A city is a large human settlement. Cities have extensive systems for housing, sanitation, land use, communication, their density facilitates interaction between people, government organizations and businesses, sometimes benefiting different parties in the process. City-dwellers have been a small proportion of humanity overall, but following two centuries of unprecedented and rapid urbanization half of the world population now lives in cities, which has had profound consequences for global sustainability. Present-day cities form the core of larger metropolitan areas and urban areas—creating numerous commuters traveling towards city centers for employment and edification. However, in a world of intensifying globalization, all cities are in different degree connected globally beyond these regions; the most populated city proper is Chongqing while the most populous metropolitan areas are the Greater Tokyo Area, the Shanghai area, Jabodetabek. The cities of Faiyum and Varanasi are among those laying claim to longest continual inhabitation.
A city is distinguished from other human settlements by its great size, but by its functions and its special symbolic status, which may be conferred by a central authority. The term can refer either to the physical streets and buildings of the city or to the collection of people who dwell there, can be used in a general sense to mean urban rather than rural territory. A variety of definitions, invoking population, population density, number of dwellings, economic function, infrastructure, are used in national censuses to classify populations as urban. Common population definitions for a city range between 1,500 and 50,000 people, with most U. S. states using a minimum between 5,000 inhabitants. However, some jurisdictions set no such minimums. In the United Kingdom, city status is awarded by the government and remains permanently, resulting in some small cities, such as Wells and St Davids. According to the "functional definition" a city is not distinguished by size alone, but by the role it plays within a larger political context.
Cities serve as administrative, commercial and cultural hubs for their larger surrounding areas. Examples of settlements called city which may not meet any of the traditional criteria to be named such include Broad Top City and City Dulas, Anglesey, a hamlet; the presence of a literate elite is sometimes included in the definition. A typical city has professional administrators and some form of taxation to support the government workers; the governments may be based on heredity, military power, work projects such as canal building, food distribution, land ownership, commerce, finance, or a combination of these. Societies that live in cities are called civilizations; the word city and the related civilization come, via Old French, from the Latin root civitas meaning citizenship or community member and coming to correspond with urbs, meaning city in a more physical sense. The Roman civitas was linked with the Greek "polis"—another common root appearing in English words such as metropolis. Urban geography deals both with their internal structure.
Town siting has varied through history according to natural, technological and military contexts. Access to water has long been a major factor in city placement and growth, despite exceptions enabled by the advent of rail transport in the nineteenth century, through the present most of the world's urban population lives near the coast or on a river. Urban areas as a rule cannot produce their own food and therefore must develop some relationship with a hinterland which sustains them. Only in special cases such as mining towns which play a vital role in long-distance trade, are cities disconnected from the countryside which feeds them. Thus, centrality within a productive region influences siting, as economic forces would in theory favor the creation of market places in optimal mutually reachable locations; the vast majority of cities have a central area containing buildings with special economic and religious significance. Archaeologists refer to this area by the Greek term temenos; these spaces reflect and amplify the city's centrality and importance to its wider sphere of influence.
Today cities have downtown, sometimes coincident with a central business district. Cities have public spaces where anyone can go; these include owned spaces open to the public as well as forms of public land such as public domain and the commons. Western philosophy since the time of the Greek agora has considered physical public space as the substrate of the symbolic public sphere. Public art adorns public spaces. Parks and other natural sites within cities provide residents with relief from the hardness and regularity of typical built environments. Urban structure follows one or more basic patterns: geomorphic, concentric and curvilinear. Physical environment constrains the form in which a city is built. If located on a mountainside, urban structure may rely on winding roads, it may be adapted to its means of subsistence. And it may be set up for optimal defense given the surrounding landscape. Beyond these "geomorphi
Springfield is the third-largest city in the state of Missouri and the county seat of Greene County. As of the 2010 census, its population was 159,498; as of 2017, the Census Bureau estimated its population at 167,376. It is the principal city of the Springfield metropolitan area, which has a population of 462,369 and includes the counties of Christian, Greene, Webster. Springfield's nickname is "Queen City of the Ozarks" and it is known as the "Birthplace of Route 66", it is home to three universities, Missouri State University, Drury University, Evangel University. The origin of the city's name is unclear, but the most common view is that it was named for Springfield, Massachusetts by migrants from that area. One account holds that James Wilson, who lived in the unnamed city, offered free whiskey to anyone who would vote for the name Springfield, after his hometown in Massachusetts; the editor of the Springfield Express, J. G. Newbill, said in the November 11, 1881 issue:"It has been stated that this city got its name from the fact of a spring and field being near by just west of town.
