Izumo-taisha Izumo Ōyashiro, is one of the most ancient and important Shinto shrines in Japan. No record gives the date of establishment. Located in Izumo, Shimane Prefecture, it is home to two major festivals, it is dedicated to the god Ōkuninushi, famous as the Shinto deity of marriage and to Kotoamatsukami, distinguishing heavenly kami. The shrine is believed by many to be the oldest Shinto shrine in Japan predating the Ise Grand Shrine. A style of architecture, taisha-zukuri, takes its name from the main hall of Izumo-taisha; that hall, the attached buildings, were designated National Treasures of Japan in 1952. According to tradition, the hall was much taller than at present; the discovery in the year 2000 of the remains of enormous pillars has lent credence to this. Several other buildings in the shrine compound are on the list of Important Cultural Properties of Japan. According to the two oldest chronicles of Japan, the Kojiki and Nihon Shoki, when Ninigi-no-Mikoto, grandson of the Sun Goddess Amaterasu, descended from the heavens, the god Ōkuninushi granted his country to Ninigi-no-Mikoto.
Amaterasu was much pleased by this action and she presented Izumo-taisha to Ōkuninushi. At one time, the Japanese islands were controlled according to Shinto myths. Izumo, known as the realm of gods or the land of myths, is Izumo-taisha's province, its main structure was constructed to glorify the great achievement of Ōkuninushi, considered the creator of Japan. Ōkuninushi was devoted to the building of the nation, in which he shared many joys and sorrows with the ancestors of the land. In addition to being the savior, Ōkuninushi is considered the guardian god and god of happiness, as well as the god who establishes good relationships. According to the Nihon Shoki, the sun goddess Amaterasu said, "From now on, my descendants shall administer the affairs of state. You shall cast a spell of establishing good relationship over people to lead them a happy life. I will build your residence with colossal columns and thick and broad planks in the same architectural style as mine and name it Amenohisu-no-miya."
The other gods were gathered and ordered by Amaterasu to build the grand palace at the foot of Mt. Uga. There is no knowledge of when Izumo-taisha was built, but a record compiled around 950 describes the shrine as the highest building, reaching 48 meters, which exceeds in height the 45 meter-tall temple that enshrined the Great Image of Buddha, Tōdai-ji; this was due to early Shinto cosmology, when the people believed the gods were above the human world and belonged to the most extraordinary and majestic parts of nature. Therefore, Izumo-taisha could have been an attempt to create a place for the kami that would be above humans. According to Kojiki, the legendary stories of old Japan, Nihon Shoki, the chronicles of old Japan, Izumo-taisha was considered the largest wooden structure in Japan when it was constructed. Before being known as Izumo Ōyashiro or Izumo-taisha, the shrine was known as Okami-no-miya in Izumo, Itsukashinokami-no-miya, Kizuki-no-Oyashiro, Kizuki-no-miya, or Iwakumanoso-no-miya.
Evidence of the original Grand Shrine has been found. For example, part of one of the pillars for the structure was found: three cedar trees with a three-meter diameter at its base, it is on display at the shrine. Although there is not much early evidence one can see when visiting, there is a shop just before the main entrance that has a smaller scale model of the original main structure made by local college students. During the Kamakura period, around 1200, the main structure was reduced in size. In 1744, the shrine was reconstructed to the present size of 24 meters high and 11 meters square at its base. In the 18th and 19th centuries, as travel became more common in Japan, the shrine became a central place of pilgrimage. Since the shrine spirit was settled in the inner shrine in 1744, it has been relocated three times for renovation of the inner shrine, using a traditional ceremony; the relocations took place in 1809, 1881, 1953. From 1871 through 1946, the Izumo-taisha was designated one of the Kanpei-taisha, meaning that it stood in the first rank of government supported shrines.
In April 2008, the spirit was moved to temporary housing in the front shrine of Izumo-taisha in preparation for the Heisei-period renovations. Izumo-taisha's inner shrine was opened to the public for the first time in 60 years in the summer of 2008. On completion of the renovations, Ōkuninushi was returned to the inner shrine in a ceremony attended by over 8,000 people, held on May 11, 2013; the main structure of Izumo Oyashiro was built in the Taisha style, the oldest style of building shrines. An impressive sized gable-entrance structure is built for the main structure, which gave the name of The Great Shrine or The Grand Shrine; the main hall bears an enormous chigi. A Japanese architecture book states, "In plan, the present Main Shrine resembles that of the Daijoe Shoden, built for the accession of each new emperor; the main shrine at Izumo is thought, therefore, to preserve a floor plan characteristic of ancient domestic architecture". From the view of architectures, the original height of the main structure of Izumo Taisha makes it difficult to study the historical building styles and methods.
