The Jardwadjali people are Indigenous Australians who occupy the lands in the upper Wimmera River watershed east to Gariwerd and west to Lake Bringalbert. The towns of Horsham, Coleraine, Minyip, there were 37 Jardwadjali clans who formed an alliance with the neighboring Djab wurrung people through intermarriage, shared culture and moiety system. The Jardwadjali language shares 90 percent common vocabulary with Djab wurrung, sub-dialects include Jagwadjali and Nundadjali. The Jardwadjali people have lived in the area for up to 30,000 to 40,000 years, one site in the Victoria Range has been dated from 22,000 years ago. In 1836 the squatter Edward Henty was exploring Jardwadjali land from the south, a further wave of European occupation occurred from the north in 1840 with Lieutenant Robert Briggs squatting near Lake Lonsdale. The Jardwadjali called these mountains Gariwerd with Gar meaning ‘pointed mountain’, i meaning ‘the’, Jardwadjali people formed the nucleus of the Australian Aboriginal cricket team in England in 1868, although efforts were made by the Central Board for the Protection of Aborigines to stop the tour.
The team played 47 matches, winning 14, losing 14, settlement was marked by resistance to the invasion often by driving off or stealing sheep which resulted in conflict and sometimes a massacre of aboriginal people. Very few of these reports were acted upon to bring the settlers to court, after the massacre at Fighting Hills, John Whyte travelled to Melbourne to inform Governor La Trobe in person of the massacre. The depositions of the Aboriginal Protector Charles Sievwright who had investigated the massacre were disallowed. At the time aborigines were denied the right to give evidence in courts of law, the incidents listed below are just the cases that have been reported, it is likely other incidents occurred that were never reported and not documented officially. There was much opposition to this proposal by European descendants, the Brambuk centre, representing five aboriginal communities, advocated a dual name for the main area, Gariwerd/Grampians. The indigenous peoples of the Wimmera won native title recognition on 13 December 2005 after a legal process.
It was the first successful native title claim in south-eastern Australia and in Victoria, determined by Justice Ron Merkel involving Wotjobaluk, Jardwadjali, unamurriman, better known in cricket circles as Johnny Mullagh was born around 1843
A corroboree is an event where Australian Aborigines interact with the Dreamtime through dance and costume. Their bodies painted in different ways, and they wore various adornments, the word corroboree was coined by the European settlers of Australia in imitation of an east coast local Aboriginal Australian word caribberie. In the northwest of Australia, corroboree is a word to define theatrical practices as different from ceremony. Whether it be public or private, ceremony is for invited guests, there are other generic words to describe traditional public performances and kobbakobba for example. In the Pilbara, corroborees are yanda or jalarra, across the Kimberley the word junba is often used to refer to a range of traditional performances and ceremonies. Corroboree and ceremony are strongly connected but different, corroborees are open performances in which everyone may participate taking into consideration that the songs and dances are highly structured requiring a great deal of knowledge and skill to perform.
Corroboree is a word to explain different genres of performance which in the northwest of Australia include balga, lirrga, Bardi Ilma. Throughout Australia the word corroboree embraces songs, rallies, in the past a corroboree has been inclusive of sporting events and other forms of skill display. It is an appropriated English word that has been reappropriated to explain a practice that is different from ceremony and more widely inclusive than theatre or opera
William John Kennedy
He was born on 23 March 1919 on the banks of the Wimmera River, not far from the Ebenezer Mission and died on 6 September 2005. He was the grandson of Dick-a-Dick, a member of the first Australian cricket team to tour England in 1867-68. In 2003 he was named Male Elder of the Year at the National Aborigines Day Observance Committee Week Awards
Half-Caste Act was the common name given to Acts of Parliament passed in Victoria and Western Australia in 1886. They became the model for legislation of Aboriginal communities throughout Australia, in particular, the 1886 act started to remove Aboriginal people of mixed descent, known as half-castes, from the Aboriginal stations or reserves to force them to assimilate into European society. These expulsions separated families and communities, causing distress and leading to protest, the Board refused to assist the expelled people. It was assumed that the expulsions would lead to the decline in the population of the reserves, the failure of this policy and its inhumanity led to Victorias Aborigines Act of 1910 and Aboriginal Lands Act of 1970, which abandoned this policy. Before 1886 dealings with natives in Western Australia had been the responsibility of the UK Colonial Office, in 1886 an Aboriginal Protection Board was established with five members and a secretary, all of whom were nominated by the Governor.