But such is not a correct version. When the authorized persons met and adopted the title of the "Future Great" of the Southwest, several of the earliest settlers had handed in their favorite names, among whom was Kindred Rose, who presented the winning name, "Springfield," in honor of his former home town, Tennessee." In 1883, historian R. I. Holcombe wrote: "The town took its name from the circumstance of there being a spring under the hill, on the creek, while on top of the hill, where the principal portion of the town lay, there was a field." The presence of the Native Americans in the area slowed the European-American settlement of the land. Long before the 1830s, the native Kickapoo and Osage, the Lenape from the mid-Atlantic coast had settled in this general area; the Osage had been the dominant tribe for more than a century in the larger region. On the southeastern side of the city in 1812, about 500 Kickapoo Native Americans built a small village of about 100 wigwams, they abandoned the site in 1828.
Ten miles south of the site of Springfield, the Lenape had built a substantial dwelling of houses that borrowed elements of Anglo colonial style from the mid-Atlantic, where their people had migrated from. The first European-American settlers to the area were John Polk Campbell and his brother, who moved to the area in 1829 from Tennessee. Campbell chose the area because of the presence of a natural well, he staked his claim by carving his initials in a tree. Cambell was joined by settlers Thomas Finney, Samuel Weaver, Joseph Miller, they proceeded to clear the land of trees to develop it for farms. A small general store was soon opened. In 1833, the southern part of the state was named Greene County after Revolutionary War hero General Nathanael Greene; the legislature deeded 50 acres of land to John Campbell for the creation of a county seat in 1835. Campbell laid out city lots; the town was incorporated in 1838. In 1878, the town got its nickname the "Queen City of the Ozarks."The United States government enforced Indian Removal during the 1830s, forcing land cessions in the Southeast and other areas, relocating tribes to Indian Territory, which developed as Oklahoma.
During the 1838 relocation of Cherokee natives, the Trail of Tears passed through Springfield to the west, along the Old Wire Road. By 1861, Springfield's population had grown to 2,000, it had become an important commercial hub. At the start of the American Civil War, Springfield was divided in its loyalty, as it had been settled by people from both the North and South, as well as by German immigrants in the mid-19th century who tended to support the Union; the Union and Confederate armies both recognized the city's strategic importance and sought to control it. They fought the Battle of Wilson's Creek on a few miles southwest of town; the battle was a Confederate victory, Nathaniel Lyon became the first Union General killed in Civil War. Union troops retreated to Lebanon to regroup; when they returned, they found. On October 25, 1861, Union Major Charles Zagonyi led an attack against the remaining Confederates in the area, in a battle known as the First Battle of Springfield, or Zagonyi's Charge.
Zagonyi's men returned to camp. It was the only Union victory in southwestern Missouri in 1861; the increased military activity in the area set the stage for the Battle of Pea Ridge in northern Arkansas in March 1862. On January 8, 1863, Confederate forces under General John S. Marmaduke advanced to take control of Springfield and an urban fight ensued, but that evening, the Confederates withdrew. This became known as the Second Battle of Springfield. Marmaduke sent a message to the Union forces asking that the Confederate casualties have a proper burial; the city remained under Union control for the remainder of the war. The US army used Springfield as a supply base and central point of operation for military activities in the area. Promptly after the Civil War ended on July 21, 1865 Wild Bill Hickok shot and killed Davis Tutt in a shootout over a disagreement about a debt Tutt claimed Hickok owed him. During a poker game at the former Lyon House Hotel, in response to the disagreement over the amount, Tutt had taken Hickok's watch, which Hickok demanded he return immediately.
Hickok warned that Tutt had better not be seen wearing that watch spotted him wearing it in Park Central Square, prompting the gunfight. On January 25, 1866, Hickok was still in Springfield when he witnessed a Springfield police officer, John Orr and kill James Coleman after Coleman interfered with t
Phenix is an unincorporated community in northwest Greene County, in the U. S. state of Missouri. The community is located on the banks of Sugar Creek 2.5 miles south of Walnut Grove and 1.5 miles west of Harold and Missouri Route 123. During the railroad boom of the late 1800s the Kansas City and Springfield Rail Co. forged their way through the wilderness between Ash Grove and Walnut Grove, their repeated dynamite blasting revealed deposits of high quality limestone in 1884. A post office called Phenix was established in 1886, remained in operation until 1942. In 1888, this discovery prompted Kansas City investor, C. R. Hunt. For nearly two decades, Hunt ran the quarry as the Phenix Lime Company. By 1905, W. J. Grant, a marble finisher from Milwaukee recognized the high quality of Phenix limestone and purchased an interest into Hunts company; this operation grew over the years, that in 1913, it was named the Phenix Marble Co., known for producing Phenix Napoleon Gray Marble, noted for its resemblance to a kind of French marble from the reign of Napoleon.