However, what is known is that from the construction of a building as big as the main structure, major problems were presented. Because of this and stylistic changes occurred each time the main structure was rebuilt, which caused the outer form to be less reflective of the original construction of the main structure
Japanese sea bass
The Japanese seabass suzuki, is a species of Asian seabass native to the western Pacific Ocean, where it occurs from Japan to the South China Sea. They inhabit fresh and marine waters of inshore rocky reefs and in estuaries at depths of at least 5 m; this species is catadromous, with the young ascending rivers and returning to the sea to breed. Its tail is forked and the mouth is large with the lower jaw projecting beyond the upper. Young fish have small black spots on the dorsal fin; these spots tend to disappear. This species can reach a length of 102 cm; the greatest weight recorded for this species is 8.7 kg. This species is important commercially, popular as a game fish, farmed. Japanese seabass have shiny white flesh with an recognizable, broad-flaked structure and a mild flavor, they have traditionally been one of the most popular targets for Japanese anglers. In the Kantō region, including Shizuoka Prefecture, it is called seigo when under 25 cm. At three years of age, when it has attained a length of near 60 cm, it is called fukko or suzuki.
Because their name changes as they grow – in Japanese such fish are called shusseuo – the Japanese have associated them with advancement in life and believe Japanese seabass symbolizes good fortune. Like hirame, suzuki makes suzuki usu zukuri. Suzuki sashimi is served with ponzu, a citrus-flavored mild soy sauce, or served in the summertime on a bed of ice cubes with tangy perilla leaf and a scattering of red pepper flakes. Lateolabrax japonicus, more known as "Japanese Sea Bass", is a species that falls under the genus of lateolabrax; the genus includes the sister species of L. maculatus, which along with L. japonicus was used to determine the history of the genus and the specific species. Compared to L. maculatus, found along the Chinese coast all the way to North Korea, the Japanese sea bass is more geographically restricted, as its habit ranges from Japan to the Southern coast of Korea. The species can both be found in some coastal areas of South Korea. Related to the genus all Lateolabrax species are found in rocky reefs with constant moving waters.
However, it is not rare for either species to be found in freshwater as the young tend to enter rivers L.japonicus is widely farmed in China, since it is a carnivorous species that has delicious meat and grows rapidly. Lateolabrax japonicus is characterized by many black dots on the lateral body region, its tail is split and the mouth is large with a lower jaw length of 46.43mm and an upper jaw length of 42.36mm. Its body has 12 to 15 spines in the first dorsal followed by 12 to 14 soft rays in its second dorsal; the anal fin has 7 to 9 soft rays. Its common length is 121.69 mm and its weight is 8.7Kg. Japanese seabass larvae commence feeding at day 4 after hatching; the diet of the early larvae is on smaller zooplankton such as cyclopoids and copepods. Copepods are the most dominant component in the diet of larval JSB, contributing 69.4%. Once this species reaches the juvenile stage, its diet includes sardines and shrimp, as well as any other small fishes and crustaceous; the spawning of this species occurs in the coastal waters around Japan in the shelf areas with a depth of <100m during late October to late January.
Lateolabrax japonicus eggs are distributed between bay water and outer water because thermohaline regions are formed. However, once their eggs have developed, they are shifted from the surface layer to the middle layer of water; the water temperature where the eggs are placed in a significant factor for the survival rate since their eggs do not tolerate temperatures below 10 °C. The eggs of this species are pelagic, spherical and measure about 1.34mm to 1.44mm in diameter with a single oil globule. The transformation from the larva to the juvenile stage is around 49 to 70 days of age and juvenile stage begins at 60 days of age. Juveniles are dispersed and transported kilometers away from the spawning grounds into coastal areas and river estuaries by tidal currents during late winter or early spring; some of their nursery habitats are located around Japanese seas, such as Tamara River estuary, Tokyo Bay, Tango sea, Ariake Bay, Lake Shinji. Most of the early juveniles migrate to the upriver turbidity maximum zone, known as an area of high prey concentration in estuaries.
