Echidnas, sometimes known as spiny anteaters, belong to the family Tachyglossidae in the monotreme order of egg-laying mammals. The four extant species, together with the platypus, are the only surviving members of the order Monotremata, are the only living mammals that lay eggs; the diet of some species consists of ants and termites, but they are not related to the true anteaters of the Americas. Echidnas live in New Guinea. Echidnas evolved between 50 million years ago, descending from a platypus-like monotreme; this ancestor was aquatic. The echidnas are named after Echidna, a creature from Greek mythology, half-woman, half-snake, as the animal was perceived to have qualities of both mammals and reptiles. Echidnas are medium-sized, solitary mammals spines. Superficially, they resemble the anteaters of South America and other spiny mammals such as hedgehogs and porcupines, they are black or brown in colour. There have been several reports of albino echidnas, their eyes pink and their spines white.
They have slender snouts that function as both mouth and nose. Like the platypus, they are equipped with electrosensors, but while the platypus has 40,000 electroreceptors on its bill, the long-beaked echidna has only 2,000 electroreceptors, the short-beaked echidna, which lives in a drier environment, has no more than 400 located at the tip of its snout, they have short, strong limbs with large claws, are powerful diggers. Their claws on their hind limbs are curved backwards to help aid in digging. Echidnas have tiny toothless jaws; the echidna feeds by tearing open soft logs and the like, using its long, sticky tongue, which protrudes from its snout, to collect prey. The ears are slits on the sides of their heads that are unseen, as they are blanketed by their spines; the external ear is created by a large cartilaginous funnel, deep in the muscle. At 33 °C, the echidna possess the second lowest active body temperature of all mammals, behind the platypus; the short-beaked echidna's diet consists of ants and termites, while the Zaglossus species eat worms and insect larvae.
The tongues of long-beaked echidnas have tiny spines that help them capture their prey. They have no teeth, break down their food by grinding it between the bottoms of their mouths and their tongues. Echidnas' faeces are cylindrical in shape. Echidnas do not tolerate extreme temperatures. Echidnas are found in woodlands, hiding under vegetation, roots or piles of debris, they sometimes use the burrows of animals such as wombats. Individual echidnas have mutually overlapping territories. Despite their appearance, echidnas are capable swimmers; when swimming, they expose their snout and some of their spines, are known to journey to water in order to groom and bathe themselves. Echidnas and the platypus are the only egg-laying mammals, known as monotremes; the average lifespan of an echidna in the wild is estimated around 14–16 years. When grown, a female can weigh up to 4.5 kilograms and a male can weigh up to 6 kilograms. The echidnas' sex can be inferred from their size; the reproductive organs differ, but both sexes have a single opening called a cloaca, which they use to urinate, release their faeces and to mate.
Male echidnas have non-venomous spurs on the hind feet. The neocortex makes up half compared to 80 % of a human brain. Due to their low metabolism and accompanying stress resistance, echidnas are long-lived for their size. Contrary to previous research, the echidna does enter REM sleep, but only when the ambient temperature is around 25 °C. At temperatures of 15 °C and 28 °C, REM sleep is suppressed; the female lays a single soft-shelled, leathery egg 22 days after mating, deposits it directly into her pouch. An egg is about 1.4 centimetres long. While hatching, the baby echidna opens the leather shell with a reptile-like egg tooth. Hatching takes place after 10 days of gestation; the mother digs a nursery burrow and deposits the young, returning every five days to suckle it until it is weaned at seven months. Puggles will stay within their mother's den for up to a year before leaving. Male echidnas have a four-headed penis. During mating, the heads on one side "shut down" and do not grow in size.
