Echium is a genus of 60 species of flowering plant in the family Boraginaceae. The type species is Echium vulgare. Species of Echium are native to North Africa, mainland Europe and the Macaronesian islands where it reaches its maximum diversity; the Latin genus name comes from the Greek word ` ekhis'. Some sources say. Others claim, it is claimed that the plant roots when eaten with wine could provide a folk cure for a snake bite. Many species are used as ornamental and garden plants and may be found in suitable climates throughout the world. In Crete Echium italicum is called pateroi or voidoglosses and its tender shoots are eaten boiled or steamed. Echium species are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species including Coleophora onosmella and orange swift; the seed oil from Echium plantagineum contains high levels of alpha linolenic acid, gamma linolenic acid and stearidonic acid, making it valuable in cosmetic and skin care applications, with further potential as a functional food, as an alternative to fish oils.
Some species have become invasive in southern Africa and Australia. For example, Echium plantagineum, has become a major invasive species in Australia. Echium aculeatum Poir. Echium albicans Lag. & Rodr. Echium amoenum Fisch. & Mey.: Gol-e-Gavzaban or Gol Gavzaban Echium anchusoides Bacch. Brullo & Selvi Echium angustifolium Lam. Echium arenarium Guss. Echium asperrimum Lam. Echium auberianum Webb et Berth. Slopes of the Teide Volcano on Tenerife Island in the Canary Islands Echium bethencourtii Santos. Echium biebersteinii Lacaita. Echium boissieri Steudel. Echium bonnetii Coincy. Echium brevirame Sprague et Hutch. Echium callithyrsum Webb ex Bolle. Echium candicans L. fil.: pride of Madeira. Echium creticum L. Echium decaisnei Webb. Echium flavum Desf. Echium gaditanum Boiss. Echium gentianoides Webb ex Coincy Echium giganteum L. fil. Echium glomeratum Poir. Echium handiense Svent. Echium hierrense Webb ex Bolle Echium horridum Batt. Echium humile Desf. Echium hypertropicum Webb. Echium italicum L.: pale viper's-bugloss Echium judaeum Lacaita.
Echium khuzistanicum Mozaff. Echium lancerottense Lems et Holz. Echium × lemsii G. Kunkel. Echium leucophaeum Webb ex Sprague et Hutch. Echium longifolium Delile. Echium lusitanicum L. Echium modestum Ball. Echium nervosum Dryand. in W. T. Aiton Echium onosmifolium Berthel. Echium orientale L. Echium pabotii Mouterde. Echium parviflorum Moench: small-flowered viper's-bugloss Echium petiolatum Barratte & Coincy. Echium pininana Webb et Berth.: giant viper's-bugloss Echium pitardii A. Chev. Echium plantagineum L.: purple viper's-bugloss, Patterson's curse, Salvation Jane Echium rauwolfii Delile. Echium rosulatum Lange: lax viper's-bugloss Echium rubrum Forssk. Echium russicum J. F. Gmel. Echium sabulicola Pomel. Echium salmanticum Lag. Echium simplex DC. Echium spurium Lojac. Echium stenosiphon Webb. Echium strictum L.f. Echium suffruticosum Barratte. Echium sventenii Bramw. Echium x taibiquense P. Wolff & Rosinski. Echium tenue Roth. Echium thyrsiflorum Masson ex Link. Echium triste Svent. Echium tuberculatum Hoffmanns.
& Link. Echium velutinum Coincy. Echium virescens DC. Echium vulcanorum A. Chev. Echium vulgare L: viper's bugloss Echium webbii Coincy. Echium wildpretii Pears. Ex Hook. fil. Echium wildpretii subsp. Trichosiphon
Macizo de Anaga
Macizo de Anaga is a mountain range in the northeastern part of the island of Tenerife in the Canary Islands. The highest point is 1,024 m, it stretches from the Punta de Anaga in the northeast to Cruz del Carmen in the southwest. Anaga features the mountain peaks of Bichuelo, Chinobre, Pico Limante, Cruz de Taborno and Cruz del Carmen; the mountains were formed by a volcanic eruption about 7 to 9 million years ago making it the oldest part of the island. Since 1987 it has been protected as a "natural park", reclassified as "rural park" in 1994. Since 2015 it is Biosphere Reserve and is the place that has the largest number of endemic species in Europe, it is a wild area characterized by humid forests, such as laurisilva. Native plant species include Ceropegia fusca and Echium virescens; the Macizo de Anaga is rich in archaeological finds, among, the Mummy of San Andrés belonging to the ancient Guanche. The main villages in the Macizo de Anaga are Taganana and Igueste de San Andrés. A place in the mountains known as El Bailadero is believed to have been a place where witches were practicing witchcraft and dancing around a bonfire.