Juveniles that migrate to these areas have a better chance to survive than those who remain in coastal areas. The area of estuaries is smaller and its environmental conditions are more variable, allowing them to have higher growth rate, a lower starvation rate, less risk of predation; the Japanese sea bass is commonly referenced to as Suzuki when it comes to food. It is fished and farmed in order to be used as a delicacy, served as sushi. However, not to be confused, there is a Japanese Suzuki, a Chinese Suzuki, both out of different species, but in the same genus; the Japanese Suzuki is more appreciated as a rinsed sashimi as it is more favored than other fish used for sashimi because of the clean white flesh of the fish. The name Suzuki refers to type of Asian seabass, used for sushi. However, the fish depends on chopped trash fish, which deteriorates and could result in the spread of diseases; the fish can be used as Chinese medicine. L. japonicus in comparison to its sister species, L. maculatus, has little dispersal, therefore resulting in a centered population with little genetic variation.
The restricted geographical area of the Japanese sea bass indicates that they have only just migrate
In terrestrial zoology, megafauna are large or giant animals. The most common thresholds used are weight over 40 kilograms or 44 kilograms or over a tonne, 1,000 kilograms; the first of these include many species not popularly thought of as overly large, such as white-tailed deer and red kangaroo. In practice, the most common usage encountered in academic and popular writing describes land mammals larger than a human that are not domesticated; the term is associated with the Pleistocene megafauna – the land animals larger than modern counterparts considered archetypical of the last ice age, such as mammoths, the majority of which in northern Eurasia, the Americas and Australia became extinct within the last forty thousand years. It is commonly used for the largest extant wild land animals elephants, hippopotamuses and large bovines. Megafaunal species may be subcategorized by their trophic position into megaherbivores, and, more megaomnivores. Other common uses are for giant aquatic species whales, any larger wild or domesticated land animals such as larger antelope and cattle, as well as numerous dinosaurs and other extinct giant reptilians.
The term is sometimes applied to animals of great size relative to a more common or surviving type of the animal, for example the 1 m dragonflies of the Carboniferous period. Megafauna – in the sense of the largest mammals and birds – are K-strategists, with high longevity, slow population growth rates, low mortality rates, few or no natural predators capable of killing adults; these characteristics, although not exclusive to such megafauna, make them vulnerable to human overexploitation, in part because of their slow population recovery rates. One observation, made about the evolution of larger body size is that rapid rates of increase that are seen over short time intervals are not sustainable over much longer time periods. In an examination of mammal body mass changes over time, the maximum increase possible in a given time interval was found to scale with the interval length raised to the 0.25 power. This is thought to reflect the emergence, during a trend of increasing maximum body size, of a series of anatomical, environmental and other constraints that must be overcome by evolutionary innovations before further size increases are possible.
A strikingly faster rate of change was found for large decreases in body mass, such as may be associated with the phenomenon of insular dwarfism. When normalized to generation length, the maximum rate of body mass decrease was found to be over 30 times greater than the maximum rate of body mass increase for a ten-fold change. Subsequent to the Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event that eliminated the non-avian dinosaurs about 66 Ma ago, terrestrial mammals underwent a nearly exponential increase in body size as they diversified to occupy the ecological niches left vacant. Starting from just a few kg before the event, maximum size had reached ~50 kg a few million years and ~750 kg by the end of the Paleocene; this trend of increasing body mass appears to level off about 40 Ma ago, suggesting that physiological or ecological constraints had been reached, after an increase in body mass of over three orders of magnitude. However, when considered from the standpoint of rate of size increase per generation, the exponential increase is found to have continued until the appearance of Indricotherium 30 Ma ago.
Megaherbivores attained a body mass of over 10,000 kg. The largest of these and proboscids, have been hindgut fermenters, which are believed to have an advantage over foregut fermenters in terms of being able to accelerate gastrointestinal transit in order to accommodate large food intakes. A similar trend emerges when rates of increase of maximum body mass per generation for different mammalian clades are compared. Among terrestrial mammals, the fastest rates of increase of body mass0.259 vs. time occurred in perissodactyls, followed by rodents and proboscids, all of which are hindgut fermenters. The rate of increase for artiodactyls was about a third that of perissodactyls; the rate for carnivorans was lower yet, while primates constrained by their arboreal habits, had the lowest rate among the mammalian groups studied. Terrestrial mammalian carnivores from several eutherian groups all reached a maximum size of about 1000 kg; the largest known metatherian carnivore, Proborhyaena gigantea reached 600 kg close to this limit.