Following the furore over the Fairburn Report and the work of the Rev. John Gribble, Parliament introduced the Aborigines Protection Act 1886 and this introduced employment contracts between employers and Aboriginal workers over the age of 14. There was no provision in the 1886 WA Act for contracts to include wages, employees were to be provided with substantial and sufficient rations and blankets. The 1886 WA Act provided a resident magistrate with the power to indenture half-caste and Aboriginal children, from a suitable age, until they turned 21. An Aboriginal Protection Board, was established to prevent the abuses reported earlier. It was intended to enforce contracts, employment of prisoners and apprenticeships, but there was not sufficient power to enforce clauses in the north, the Act defined as Aboriginal every Aboriginal native of Australia, every Aboriginal half-caste, or child of a half-caste. Governor Broome insisted that the act contain within it a clause permitting traditional owners to continue hunting on their tribal lands.
The effect of the Act was to give increasing power to the Board over Aboriginal people, an Aboriginal Department was set up, under the office of the Chief Protector of Aborigines. Nearly half of the Legislative Council voted to amend the act for contract labour as low as age 10, mcKenzie Grant, the member for The North, claimed that child labour of age six or seven was a necessary commonplace, as in this way they gradually become domesticated. Protectors of Aborigines were appointed by the Board under the conditions laid down in the various acts, Aboriginal protection boards issued permits to allow Aboriginals the right to leave their respective missions and enter the mainstream society for a set period of time. Mission Voices, The Australian Broadcasting Corporation and Koorie Heritage Trust Inc. A. Grenfell Price, geographical Review, Vol.34, No.3. Australian Native Policy, Its History, Especially in Victoria Paul Hasluck, black Australians, A Survey of Native Policy in Western Australia, 1829–1897 Norman B.
Survey of the Half-Caste Problem in South Australia
A religious mission or mission station is a location for missionary work. Historically, missions have been religious communities used to preach the Gospel of Jesus Christ to local populations, missions often provided the logistics and supplies needed to support that work. Catholicisms support for the Spanish missions in the Americas played a key role in the Spanish colonization of the Americas, catholic mission communities commonly consisted of churches, fields, workrooms and schools. They were often located based on the availability of a water supply to support the local population
The territory was bordered by the Djab wurrung and Wada wurrung in the north, the Dhauwurd wurrung in the west, and the Djargurd Wurrung and Gadubanud in the east. The Framlingham Aboriginal Reserve was established in Girai wurrung territory bordering the Gunditjmara people, the Girai wurrung people had 21 clans with a patriarchal hierarchy and a matrilineally based descent system based on the Gabadj and Guragidj moieties. The clans gathered with the Djab wurrung, Dhauwurd wurrung and Wada wurrung peoples to harvest eels at Lake Bolac and they met at Mirraewuae swamp near Hexham to hunt emus and other game and to conduct business. European settlement of the began in 1838 and in the early 1840s the Girai wurrung engaged in a sustained guerilla war with the encroaching pastoralists. Dispossession from their land led to starvation and the theft of sheep resulted in murderous reprisals, assistant Aboriginal Protector Charles Sievwright was successful in bringing charges against G. S. This decision was made despite the nature of the squatters licence by the Government to allow for Aboriginal access for hunting.