Each time it copulates, it alternates heads in sets of two. When not in use, the penis is retracted inside a preputial sac in the cloaca; the male echidna's penis is 7 centimetres long when erect, its shaft is covered with penile spines. These may be used to induce ovulation in the female, it is a challenge to study the echidna in its natural habitat and they show no interest in mating while in captivity. Therefore, no one has seen an echidna ejaculate. There have been previous attempts, trying to force the echidna to ejaculate through the use of electrically stimulated ejaculation in order to obtain semen samples but has on
The Bouncer (video game)
The Bouncer is a 2000 beat'em up video game for the PlayStation 2 co-developed by Squaresoft and DreamFactory. It was published in Japan by Squaresoft in December 2000, in North America by Square Electronic Arts in March 2001, in Europe by Sony Computer Entertainment Europe in June 2001; the game was produced by Shinji Hashimoto, co-directed by Takashi Tokita and Seiichi Ishii, features character designs by Tetsuya Nomura, music by Noriko Matsueda and Takahito Eguchi. The game tells the story of three bouncers in the fictional city of Edge on a rescue mission to save their young friend from the Mikado Group, a solar technology megacorporation owned by the megalomaniacal Dauragon C. Mikado; the game is structured like a "playable action movie," with the plot unfolding differently depending on which character the player chooses for specific gameplay sequences. The Bouncer was Square's first game on the PlayStation 2, although it received considerable press coverage before its release, was anticipated as one of the marquee titles in the first batch of PS2 games, it was met with poor sales and mixed reviews.
Controls in The Bouncer are similar to those in the Tobal series. Certain buttons denote high and low attacks, whilst others are used for jumping attacks and special moves. Players have a health meter during gameplay. Players have a limited amount of guard points available to them, although this is not represented by an onscreen meter; as the player blocks, the amount of guard points diminish. When they are gone the player can no longer block; the game's combat uses ragdoll physics, which allows characters to be launched several feet into the air, making it possible to juggle enemies by striking them repeatedly. Enemies can be thrown or otherwise knocked into one another, causing all of them to take damage at once; the Bouncer is structured as a series of short gameplay segments interspersed with cinematic cutscenes that tell the game's story. With the Active Character Selection system, when a cutscene concludes, the player is given the choice to control one of the three protagonists and proceed onto the next gameplay segment.
The player controls this character for the duration of the level, whilst the other two characters are controlled by the AI. At the conclusion of each gameplay segment, the player is able to spend Bouncer Points, the game's equivalent of experience points, using the Point Exchange System. BPs unlock new fighting moves. Spending BPs allows the character to level up, with their rank graded on a letter scale from G to A, an S-Rank. Typical gameplay in The Bouncer consists of the player fighting groups of enemies using hand-to-hand combat techniques. One of the AI controlled bouncers will do a taunt, prompting a button-press to activate a team attack which damages all enemies on screen. However, the Trinity Rush is ineffective against some bosses. In some instances, the player will be tasked with activities other than fighting, such as running through a series of hallways to avoid being caught in a flood, finding a keycard, or fooling enemies into thinking the player is one of them. In general, a gameplay segment ends when the player has either defeated all of the enemies in the area, has defeated a boss enemy, or has achieved a set goal.
In addition to the main Story Mode, there is a single-player survival mode. Spanning ten stages and fifty enemies, every time the player survives a round, the gameplay gets progressively harder. At the start of each stage, the player's health bar does not return to full, but remains where it was at the end of the previous stage; the Bouncer supports the PlayStation 2 multitap accessory, the game's multiplayer Versus Mode supports up to four players in the "Battle Royal" mode. Battle Royal can be played by a single player against three AI controlled opponents, or by two players against two AI opponents. Sion BarzahdVoiced by: Takahiro Sakurai; the death of his girlfriend two years caused him to close himself off but Dominique is getting him to open up again. Volt KruegerVoiced by: Daisuke Gōri. Kou LeifohVoiced by: Ryūsei Nakao. Dominique CrossVoiced by: Ryōka Yuzuki. Dauragon C. MikadoVoiced by: Norio Wakamoto; the adopted son of the previous CEO, Master Mikado, Duaragon has trained since childhood to succeed as head of the organization.
He is responsible for Dominique's abduction, but his motives are unknown. MugetsuVoiced by: Yūji Ueda. Due to experiments on his prefrontal cortex, designed to give him superhuman speed and strength, he is going insane. EchidnaVoiced by: Ayaka Sasaki, she has some kind of history with Volt. Kaldea OrchidVoiced by: Gara Takashima, she has the ability to morph into a panther an
Bitis is a genus of venomous vipers found in Africa and the southern Arabian Peninsula. It includes the smallest vipers in the world. Members are known for their characteristic threat displays that involve inflating and deflating their bodies while hissing and puffing loudly; the type species for this genus is B. arietans, the most distributed viper in Africa. 15 species are recognized. Members of the genus are known as African adders, African vipers, or puff adders. Size variation within this genus is extreme, ranging from the small B. schneideri, which grows to a maximum of 28 cm and is the world's smallest viperid, to the large B. gabonica, which can attain a length of over 2 m and is the heaviest viper in the world. All have a wide, triangular head with a rounded snout, distinct from the neck, covered in small, imbricate scales; the canthus is distinct. A number of species have enlarged supraorbital scales that resemble horns, their eyes are small. They have large nostrils that upwards. Up to six rows of small scales separate the nasal scales.