A similar theoretical maximum size for mammalian carnivores has been predicted based on the metabolic rate of mammals, the energetic cost of obtaining prey, the maximum estimated rate coefficient of prey intake. It has been su
Ōkuninushi is a divinity in Japanese Shinto. His name translates to "Great Land Master", he is believed to be the ruler of Izumo Province, until he was replaced by Ninigi. In compensation, he was made ruler of the unseen world of spirits and magic, he is believed to be a god of nation-building, farming and medicine. This famous tale of the Hare of Inaba is omitted in the Nihongi. Ōkuninushi and his brothers, eighty gods altogether, were all suitors seeking the hand of Princess Yakami/Yagami of Inaba in marriage. They were all travelling together from their home country of Izumo to the neighboring Inaba to court her. Along the way, the brothers encounter a poor little rabbit or hare and raw-skinned, lying in agony upon a sea shore; the group asks what happened, the hare explains that he came from the island of Oki across the sea. He concocted a marvelous plan to accomplish this, recruiting the crocodiles into his service, unbeknownst to them, he beckoned one crocodile, challenged him to a contest to decide which of them had the greater number of kin, the rabbit or the croc-fish.
To settle the bet, he told the croc-fish to line up in a straight row across the strait, so he can hop on and count the numbers. But before the hare had gotten ashore to safety, he gloated about having tricked them, the last croc in line grabbed him and tore off the fur that clothed him; the gods who listened on were cruel-hearted, as a prank, instructed the hare to wash himself in the briny sea, blow himself dry in the wind. The hare was of course in much more stinging pain. Came along Ōkuninushi lagging far behind; the gentle-hearted god told the hare to go to the mouth and wash himself in the fresh water gather the flowering spikes of cattail plants growing all around, scatter the catkins on the ground and tumble around until he is covered by fleece. The cured rabbit makes a divined prediction that Ōnamuji will be the one to win Princess Yakami, "Though thou bearest the bag.". Just as the rabbit predicted, Princess Yakami/Yagami pronounced before the eighty gods that she had chosen Ōkuninushi as her mate.
The rival gods, his brothers, were all furious, conspired to slay him. They compelled him, on pain of death, to chase down a red boar, a boulder heated red hot. Ōnamuji died of burns, but his mother petitioned Kami-Musubi, one of the creator deities, she dispatched two clam goddesses, Kisagai-hime and Umugi-hime, to restore him. The passage regarding the curative treatment has been subject to emendations and reinterpretation, but recent commentary explains that the one goddess who represents the akagai or blood cockle gathered up her blood-red juices, which were placed in the shell of the other goddess, a hamaguri clam. His rivals tricked him into walking onto a fresh tree log split open and held apart by a wedge, snapped it shut, killing him a second time, his mother revived him once again, bid him to seek out Susanoo, banished to the Netherworld, to obtain wise counsel. In the underworld, he met the storm god Susanoo and his daughter Suseri-hime, with whom he shortly fell in love. Of course, Susanoo was aghast.
In response, he sent Ōkuninushi to sleep in a room full of snakes. However, Suseri-hime had given him a scarf; when Susanoo sent him to sleep in a room with centipedes and wasps the next night, he was still protected. As a trial, Susanoo shot an arrow into the middle of an enormous meadow, told him to look for it. Ōkuninushi searched and reached the middle of the field, at which point Susanoo proceeded to light the field on fire. A mouse showed Ōkuninushi a hole that he could hide in, brought the arrow to him. By now, after all his various attempts of murder, Susanoo was beginning to approve of Ōkuninushi. One night, after he told Ōkuninushi to wash his hair and go to sleep, Ōkuninushi tied Susanoo's hair to the rafters of his palace, fled with Suseri-hime, he took arrows and koto with him. When the couple made their escape, the koto brushed against a tree; the god jumped up, pulled down the palace with his hair. At the borders of the underworld, Susanoo caught up with the elopers and called out to them, advising Ōkuninushi to fight his brothers with Susanoo's weapons.