Roques de Anaga Punta de Anaga Lighthouse Witches of Anaga Flora of Anaga El Bailadero of the witches
The Orotava Valley is an area in the northern part of the island of Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain. The valley measures 10 km by 11 km, stretches from the north coast to about 2,000 m elevation, at the northern foot of Pico del Teide. To the west and east, the valley is delimited by two steep escarpments the Ladera de Tigaiga and the Ladera de Santa Ursula; the valley takes its name from the largest town in the area. Other towns are Puerto de la Cruz. In the era of the Guanches, before the conquest by the Spanish in 1496, the valley was known as Taoro. Media related to Valle de la Orotava at Wikimedia Commons
La Palma San Miguel de La Palma, is the most north-westerly island of the Canary Islands, Spain. La Palma has an area of 706 km2 making it the fifth largest of the seven main Canary Islands; the total population is about 81,863, of which 18,000 live in the capital, Santa Cruz de la Palma and about 20,000 in Los Llanos de Aridane. La Palma has "sister city" status with California, its highest mountain is the Roque de los Muchachos, at 2,426 metres, being second among the peaks of the Canaries only to the peaks of the Teide massif on Tenerife. In 1815, the German geologist Leopold von Buch visited the Canary Islands, it was as a result of his visit to Tenerife, where he visited the Las Cañadas caldera, later to La Palma, where he visited the Taburiente caldera, that the Spanish word for cauldron or large cooking pot – "caldera" – was introduced into the geological vocabulary. In the center of the island is the Caldera de Taburiente National Park. La Palma, like the other islands of the Canary Island archipelago, is a volcanic ocean island.
The volcano rises 7 km above the floor of the Atlantic Ocean. There is road access from sea level to the summit at 2,426 m, marked by an outcrop of rocks called Los Muchachos; this is the site of the Roque de los Muchachos Observatory, one of the world's premier astronomical observatories. La Palma's geography is a result of the volcanic formation of the island; the highest peaks reach over 2,400 m above sea level, the base of the island is located 4,000 m below sea level. The northern part of La Palma is dominated by the Caldera de Taburiente, with a width of 9 km and a depth of 1,500 m, it is surrounded by a ring of mountains ranging from 1,600 m to 2,400 m in height. On its northern side is the exposed remains of the original seamount. Only the deep Barranco de las Angustias ravine leads into the inner area of the caldera, a national park, it can be reached only by hiking. The outer slopes are cut by numerous gorges. Today, only a few of these carry water due to the many water tunnels that have been cut into the island's structure.
From the Caldera de Taburiente to the south runs the ridge Cumbre Nueva – the New Ridge, which despite its name is older than the Cumbre Vieja – Old Ridge. The southern part of La Palma consists of the Cumbre Vieja, a volcanic ridge formed by numerous volcanic cones built of lava and scoria; the Cumbre Vieja is active – but dormant, with the last eruption occurring in 1971 at the Teneguía vent, located at the southern end of the Cumbre Vieja – Punta de Fuencaliente. Beyond Punta de Fuencaliente, the Cumbre Vieja continues in a southerly direction as a submarine volcano. Like all of the Canary Islands, La Palma formed as a seamount through submarine volcanic activity. La Palma is along with Tenerife, the most volcanically active of the Canary Islands and was formed three to four million years ago, its base lies 4,000 m below sea level and reaches a height of 2,426 m above sea level. About a half a million years ago, the Taburiente volcano collapsed with a giant landslide, forming the Caldera de Taburiente.