All species have a well-developed supranasal sac. The fronts of the maxillary bones are short, supporting only one pair of recurved fangs; these snakes are moderately to stout. Their bodies are covered with keeled scales. At midbody, the dorsal scales number 21-46. Laterally, the dorsal scales may be oblique; the ventral scales, which number 112-153, are large and sometimes have slight lateral keels. Their tails are short; the anal scale is single. The paired subcaudal scales number are sometimes keeled laterally. Puff adders are found in the southern Arabian Peninsula. Bitis species are known for their behavior of inflating and deflating their bodies in loud hissing or puffing threat displays, they are terrestrial ambush predators, appear sluggish, but can strike with amazing speed. In contrast to the pitvipers of the subfamily Crotalinae, Bitis species appear to lack heat-sensitive organs and showed no differences in their behavior in laboratory tests towards warm and cool objects that mimicked prey.
All members are viviparous and some give birth to large numbers of offspring. All members of this genus are dangerous — some so. At least six different polyvalent antivenoms are available. Five are produced by Aventis Pasteur, Pasteur Merieux and SAIMR. All of these protect against B. arietans and four cover B. gabonica. At least one protects against bites from B. nasicornis: India Antiserum Africa Polyvalent. In the past, such antivenoms have been used to treat bites from other Bitis species, but with mixed results. *) Not including the nominate subspecies. T) Type species. Other species may be encountered in literature, such as: B. albanica - Hewitt, 1937 B. armata - Smith, 1826Lenk et al. used molecular data to estimate the phylogenetic relationships among species of Bitis. They identified four major monophyletic groups for which they created four subgenera: Bitis - B. arietans Calechidna - B. albanica, B. armata, B. atropos, B. caudalis, B. cornuta, B. heraldica, B. inorata, B. peringueyi, B. rubida, B. schneideri, B. xeropaga Macrocerastes - B. gabonica, B. nasicornis, B. parviocula Keniabitis - B. worthingtoniFor now, this division is of little consequence as far as the nomenclature is concerned.
However, the definition of subgenera within a genus is the sign of an impending split. Therefore, those interested in these snakes would do well to familiarize themselves with these new subgenera. List of viperine species and subspecies Viperinae by common name Viperinae by taxonomic synonyms Snakebite Bitis at the Reptarium.cz Reptile Database. Accessed 2 August 2007. Southern adder at ARKive. Accessed 5 October 2006
Echidna is a genus of moray eels in the family Muraenidae. Echidna species lack canine teeth, they eat crustaceans. As of 2017, FishBase and WoRMS recognize the following eleven species in Echnidna: Echidna amblyodon Echidna catenata Echidna delicatula Echidna leucotaenia L. P. Schultz, 1943 Echidna nebulosa Echidna nocturna Echidna peli Echidna polyzona Echidna rhodochilus Bleeker, 1863 Echidna unicolor L. P. Schultz, 1953 Echidna xanthospilos In addition to the species listed above, the zebra moray has sometimes been included in Echidna
Open-pool Australian lightwater reactor
The Open-pool Australian lightwater reactor is a 20 megawatt pool-type nuclear research reactor. Opened in April 2007, it replaced the High Flux Australian Reactor as Australia's only nuclear reactor, is located at the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation Research Establishment in Lucas Heights, New South Wales, a suburb of Sydney. Both OPAL and its predecessor have been known as the Lucas Heights reactor, after their location; the main reactor uses are: Irradiation of target materials to produce radioisotopes for medical and industrial applications Research in the fields of materials science and structural biology using neutron beams and its sophisticated suite of experimental equipment Analysis of minerals and samples using the neutron activation technique and the delay neutron activation technique Irradiation of silicon ingots in order to dope them with phosphorus and produce the basic material used in the manufacturing of semiconductor devicesThe reactor runs on an operation cycle of 30 days non-stop at full power, followed by a stop of 5 days to reshuffle the fuel.