Ōkuninushi asked him to make Suseri-hime his wife, to build a palace at the foot of Mount Uka, which he agreed to. After the entire ordeal was over, Ōkuninushi became ruler of the province of Izumo; the Grand Izumo-taisha is dedicated to his spirit and is one of the oldest and most important shrines in Japan. He has a lot of other names, it is thought faith in him was combined from their image. Ōkuninushi-no-kami – It means an emperor or monarch. According to another opinion, he is said to have been the king in Izumo. Ōnamuchi-no-kami, Ōnamuchi-no-mikoto – These were his names when he was young. Yachihoko-no-kami – A hoko is a symbol of power. For this reason, Yachihoko is believed a god of power. Ashihara-Shiko-no-Ō, Ashihara-Shiko-no-Ō-no-kami – A shiko-no-ō is a symbol of strength of men, that is, Ashihara-Shiko-no-Ō is believed a god of war. Ōmononushi-no-kami Ōkunitama Utsushikunitama Kunitsukuriōnamuchi-no-mikoto Daikoku-sama – Probably because of th
Fish are gill-bearing aquatic craniate animals that lack limbs with digits. They form a sister group to the tunicates. Included in this definition are the living hagfish and cartilaginous and bony fish as well as various extinct related groups. Tetrapods emerged within lobe-finned fishes, so cladistically they are fish as well. However, traditionally fish are rendered paraphyletic by excluding the tetrapods; because in this manner the term "fish" is defined negatively as a paraphyletic group, it is not considered a formal taxonomic grouping in systematic biology, unless it is used in the cladistic sense, including tetrapods. The traditional term pisces is considered a typological, but not a phylogenetic classification; the earliest organisms that can be classified as fish were soft-bodied chordates that first appeared during the Cambrian period. Although they lacked a true spine, they possessed notochords which allowed them to be more agile than their invertebrate counterparts. Fish would continue to evolve through the Paleozoic era.
Many fish of the Paleozoic developed external armor. The first fish with jaws appeared in the Silurian period, after which many became formidable marine predators rather than just the prey of arthropods. Most fish are ectothermic, allowing their body temperatures to vary as ambient temperatures change, though some of the large active swimmers like white shark and tuna can hold a higher core temperature. Fish can communicate in their underwater environments through the use of acoustic communication. Acoustic communication in fish involves the transmission of acoustic signals from one individual of a species to another; the production of sounds as a means of communication among fish is most used in the context of feeding, aggression or courtship behaviour. The sounds emitted by fish can vary depending on the stimulus involved, they can produce either stridulatory sounds by moving components of the skeletal system, or can produce non-stridulatory sounds by manipulating specialized organs such as the swimbladder.
Fish are abundant in most bodies of water. They can be found in nearly all aquatic environments, from high mountain streams to the abyssal and hadal depths of the deepest oceans, although no species has yet been documented in the deepest 25% of the ocean. With 33,600 described species, fish exhibit greater species diversity than any other group of vertebrates. Fish are an important resource for humans worldwide as food. Commercial and subsistence fishers hunt fish in wild fisheries or farm them in ponds or in cages in the ocean, they are caught by recreational fishers, kept as pets, raised by fishkeepers, exhibited in public aquaria. Fish have had a role in culture through the ages, serving as deities, religious symbols, as the subjects of art and movies. Fish do not represent a monophyletic group, therefore the "evolution of fish" is not studied as a single event. Early fish from the fossil record are represented by a group of small, armored fish known as ostracoderms. Jawless fish lineages are extinct.
An extant clade, the lampreys may approximate ancient pre-jawed fish. The first jaws are found in Placodermi fossils; the diversity of jawed vertebrates may indicate the evolutionary advantage of a jawed mouth. It is unclear if the advantage of a hinged jaw is greater biting force, improved respiration, or a combination of factors. Fish may have evolved from a creature similar to a coral-like sea squirt, whose larvae resemble primitive fish in important ways; the first ancestors of fish may have kept the larval form into adulthood, although the reverse is the case. Fish are a paraphyletic group: that is, any clade containing all fish contains the tetrapods, which are not fish. For this reason, groups such as the "Class Pisces" seen in older reference works are no longer used in formal classifications. Traditional classification divides fish into three extant classes, with extinct forms sometimes classified within the tree, sometimes as their own classes: Class Agnatha Subclass Cyclostomata Subclass Ostracodermi † Class Chondrichthyes Subclass Elasmobranchii Subclass Holocephali Class Placodermi † Class Acanthodii † Class Osteichthyes Subclass Actinopterygii Subclass Sarcopterygii The above scheme is the one most encountered in non-specialist and general works.