Erosion has since exposed part of the seamount in the northern sector of the Caldera. Since the Spanish occupation, there have been seven eruptions – all of which have occurred on the Cumbre Vieja: 1470–1492 Montaña Quemada 1585 Tajuya near El Paso 1646 Volcán San Martin 1677 Volcán San Antonio 1712 El Charco 1949 Volcán Nambroque at the Duraznero, Hoyo Negro and Llano del Banco vents 1971 Volcán TeneguíaDuring the 1949 eruption – which commenced on the fiesta of San Juan 24 June 1949 at the Duraznero, 8 July 1949 Llano del Banco vents on the Cumbre Vieja – an earthquake, with an epicentre near Jedy, occurred; this is considered to have caused a 2.5-kilometre-long crack which Bonelli Rubio named "La Grieta" –, to form, with a width of about 1 m and a depth of about 2 m. It attains a maximum displacement of ~4 m in the vicinity of the Hoyo Negro to Duraznero vents, it is not traceable southward from the Duraznero vent. North of the Hoyo Negro it is traceable for ~ 1500 m; the total distance from the southern rim of the Duraznero vent to the Llano del Banco is ~4 km.
In 1951 Ortiz and Bonelli-Rubio published further information in respect of the eruption and associated phenomena that occurred before and during the eruption. There is no indication that the crack has penetrated the edifice of the volcano, due to the absence of Minas Galerias within the Cumbre Vieja, there is no possibility of examining the internal structure of the flank. Carracedo et al.. This means; however the lack of supporting evidence has not stopped claims that the flank is in danger of failing. In a programme transmitted by the British Broadcasting Corporation BBC Horizon broadcast on 12 October 2000, two geologists cited this crack as proof that half of the Cumbre Vieja had moved towards the Atlantic Ocean, they postulate that this process was driven by the pressure caused by the rising magma heating water trapped within the structure of the island. They hypothesised that during a future eruption, the western flank of the Cumbre Vieja, with a mass of 1.5 x1015 kg, could slide into the ocean.
This could potentially generate a giant wave which they termed a "megat
The eudicots, Eudicotidae or eudicotyledons are a clade of flowering plants, called tricolpates or non-magnoliid dicots by previous authors. The botanical terms were introduced in 1991 by evolutionary botanist James A. Doyle and paleobotanist Carol L. Hotton to emphasize the evolutionary divergence of tricolpate dicots from earlier, less specialized, dicots; the close relationships among flowering plants with tricolpate pollen grains was seen in morphological studies of shared derived characters. These plants have a distinct trait in their pollen grains of exhibiting three colpi or grooves paralleling the polar axis. Molecular evidence confirmed the genetic basis for the evolutionary relationships among flowering plants with tricolpate pollen grains and dicotyledonous traits; the term means "true dicotyledons", as it contains the majority of plants that have been considered dicots and have characteristics of the dicots. The term "eudicots" has subsequently been adopted in botany to refer to one of the two largest clades of angiosperms, monocots being the other.
The remaining angiosperms include magnoliids and what are sometimes referred to as basal angiosperms or paleodicots, but these terms have not been or adopted, as they do not refer to a monophyletic group. The other name for the eudicots is tricolpates, a name which refers to the grooved structure of the pollen. Members of the group have tricolpate pollen; these pollens have three or more pores set in furrows called colpi. In contrast, most of the other seed plants produce monosulcate pollen, with a single pore set in a differently oriented groove called the sulcus; the name "tricolpates" is preferred by some botanists to avoid confusion with the dicots, a nonmonophyletic group. Numerous familiar plants are eudicots, including many common food plants and ornamentals; some common and familiar eudicots include members of the sunflower family such as the common dandelion, the forget-me-not and other members of its family, buttercup and macadamia. Most leafy trees of midlatitudes belong to eudicots, with notable exceptions being magnolias and tulip trees which belong to magnoliids, Ginkgo biloba, not an angiosperm.
The name "eudicots" is used in the APG system, of 1998, APG II system, of 2003, for classification of angiosperms. It is applied to a monophyletic group, which includes most of the dicots. "Tricolpate" is a synonym for the "Eudicot" monophyletic group, the "true dicotyledons". The number of pollen grain furrows or pores helps classify the flowering plants, with eudicots having three colpi, other groups having one sulcus. Pollen apertures are any modification of the wall of the pollen grain; these modifications include thinning and pores, they serve as an exit for the pollen contents and allow shrinking and swelling of the grain caused by changes in moisture content. The elongated apertures/ furrows in the pollen grain are called colpi, along with pores, are a chief criterion for identifying the pollen classes; the eudicots can be divided into two groups: the basal eudicots and the core eudicots. Basal eudicot is an informal name for a paraphyletic group; the core eudicots are a monophyletic group.