With this high quality limestone, the industrial development of the small community grew to establish a company owned town, typical of the times. In 1902, a general store was established and in 1905 a two-room school house was built; the town hall, city park, all the homes were owned by the company. A former quarry employee recalled that, "The company would give us script instead of money with which we could purchase supplies at the company store." In 1904, the Missouri Bureau of Geology named Phenix as the largest and best equipped quarry in the state with a community of 500 employees. During the first three decades of the 20th century, Phenix Marble Company was one of the largest producers of cut limestone and marble west of the Mississippi, producing more than 250,000 cubic feet of stone annually. Production halted during the Great Depression, leading the railroad track used for transportation to be abandoned. During World War II, much of the quarry's iron equipment was scrapped for the war effort.
The Phenix quarry reopened under the management of the Vermont Marble Co. yet failed to regain its previous position in the market. By the 1970s, Phenix was a ghost town, the quarry itself was purchased in 1988 by David Ricter, who used the land as a gravel hauling business
Greene County, Missouri
Greene County is a county located in the U. S. state of Missouri. As of the 2010 census, the population was 275,174, making it the fourth-most populous county in Missouri, its county seat and most populous city is Springfield. The county was organized in 1833 and is named after American Revolutionary War General Nathanael Greene. Greene County is included in MO Metropolitan Statistical Area. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 678 square miles, of which 675 square miles is land and 2.6 square miles is water. Polk County Dallas County Webster County Christian County Lawrence County Dade County Wilson's Creek National Battlefield As of the census of 2000, there were 240,391 people, 97,859 households, 61,846 families residing in the county; the population density was 356 people per square mile. There were 104,517 housing units at an average density of 155 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 93.54% White, 2.26% Black or African American, 0.66% Native American, 1.13% Asian, 0.06% Pacific Islander, 0.67% from other races, 1.68% from two or more races.
1.84% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 97,859 households out of which 28.30% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.00% were married couples living together, 9.80% had a female householder with no husband present, 36.80% were non-families. 29.10% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.70% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.34 and the average family size was 2.89. In the county, the population was spread out with 22.30% under the age of 18, 13.80% from 18 to 24, 28.60% from 25 to 44, 21.80% from 45 to 64, 13.60% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females, there were 94.40 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.20 males. The median income for a household in the county was $44,185, the median income for a family was $56,047. Males had a median income of $30,672 versus $21,987 for females; the per capita income for the county was $25,770.
About 7.60% of families and 12.10% of the population were below the poverty line, including 13.60% of those under age 18 and 7.50% of those age 65 or over. There are 190,417 registered voters in Greene County. Republic and Springfield have city fire departments. Additionally, the county is served by the following fire districts: Ash Grove Battlefield Billings Brookline Ebenezer Fair Grove Logan-Rogersville Strafford Walnut Grove West Republic Willard The Republican Party predominantly controls politics at the local level in Greene County. Greene County is divided into eight legislative districts in the Missouri House of Representatives. District 130 — Jeff Messenger. Consists of all of the communities of Ash Grove, Bois D'Arc, Republic, a small sliver of the city of Springfield. District 131 — Sonya Anderson; the district includes the northern part the city of Springfield and rural area of north-central Greene County. District 132 — Crystal Quade; the district is based in the city of Springfield.
District 133 — Curtis Trent. The district includes a part of the city of Springfield. District 134 — Elijah Haahr; the district includes part of the city of Springfield. District 135 — Steve Helms; the district exists within the city of Springfield. District 136 — Kevin Austin; the district includes of some rural area southeast of the city. District 137 — Lyndall Fraker; the district includes the communities of Fair Grove and Strafford. Greene County is divided into two districts in the Missouri Senate, both of which represented by Republicans. District 20 — Jay Wasson District 30 — Bob Dixon All of Greene County is included in Missouri's 7th Congressional District and is represented by Billy Long in the U. S. House of Representatives. Like most counties situated in Southwest Missouri, Greene County is a Republican stronghold in presidential elections. George W. Bush carried Greene County in 2000 and 2004 by two-to-one margins, like many other counties throughout Southwest Missouri, Greene County favored John McCain over Barack Obama in 2008.