Many of the above groups are paraphyletic, in that they have given rise to successive groups: Agnathans are ancestral to Chondrichthyes, who again have given rise to Acanthodiians, the ancestors of Osteichthyes. With the arrival of phylogenetic nomenclature, the fishes has been split up into a more detailed scheme, with the following major groups: Class Myxini Class Pteraspidomorphi † Class Thelodonti † Class Anaspida † Class Petromyzontida or Hyperoartia Petromyzontidae Class Conodonta † Class Cephalaspidomorphi † Galeaspida † Pituriaspida † Osteostraci † Infraphylum Gnathostomata Class Placodermi † Class Chondrichthyes Class Acanthodii † Superclass Osteichthy
Watatsumi pronounced Wadatsumi, is a legendary kami, Japanese dragon and tutelary water deity in Japanese mythology. Ōwatatsumi no kami is believed to be another name for the sea deity Ryūjin, for the Watatsumi Sanjin, which rule the upper and lower seas and were created when Izanagi was washing himself after returning from Yomi, "the underworld". The earliest written sources of Old Japanese transcribe the name of the sea god in a diverse manner; the ca. 712 CE Kojiki writes it semantically. "sea god", transcribes it phonetically with man'yōgana as Wata-tsu-mi 綿津見 lit. "cotton port see" in identifying the Watatsumi Sanjin. The ca. 720 CE Nihongi writes Watatsumi as 海神 "sea god", along with 海童 "sea child" and 少童命 "small child lords" for the Watatsumi Sanjin. In the modern Japanese writing system, the name Watatsumi is written either in katakana as ワタツミ or in kanji phonetically 綿津見 or semantically 海神 "sea god". Note that in addition to reading 海神 as watatsumi, wata no kami, or unagami in native Japanese kun'yomi pronunciation, it is read kaijin or kaishin in Sino-Japanese on'yomi.
The original Watatsumi meaning "tutelary deity of the sea" is semantically extended as a synecdoche or metaphor meaning "the sea. The etymology of the sea god Watatsumi is uncertain. Marinus Willern de Visser notes consensus. "It is not impossible" he concludes, "that the old Japanese sea-gods were snakes or dragons." Compare the Japanese rain god Kuraokami, described as a giant snake or a dragon. The comparative linguist Paul K. Benedict proposed that Japanese wata 海 "sea" derives from Proto-Austronesian *wacal "sea; the Kojiki version of the Japanese creation myth honorifically refers to Watatsumi 海神 with the name Ōwatatsumi kami 大綿津見神 "Great Watatsumi god". Compare this sea god with mountain god named Ohoyamatsumi 大山積; the world-creating siblings Izanagi and Izanami first give birth to the Japanese islands and to the gods. When they had finished giving birth to countries, they began afresh giving birth to Deities. So the name of the Deity they gave birth to was the Deity Great-Male-of-the-Great-Thing.
Chamberlain explains. A subsequent Kojiki passage describes Watatsumi's daughter Otohime and her human husband Hoori living with the sea god. After Hoori lost his brother Hoderi's fishhook, he went searching to the bottom of the sea, where he met and married the dragon goddess Otohime, they lived in the sea god's underwater palace Ryūgū-jō for three years. So he dwelt in that land for three years. Hereupon His Augustness Fire-Subside thought of what had gone before, heaved one deep sigh. So Her Augustness Luxuriant-Jewel-Princess, hearing the sigh, informed her father, saying: "Though he has dwelt three years, he had never sighed. What may be the cause of it?" The Great Deity her father asked his son-in-law saying: "This morning I heard my daughter speak, saying:'Though he has dwelt three years, he had never sighed. What may the cause be? Moreover what was the cause of thy coming here?" Told the Great Deity how his elder brother had pressed him for the lost fish-hook. Thereupon the Sea-Deity summoned together all the fishes of the sea and small, asked them, saying: "Is there perchance any fish that has taken this fish-hook?"
So all the fishes replied: "Lately the tahi has complained of something sticking in its throat preventing it from eating. On the throat of the tahi being thereupon examined, there was the fish-hook. Being forthwith taken, it was washed and respectfully presented to His Augustness Fire-Subside, whom the Deity Great-Ocean-Possessor instructed. Watatsumi instructs Hoori how to deal with Hoderi, chooses another mythic Japanese dragon, a wani "crocodile" or "shark", to transport his daughter and son in law back to land. Two Nihongi contexts refer to Watatsumi in legends about Emperor Jimmu. First, the army of Emperor Keikō encounters Hashirimizu 馳水 "running waters" crossing from Sagami Province to Kazusa Province; the calamity is placated through human sacrifice. Next he marched on to Sagami, whence. Looking over the sea, he spake with a loud voice, said: "This is but a little sea: one mig