the Middle Ages, Italian explorers such as Marco Polo, Christopher Columbus, Amerigo Vespucci, John Cabot and Giovanni da Verrazzano discovered new routes to the Far East and the New World, helping to usher in the European Age of Discovery. Italy's commercial and political power waned with the opening of trade routes that bypassed the Mediterranean. Centuries of infighting between the Italian city-states, such as the Italian Wars of the 15th and 16th centuries, left the region fragmented, it was subsequently conquered and further divided by European powers such as France and Austria.
By the mid-19th century, rising Italian nationalism and calls for independence from foreign control led to a period of revolutionary political upheaval. After centuries of foreign domination and political division, Italy was entirely unified in 1871, establishing the Kingdom of Italy as a great power. From the late 19th century to the early 20th century, Italy industrialised, namely in the north, acquired a colonial empire, while the south remained impoverished and excluded from industrialisation, fuelling a large and influential diaspora. Despite being one of the main victors in World War I, Italy entered a period of economic crisis and social turmoil, leading to the rise of a fascist dictatorship in 1922. Participation in World War II on the Axis side ended in military defeat, economic destruction and the Italian Civil War. Following the liberation of Italy and the rise of the resistance, the country abolished the monarchy, reinstated democracy, enjoyed a prolonged economic boom and, despite periods of sociopolitical turmoil became a developed country.
Today, Italy is considered to be one of the world's most culturally and economically advanced countries, with the sixth-largest worldwide national wealth. Its advanced economy ranks eighth-largest in the world and third in the Eurozone by nominal GDP. Italy owns the third-largest central bank gold reserve, it has a high level of human development, it stands among the top countries for life expectancy. The country plays a prominent role in regional and global economic, military and diplomatic affairs. Italy is a founding and leading member of the European Union and a member of numerous international institutions, including the UN, NATO, the OECD, the OSCE, the WTO, the G7, the G20, the Union for the Mediterranean, the Council of Europe, Uniting for Consensus, the Schengen Area and many more; as a reflection
Inauguration of the Pleasure Dome
Inauguration of the Pleasure Dome is a 38-minute short film by Kenneth Anger, filmed in 1954. Anger created two other versions of this film in the late 1970s. According to him, the film takes the name "pleasure dome" from Samuel Taylor Coleridge's atmospheric poem "Kubla Khan". Anger was inspired to make the film after attending a Halloween party called "Come as your Madness"; the film has gained cult film status. Earlier prints of the film had sequences that were meant to be projected on three different screens, an idea inspired in part by Abel Gance's Napoléon; the three-screen version was shown at the Brussels World's Fair. Anger subsequently re-edited the film to layer the images; the film was shown in American universities and art galleries during the 1960s, 1970s and 1980s. The original edition soundtrack is a complete performance of Glagolitic Mass by the Czech composer Leoš Janáček. In 1966, a re-edited version known as'The Sacred Mushroom Edition' was made available. In the late 1970s, a third revision was made, which was'The Sacred Mushroom Edition' re-edited to fit the Electric Light Orchestra album Eldorado, omitting only "Illusions in G Major", a blues-rock tune that Anger felt did not fit the mood of the film.
The differences in the visuals of the 1954 original and the two revisions are minor. An early version—shown only once on German television in the early 1980s, held to this day by NDR—includes an additional three minutes at the beginning, including a reading of the poem "Kubla Khan" by Samuel Taylor Coleridge; the film reflects Anger's deep interest in Thelema, the philosophy of Aleister Crowley and his followers, as indicated by Cameron's role as "The Scarlet Woman". Crowley's concept of a ritual masquerade party where attendees dress as gods and goddesses served as a direct inspiration for the film; the film uses some footage of the Hell sequence from the 1911 Italian silent film L'Inferno. Near the end, scenes from Anger's earlier film Puce Moment are interpolated into the layered images and faces. Samson De Brier as Shiva, Nero, Alessandro Cagliostro, Aleister Crowley Marjorie Cameron as The Scarlet Woman and Kali Joan Whitney as Aphrodite Katy Kadell as Isis Renate Druks as Lilith Anaïs Nin as Astarte Curtis Harrington as Cesare the sleepwalker Kenneth Anger as Hecate Paul Mathison as Pan Peter Loome as Ganymede List of avant-garde films of the 1950s Bibliography Curtis, Davida.
Experimental Film. New York: Dell Books/Delta. Inauguration of the Pleasure Dome on IMDb Inauguration of the Pleasure Dome at AllMovie
National Film Registry
The National Film Registry is the United States National Film Preservation Board's selection of films deserving of preservation. The NFPB, established by the National Film Preservation Act of 1988, was reauthorized by acts of Congress in 1992, 1996, 2005, again in October 2008; the NFPB's mission, to which the NFR contributes, is to ensure the survival and increased public availability of America's film heritage. The 1996 law created the non-profit National Film Preservation Foundation which, although affiliated with the NFPB, raises money from the private sector; the NFPB adds to the NFR up to 25 "culturally or aesthetically significant films" each year, showcasing the range and diversity of American film heritage to increase awareness for its preservation. A film becomes eligible for inclusion ten years after its original release. For the first selection in 1989, the public nominated 1,000 films for consideration. Members of the NFPB developed individual ballots of possible films for inclusion.
The ballots were tabulated into a list of 25 films, modified by Librarian of Congress James H. Billington and his staff at the Library for the final selection. Since 1997, members of the public have been able to nominate up to 50 films a year for the NFPB and Librarian to consider; the NFR includes films ranging from Hollywood classics to orphan films. A film is not required to be feature-length, nor is it required to have been theatrically released in the traditional sense. In addition, television programs and foreign films are not excluded from consideration, although American films are given preference; the Registry contains newsreels, silent films, student films, experimental films, short films, music videos, films out of copyright protection or in the public domain, film serials, home movies, documentaries and independent films. As of the 2018 listing, there are 750 films in the Registry; the earliest listed film is Newark Athlete, the most recent is Brokeback Mountain. Counting the 11 multi-year serials in the NFR once each by year of completion, the year with the most films selected is 1939, with 19 films from that year chosen.
The time between a film's debut and its selection varies greatly. The longest span is 121 years; the shortest span is the minimum 10 years. This table is through the 2018 induction list. For purposes of this list, multi-year serials are counted only once by year of completion. Category:United States National Film Registry films National Recording Registry These Amazing Shadows, a 2011 documentary film that tells the history and importance of the registry National Film Registry homepage Classic Movie Hub: National Film Registry List These Amazing Shadows site for Independent Lens on PBS