In the 2016 presidential election, Donald Trump carried Greene County by a margin of 60% to 33%. The last Democratic presidential nominee to win Greene County was Lyndon B. Johnson in 1964. In 2004, Missourians voted on a constitutional amendment to define marriage as the union between a man and a woman—it passed Greene County with 72.04 percent of the vote. The initiative passed the state with 71 percent of support from voters as Missouri became the first state to ban same-sex marriage. In 2006, Missourians voted on a constitutional amendment to fund and legalize embryonic stem cell research in the state—it narrowly failed in Greene County with 51.62 percent voting against the measure. The initiative narrowly passed the state with 51 percent of support from voters as Missouri became one of the first states in the nation to approve embryonic stem cell research. Despite Greene County's longstanding tradition of supporting conservative platforms, voters in the county have a penchant for advancing populist causes like increasing the minimum wage.
In 2006, Missourians voted on a proposition to increase the minimum wage in the state to $6.50 an hour—it passed Greene County with 74.41 percent of the vote. The proposition p
Missouri is a state in the Midwestern United States. With over six million residents, it is the 18th-most populous state of the Union; the largest urban areas are St. Louis, Kansas City and Columbia; the state is the 21st-most extensive in area. In the South are the Ozarks, a forested highland, providing timber and recreation; the Missouri River, after which the state is named, flows through the center of the state into the Mississippi River, which makes up Missouri's eastern border. Humans have inhabited the land now known as Missouri for at least 12,000 years; the Mississippian culture built mounds, before declining in the 14th century. When European explorers arrived in the 17th century they encountered the Osage and Missouria nations; the French established Louisiana, a part of New France, founded Ste. Genevieve in 1735 and St. Louis in 1764. After a brief period of Spanish rule, the United States acquired the Louisiana Purchase in 1803. Americans from the Upland South, including enslaved African Americans, rushed into the new Missouri Territory.
Missouri was admitted as a slave state as part of the Missouri Compromise. Many from Virginia and Tennessee settled in the Boonslick area of Mid-Missouri. Soon after, heavy German immigration formed the Missouri Rhineland. Missouri played a central role in the westward expansion of the United States, as memorialized by the Gateway Arch; the Pony Express, Oregon Trail, Santa Fe Trail, California Trail all began in Missouri. As a border state, Missouri's role in the American Civil War was complex and there were many conflicts within. After the war, both Greater St. Louis and the Kansas City metropolitan area became centers of industrialization and business. Today, the state is divided into the independent city of St. Louis. Missouri's culture blends elements from Southern United States; the musical styles of ragtime, Kansas City jazz, St. Louis Blues developed in Missouri; the well-known Kansas City-style barbecue, lesser-known St. Louis-style barbecue, can be found across the state and beyond. Missouri is a major center of beer brewing.
Missouri wine is produced in Ozarks. Missouri's alcohol laws are among the most permissive in the United States. Outside of the state's major cities, popular tourist destinations include the Lake of the Ozarks, Table Rock Lake, Branson. Well-known Missourians include U. S. President Harry S. Truman, Mark Twain, Walt Disney, Chuck Berry, Nelly; some of the largest companies based in the state include Cerner, Express Scripts, Emerson Electric, Edward Jones, H&R Block, Wells Fargo Advisors, O'Reilly Auto Parts. Missouri has been called the "Mother of the West" and the "Cave State"; the state is named for the Missouri River, named after the indigenous Missouri Indians, a Siouan-language tribe. It is said that they were called the ouemessourita, meaning "those who have dugout canoes", by the Miami-Illinois language speakers; this appears to be folk etymology—the Illinois spoke an Algonquian language and the closest approximation that can be made in that of their close neighbors, the Ojibwe, is "You Ought to Go Downriver & Visit Those People."