During year 2014 OPAL ran a total of 290 days at power, over 300 days in 2015, which represents a world-leading level of availability. The Argentine company INVAP was responsible through a turnkey contract, signed in June 2000, for the delivery of the reactor, performing the design and commissioning. Local civil construction was performed by John Holland-Evans Deakin Industries; the facility features a large liquid-deuterium cold neutron source, modern supermirror guides, a 35 m × 65 m guide hall. The cold source was designed by the Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, the cryogenic system designed and supplied by Air Liquide and the initial set of four supermirror guides supplied by Mirrotron. On 17 December 2001, 46 Greenpeace activists occupied the Lucas Heights facility to protest the construction of OPAL. Protestors gained access to the grounds, the HIFAR reactor, the high-level radioactive waste store and the radio tower, their protest highlighted the security and environmental risks of the production of nuclear materials and the shipment of radioactive waste from the facility.
OPAL was opened on 20 April 2007 by Australian Prime Minister John Howard and is the replacement for the HIFAR reactor. ANSTO received an operating licence from the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency in July 2006, allowing commencement of hot commissioning, where fuel is first loaded into the reactor core. OPAL went critical for the first time on the evening of 12 August 2006 and reached full power for the first time on the morning of 3 November 2006; the reactor core consists of 16 low-enriched plate-type fuel assemblies and is located under 13 metres of water in an open pool. Light water is used as the moderator while heavy water is used as the neutron reflector; the purpose of the neutron reflector is to improve neutron economy in the reactor, hence to increase the maximum neutron flux. OPAL is the centrepiece of the facilities at ANSTO, providing efficient and rapid radiopharmaceutical and radioisotope production, irradiation services, neutron activation analysis and neutron beam research.
OPAL is able to produce four times as many radioisotopes for nuclear medicine treatments as the old HIFAR reactor, a wider array of radioisotopes for the treatment of disease. The modern design includes a cold neutron source; the OPAL reactor has received seven awards in Australia. The Bragg Institute at ANSTO hosts OPAL's neutron scattering facility, it is now running as a user facility serving the scientific community in Australia and around the world. New funding was received in 2009 in order to install further competitive beamlines; the actual facility comprises the following instruments: ECHIDNA is the name of the high-resolution neutron powder diffractometer. The instrument serves to determine the crystalline structures of materials using neutron radiation analogous to X-ray techniques, it is named after the Australian monotreme echidna, as the spiny peaks of the instrument looks like an echidna. It operates with thermal neutrons. One of the main features is the array of 128 collimators and position sensitive detectors for rapid data acquisition.
ECHIDNA allows for structure determinations, texture measurements and reciprocal space mapping of single crystals in most different sample environments serving the physics, materials and earth-science communities. ECHIDNA is part of the Bragg Institute's park of neutron scattering instruments. Neutron guide The instrument is located on the TG1 thermal neutron guide of the OPAL reactor; the distance from the reactor is 58 m. The position is the second on the guide after the WOMBAT instrument; the size of the guide is 300 mm high by 50 mm wide, it is plated with supermirror coatings. Primary collimator There are Söller collimators prior to the monochromator in order to reduce the divergence of the beam and to increase the angular resolution of the instrument. Since this is an intensity compromise, two items of 5' and 10' can be interchanged or removed by an automated mechanism; the collimators cover the full size of the beam delivered by the neutron guide. Monochromator The monochromator is made by slabs of oriented Germanium crystals which are inclined towards each other in order to focus down the Bragg reflected beam.