Gunditjmara from Portland and Lake Condah refused to settle at Framlingham, historian Ian Clark asserts that from 1868 the history of the Girai wurrung becomes the history of Framlingham
They were part of the Kulin alliance of tribes. There were 16 clans, which adhered to a patrilineal system, like the other Kulin peoples there were two moieties, Bunjil the eagle and Waa the crow. The Dja Dja Wurrung were bound to their land by their belief system deriving from the Dreaming, when mythic beings had created the world. They were part of established trade networks which allowed goods and information to flow over substantial distances, the Tachylite deposits near Spring Hill and the Coliban River may have been important trade goods as stone artefacts from this material have been found around Victoria. There is evidence that smallpox swept through the Dja Dja Wurrung in 1789 and 1825, the epidemics were incorporated into aboriginal mythology as a giant snake, the Mindye, sent by Bunjil, to blow magic dust over people to punish them for being bad. The trade networks would have carried news of the white men settling on the Eora land in the early 1790s. Thomas Mitchell was probably the first white man to be seen in Dja Dja Wurrung country when he explored and surveyed central Victoria in 1836, the settlement of the Goulburn and Loddon Districts began the following year by squatters eager to carve out a station and run.
On 7 February 1841 Munangabum was shot and wounded by settlers while his companion Gondiurmin died at Far Creek Station, three settlers were apprehended and tried on 18 May 1841 but were acquitted for want of evidence as aborigines could not give evidence in courts of law. He was murdered in 1846 by a rival clan-head from the south, an important source of frontier conflict was sexual relations between European settlers and aboriginal women. Abduction and rape of women was relatively common, often leading to violent interactions. Parker expressed in 1842 the firm conviction and that nine out of ten outrages committed by the blacks derived either directly or indirectly from sexual relations. The Dja Dja wurrung peoples experienced two waves of settlement and dispossession, from the south from 1837 and from the north from 1845, very few of these reports were acted upon to bring the settlers to court. On the few occasions when this did happen, the cases were dismissed as aborigines were denied the right to give evidence in courts of law.
The incidents listed below are just the cases that have been reported and he arrived in Melbourne in January 1839 with Robinson appointing Parker to the northwest or Loddon District in March. He did not start his protectorate until September 1839, the Protectors duties included to safeguard aborigines from encroachments on their property, and from acts of cruelty, of oppression or injustice and a longer term goal of civilising the natives. Parker initially established his base at Jacksons Creek near Sunbury, which was not close enough to the nations of his protectorate. The Governor of NSW, Sir George Gipps and stations or reserves for each protector were approved in 1840. Parkers original choice for a reserve in September 1840 was a site, known as Neereman by the Dja Dja Wurrung, on Bet Bet Creek a tributary of the Loddon River
Jeparit is situated on the Wimmera River in Western Victoria, Australia,370 kilometres north west of Melbourne. At the 2011 census Jeparit had a population of 632, the area around Jeparit had been home to the Gromiluk Aborigines prior to European settlement. The name Jeparit is believed to be derived from a Gromiluk word meaning home of small birds, European settlement began in the 1880s when German Lutheran immigrants began to settle and grow wheat. The town was surveyed in 1883 and gazetted in 1889, the post office opening on 31 August 1889 though known as Lake Hindmarsh until December, two earlier post offices called Lake Hindmarsh had existed in the area at various times since 1861 to serve a smaller population of graziers. Jeparit’s most famous son is former Australian Prime Minister and founder of the Liberal Party, Sir Robert Menzies and he is commemorated with a spire and a memorial bust installed at the town square. The spire is topped with a monument resembling a Scotch Thistle which contains the ashes of Sir Robert Menzies, the spire is inscribed, This spire has been erected by the people of Jeparit and district, to honour Sir Robert Menzies.