This would be an odd occurrence, as the French who first explored and attempted to settle the Mississippi River got their translations during that time accurate giving things French names that were exact translations of the native tongue. Assuming Missouri were deriving from the Siouan language, it would translate as "It connects to the side of it," in reference to the river itself; this is not likely either, as this would be coming out as "Maya Sunni" Most though, the name Missouri comes from Chiwere, a Siouan language spoken by people who resided in the modern day states of Wisconsin, South Dakota, Missouri & Nebraska. The name "Missouri" has several different pronunciations among its present-day natives, the two most common being and. Further pronunciations exist in Missouri or elsewhere in the United States, involving the realization of the first syllable as either or. Any combination of these phonetic realizations may be observed coming from speakers of American English; the linguistic history was treated definitively by Donald M. Lance, who acknowledged that the question is sociologically complex, but that no pronunciation could be declared "correct", nor could any be defined as native or outsider, rural or urban, southern or northern, educated or otherwise.
Politicians employ multiple pronunciations during a single speech, to appeal to a greater number of listeners. Informal respellings of the state's name, such as "Missour-ee" or "Missour-uh", are used informally to phonetically distinguish pronunciations. There is no official state nickname. However, Missouri's unofficial nickname is the "Show Me State"; this phrase has several origins. One is popularly ascribed to a speech by Congressman Willard Vandiver in 1899, who declared that "I come from a state that raises corn and cotton and Democrats, frothy eloquence neither convinces nor satisfies me. I'm from Missouri, you have got to show me." This is in keeping with the saying "I'm from Missouri" which means "I'm skeptical of the matter and not convinced." However, according to researchers, the phrase "show me" was in use
In law, an unincorporated area is a region of land, not governed by a local municipal corporation. Municipalities dissolve or disincorporate, which may happen if they become fiscally insolvent, services become the responsibility of a higher administration. Widespread unincorporated communities and areas are a distinguishing feature of the United States and Canada. In most other countries of the world, there are either no unincorporated areas at all, or these are rare. Unlike many other countries, Australia has only one level of local government beneath state and territorial governments. A local government area contains several towns and entire cities. Thus, aside from sparsely populated areas and a few other special cases all of Australia is part of an LGA. Unincorporated areas are in remote locations, cover vast areas or have small populations. Postal addresses in unincorporated areas, as in other parts of Australia use the suburb or locality names gazetted by the relevant state or territorial government.
Thus, there is any ambiguity regarding addresses in unincorporated areas. The Australian Capital Territory is in some sense an unincorporated area; the territorial government is directly responsible for matters carried out by local government. The far west and north of New South Wales constitutes the Unincorporated Far West Region, sparsely populated and warrants an elected council. A civil servant in the state capital manages such matters; the second unincorporated area of this state is Lord Howe Island. In the Northern Territory, 1.45% of the total area and 4.0% of the population are in unincorporated areas, including Unincorporated Top End Region, areas covered by the Darwin Rates Act—Nhulunbuy, Alyangula on Groote Eylandt in the northern region, Yulara in the southern region. In South Australia, 60% of the area is unincorporated and communities located within can receive municipal services provided by a state agency, the Outback Communities Authority. Victoria has 10 small unincorporated areas, which are either small islands directly administered by the state or ski resorts administered by state-appointed management boards.
Western Australia is exceptional in two respects. Firstly, the only remote area, unincorporated is the Abrolhos Islands, uninhabited and controlled by the WA Department of Fisheries. Secondly, the other unincorporated areas are A-class reserves either in, or close to, the Perth metropolitan area, namely Rottnest Island and Kings Park. In Canada, depending on the province, an unincorporated settlement is one that does not have a municipal council that governs over the settlement, it is but not always, part of a larger municipal government. This can range from small hamlets to large urbanized areas that are similar in size to towns and cities. For example, the urban service areas of Fort McMurray and Sherwood Park, of the Regional Municipality of Wood Buffalo and Strathcona County would be the fifth and sixth largest cities in Alberta if they were incorporated. In British Columbia, unincorporated settlements lie outside municipal boundaries and are administered directly by regional/county-level governments similar to the American system.
Unincorporated settlements with a population of between 100 and 1,000 residents may have the status of designated place in Canadian census data. In some provinces, large tracts of undeveloped wilderness or rural country are unorganized areas that fall directly under the provincial jurisdiction; some unincorporated settlements in such unorganized areas may have some types of municipal services provided to them by a quasi-governmental agency such as a local services board in Ontario. In New Brunswick where a significant population live in a Local Service District and services may come directly from the province; the entire area of the Czech Republic is divided into municipalities, with the only exception being 4 military areas. These are parts of the regions and do not form self-governing municipalities, but are rather governed by military offices, which are subordinate to the Ministry of Defense. † Brdy Military Area was abandoned by the Army in 2015 and converted into Landscape park, with its area being incorporated either into existing municipalities or municipalities newly established from the existing settlements.