The device has been acquired from the Brookhaven National Laboratory in the USA after the shutdown of their neutron facility. Secondary collimator Optionally a secondary collimator with 10' angular acceptance and 200 mm × 20 mm can be placed in the monochro
In Greek mythology, Echidna was a monster, half-woman and half-snake, who lived alone in a cave. She was the mate of the fearsome monster Typhon and was the mother of monsters, including many of the most famous monsters of Greek myth. Echidna's family tree varies by author; the oldest genealogy relating to Echidna, Hesiod's Theogony, is unclear on several points. According to Hesiod, Echidna was born to a "she", meant by Hesiod to be the sea goddess Ceto, making Echidna's father the sea god Phorcys; the mythographer Pherecydes of Leros has Echidna as the daughter of Phorcys, without naming a mother. Other authors give Echidna other parents. According to the geographer Pausanias, Epimenides had Echidna as the daughter of the Oceanid Styx and one Peiras, while according to the mythographer Apollodorus, Echidna was the daughter of Tartarus and Gaia. In one account, from the Orphic tradition, Echidna was the daughter of Phanes. Hesiod's Echidna was half fearsome snake. Hesiod described "the goddess fierce Echidna" as a flesh eating "monster, irresistible", like neither "mortal men" nor "the undying gods", but was "half a nymph with glancing eyes and fair cheeks, half again a huge snake and awful, with speckled skin", who "dies not nor grows old all her days."
Hesiod's apparent association of the eating of raw flesh with Echidna's snake half suggests that he may have supposed that Echidna's snake half ended in a snake-head. Aristophanes, who makes her a denizen of the underworld, gives Echidna a hundred heads, matching the hundred snake heads Hesiod says her mate Typhon had. In the Orphic account Echidna is described as having the head of a beautiful woman with long hair, a serpent’s body from the neck down. Nonnus, in his Dionysiaca, describes Echidna as being "hideous", with "horrible poison". According to Hesiod's Theogony, the "terrible" and "lawless" Typhon, "was joined in love to, the maid with glancing eyes" and she bore "fierce offspring". First there was Orthrus, the two-headed dog who guarded the Cattle of Geryon, second Cerberus, the multiheaded dog who guarded the gates of Hades, third the Lernaean Hydra, the many-headed serpent who, when one of its heads was cut off, grew two more; the Theogony mentions a second ambiguous “she” as the mother of the Chimera which may refer to Echidna, though the Hydra or Ceto was meant instead.
Hesiod next names two more descendants of Echidna, the Sphinx, a monster with the head of a woman and the body of a winged lion, the Nemean lion, killed by Heracles as his first labor. According to Hesiod, these two were the offspring of Echidna's son Orthrus and another ambiguous "she", read variously as the Chimera, Echidna herself, or Ceto. In any case, the lyric poet Lasus of Hermione, has Echidna and Typhon as the parents of the Sphinx, while the playwright Euripides, has Echidna as her mother, without mentioning a father. While mentioning Cerberus and "other monsters" as being the offspring of Echidna and Typhon, the mythographer Acusilaus adds the Caucasian Eagle that ate the liver of Prometheus. Pherecydes names Prometheus' eagle, adds Ladon, the dragon that guarded the golden apples in the Garden of the Hesperides. Authors retain these offspring of Echidna and Typhon while adding others. Apollodorus, in addition to naming as their offspring Orthrus, the Chimera, the Sphinx, the Caucasian Eagle and the Nemean lion adds the Crommyonian Sow, killed by the hero Theseus.
Hyginus in his list of offspring of Echidna, retains from the above: Cerberus, the Chimera, the Sphinx, the Hydra and Ladon, adds "Gorgon", the Colchian Dragon that guarded the Golden Fleece and Scylla. Nonnus makes Echidna the mother of an unnamed, venom spitting, "huge" son, with "snaky" feet, an ally of Cronus in his war with Zeus, killed by Ares; the Harpies, in Hesiod the daughters of Thaumas and the Oceanid Electra, in one source, are said to be the daughters of Typhon, so were considered to be the daughters of Echidna. The sea serpents which attacked the Trojan priest Laocoön during the Trojan War, which are called by Quintus Smyrnaeus "fearful monsters of the deadly brood of Typhon", may have been considered Echidna's offspring. Echidna is sometimes identified with the Viper, the mother by Heracles, of Scythes, an eponymous king of the Scythians, along with his brothers Agathyrsus and Gelonus; the following table lists the principal offspring of Echidna as given by Hesiod, Apollodorus or Hyginus.
Legend: ✓✓ = Echidna and Typhon given as parents ✓? = Only Echidna given as parent?✓ = Only Typhon given as parent?? = Echidna and Typhon meant as parents? = Echidna meant as parentNotes: a It is unclear whom Hesiod meant as the mother of the Chimera: Echidna, the Hydra, or Ceto. B Hesiod gives Orthrus as the father of the Sphinx and the Nemean Lion, but it is unclear whom