With its neighbouring township, Jeparit has a team competing in the Mallee Football League. Golfers play at the course of the Jeparit Golf Club on Nhill Road, Jeparit is the setting for Peter Careys 1985 novel Illywhacker. Media related to Jeparit at Wikimedia Commons Further information about Jeparit and surrounding areas Wimmera-Mallee Pioneer Museum Lake Hindmarsh
The modern Unitas Fratrum, with about 750,000 members worldwide, continues to draw on traditions established during the eighteenth century. The Moravians continue their tradition of missionary work, for example in the Caribbean. This is reflected in their global distribution. The Church places a value on ecumenism, personal piety, missions. The Church’s emblem is the Lamb of God with the flag of victory, surrounded by the Latin inscription, Vicit agnus noster, eum sequamur. The Hussite movement that was to become the Moravian Church was started by Jan Hus in early 15th century Bohemia, since these actions predate the Protestant Reformation by a century, some historians claim the Moravian Church was the first Protestant church. The movement gained support in the Crown of Bohemia, Hus was summoned to attend the Council of Constance, which decided that he was a heretic and had him burned at the stake on 6 July 1415. In 1434, an army of Utraquists and Catholics defeated the Taborites at the Battle of Lipany, the Utraquists signed the Compacts of Basel on 5 July 1436.
Within fifty years of Hus death, a contingent of his followers had become independently organised as the Bohemian Brethren or Unity of the Brethren, a brother known as Gregory the Patriarch was very influential in forming the group, as well as the teachings of Peter Chelcicky. This group held to a strict obedience to the Sermon on the Mount, which included non-swearing of oaths, non-resistance, because of this, they considered themselves separate from the majority Hussites that did not hold those teachings. They received episcopal ordination through the Waldensians in 1467 and these were some of the earliest Protestants, rebelling against Rome some fifty years before Martin Luther. By the middle of the 16th century as many as 90 per cent of the inhabitants of the Bohemian Crown were Protestant, the majority of nobility was Protestant, the schools and printing-shops established by the Moravian Church were flourishing. Protestantism had an influence to the education of the population. Even in the middle of the 16th century there was not a town without a Protestant school in the Bohemian crown lands.
With the University of Prague firmly in hands of Protestants, the Jesuits were invited, with the backing of the Catholic Habsburg rulers, to come to the Bohemian Crown and establish a number of Catholic educational institutions. One of these is the university in the Moravian capital of Olomouc, in 1582 they forced closure of local Protestant schools. The Revolt started by unplanned second Defenestrations of Prague and was defeated in 1620 in the Battle of White Mountain near Prague, as consequence the local Protestant noblemen were either executed or expelled from the country while the Habsburgs placed Catholic nobility in their place. The war and subsequent disruption led to a decline in the population from over 3 million to some 800,000 people, by 1622 the entire education system was in the hands of Jesuits and all Protestant schools were closed
Jarijari were a historically significant Indigenous Australian people whose traditional territory was located in the Mallee region of Victoria. The tribe were one of two tribes speaking the now extinct Keramin language, though there is confusion over names. Jarijari was the word for no. It was used to name the tribe because of the frequency of its use in the language. Tindale notes that the Jari Jari traditional lands were from Western bank of Murray River from above Chalka Creek to Annuello, south to Lake Korong and Pine Plains, northwest to near Redcliffs. Neighbouring tribes were the Wergaia language group tribes to the south, the Latjilatji to the west, accounts of the life of the Jari Jari people were some of the most early documented by explorers and early settlers of the Murray Darling basin. The Jarijari appear to have been in the Murray River valley for at least 40000years, major Thomas Mitchell passed through the tribes territory between June 2 and June 10,1836, during his Third Expedition.
He encountered the remains of a camp of up to 400 natives with temporary structures. In his journals he writes of having heard and being pursued by local natives, the Blandowski Expedition was one of the first documented European encounters with the people. Blandowski engaged the people to document local species and included in his journals the used by the people for two local species of fish - the Murray cod and Trout cod, “Yaturr” and “Barnta”. Blandowski described the Yarree as his good friends, notably one of William Blandowskis 1857 illustrations depicted traditional Jari Jari recreation. Blandowski and Peter Beveridge, in his 1889 account The Aborigines of Victoria, a local Mildura newspaper reports that the last of the tribe, John Mack, died in June,1918