The other four Military Areas were reduced in size in 2015 too. The decisions on whether the settlements join existing municipalities or form new ones are decided in plebiscites. Since Germany has no administrative level comparable to the townships of other countries, the vast majority of the country, close to 99%, is organized in municipalities consisting of multiple settlements which are not considered to be unincorporated; because these settlements lack a council of their own, there is an Ortsvorsteher / Ortsvorsteherin appointed by the municipal council, except in the smallest villages. In 2000, the number of unincorporated areas in Germany, called gemeindefreie Gebiete or singular gemeindefreies Gebiet, was 295 with a total area of 4,890.33 km² and around 1.4% of its territory. However
A civil township is a used unit of local government in the United States, subordinate to a county. The term town is used in New England, New York, Wisconsin to refer to the equivalent of the civil township in these states. Specific responsibilities and the degree of autonomy vary based on each state. Civil townships are distinct from survey townships, but in states that have both, the boundaries coincide and may geographically subdivide a county; the U. S. Census Bureau classifies civil townships as minor civil divisions. There are 20 states with civil townships. Township functions are overseen by a governing board and a clerk or trustee. Township officers include justice of the peace, road commissioner, assessor and surveyor. In the 20th century, many townships added a township administrator or supervisor to the officers as an executive for the board. In some cases, townships run local libraries, senior citizen services, youth services, disabled citizen services, emergency assistance, cemetery services.
In some states, a township and a municipality, coterminous with that township may wholly or consolidate their operations. Depending on the state, the township government has varying degrees of authority. In the Upper Midwestern states near the Great Lakes, civil townships, are but not always, overlaid on survey townships; the degree to which these townships are functioning governmental entities varies from state to state and in some cases within a state. For example, townships in the northern part of Illinois are active in providing public services — such as road maintenance, after-school care, senior services — whereas townships in southern Illinois delegate these services to the county. Most townships in Illinois provide services such as snow removal, senior transportation, emergency services to households residing in unincorporated parts of the county; the townships in Illinois each have a township board, whose board members were called township trustees, a single township supervisor. In contrast, civil townships in Indiana are operated in a consistent manner statewide and tend to be well organized, with each served by a single township trustee and a three-member board.
Civil townships in these states are not incorporated, nearby cities may annex land in adjoining townships with relative ease. In Michigan, general law townships are corporate entities, some can become reformulated as charter townships, a status intended to protect against annexation from nearby municipalities and which grants the township some home rule powers similar to cities. In Wisconsin, civil townships are known as "towns" rather than townships, but they function the same as in neighboring states. In Minnesota, state statute refers to such entities as towns yet requires them to have a name in the form "Name Township". In both documents and conversation, "town" and "township" are used interchangeably. Minnesota townships can be either Non-Urban or Urban, but this is not reflected in the township's name. In Ohio, a city or village is overlaid onto a township unless it withdraws by establishing a paper township. Where the paper township does not extend to the city limits, property owners pay taxes for both the township and municipality, though these overlaps are sometimes overlooked by mistake.
Ten other states allow townships and municipalities to overlap. In Kansas, some civil townships provide services such as road maintenance and fire protection services not provided by the county. In New England, the states are subdivided into towns, which are functioning municipal corporations that provide most local services. While counties exist in New England, for the most part they serve as dividing lines for state judicial systems. With the exception of a few remote areas of New Hampshire and Maine, every square foot of New England lies within the borders of an incorporated town. New England has cities, most of which are towns whose residents have voted to replace the town meeting form of government with a city form. In portions of New Hampshire and Maine, county subdivisions that are not incorporated are referred to as townships, or by other terms such as "gore", "grant", "location", "plantation", or "purchase". In New York, counties are further subdivided into towns and cities, the principal forms of local government.
Towns fulfill a function similar to those of townships in other states. As is the case in most of New England, every square foot of New York's territory is incorporated. New York towns contain one or more incorporated villages, village residents pay both town and village taxes. Towns include a number of unincorporated hamlets. A Pennsylvania township is a unit of local government, responsible for services such as police departments, local road and street maintenance, it acts the same as a borough. Townships were established based on convenient geographical boundaries and vary in size from six to fifty-two square miles. A New Jersey township is similar, in that it is a form of municipal government equal in status to a village, borough, or city, provides similar services to a Pennsylvania township. In the South, outside cities and towns there is no local government other than the county. North Carolina is no exception to that rule, but it does have townships as minor geographical subdivisions of counties, including