A 2010 study suggested the core eudicots can be divided into two clades, Gunnerales and a clade called "Pentapetalae", comprising all the remaining core eudicots. The Pentapetalae can be divided into three clades: Dilleniales superrosids consisting of Saxifragales and rosids superasterids consisting of Santalales, Berberidopsidales and asteridsThis division of the eudicots is shown in the following cladogram: The following is a more detailed breakdown according to APG IV, showing within each clade and orders: clade Eudicots order Ranunculales order Proteales order Trochodendrales order Buxales clade Core eudicots order Gunnerales order Dilleniales clade Superrosids order Saxifragales clade Rosids order Vitales clade Fabids order Fabales order Rosales order Fagales order Cucurbitales order Oxalidales order Malpighiales order Celastrales order Zygophyllales clade Malvids order Geraniales order Myrtales order Crossosomatales order Picramniales order Malvales order Brassicales order Huerteales order Sapindales clade Superasterids order Berberidopsidales order Santalales order Caryophyllales clade Asterids order Cornales order Ericales clade Campanulids order Aquifoliales order Asterales order Escalloniales order Bruniales order Apiales order Dipsacales order Paracryphiales clade Lamiids order Solanales order Lamiales order Vahliales order Gentianales order Boraginales order Garryales order Metteniusales order Icacinales Eudicots at the Encyclopedia of Life Eudicots, Tree of Life Web Project Dicots Plant Life Forms
The flowering plants known as angiosperms, Angiospermae or Magnoliophyta, are the most diverse group of land plants, with 64 orders, 416 families 13,164 known genera and c. 369,000 known species. Like gymnosperms, angiosperms are seed-producing plants. However, they are distinguished from gymnosperms by characteristics including flowers, endosperm within the seeds, the production of fruits that contain the seeds. Etymologically, angiosperm means a plant; the term comes from the Greek words sperma. The ancestors of flowering plants diverged from gymnosperms in the Triassic Period, 245 to 202 million years ago, the first flowering plants are known from 160 mya, they diversified extensively during the Early Cretaceous, became widespread by 120 mya, replaced conifers as the dominant trees from 100 to 60 mya. Angiosperms differ from other seed plants in several ways, described in the table below; these distinguishing characteristics taken together have made the angiosperms the most diverse and numerous land plants and the most commercially important group to humans.
Angiosperm stems are made up of seven layers. The amount and complexity of tissue-formation in flowering plants exceeds that of gymnosperms; the vascular bundles of the stem are arranged such that the phloem form concentric rings. In the dicotyledons, the bundles in the young stem are arranged in an open ring, separating a central pith from an outer cortex. In each bundle, separating the xylem and phloem, is a layer of meristem or active formative tissue known as cambium. By the formation of a layer of cambium between the bundles, a complete ring is formed, a regular periodical increase in thickness results from the development of xylem on the inside and phloem on the outside; the soft phloem becomes crushed, but the hard wood persists and forms the bulk of the stem and branches of the woody perennial. Owing to differences in the character of the elements produced at the beginning and end of the season, the wood is marked out in transverse section into concentric rings, one for each season of growth, called annual rings.
Among the monocotyledons, the bundles are more numerous in the young stem and are scattered through the ground tissue. They once formed the stem increases in diameter only in exceptional cases; the characteristic feature of angiosperms is the flower. Flowers show remarkable variation in form and elaboration, provide the most trustworthy external characteristics for establishing relationships among angiosperm species; the function of the flower is to ensure fertilization of the ovule and development of fruit containing seeds. The floral apparatus may arise terminally from the axil of a leaf; as in violets, a flower arises singly in the axil of an ordinary foliage-leaf. More the flower-bearing portion of the plant is distinguished from the foliage-bearing or vegetative portion, forms a more or less elaborate branch-system called an inflorescence. There are two kinds of reproductive cells produced by flowers. Microspores, which will divide to become pollen grains, are the "male" cells and are borne in the stamens.
The "female" cells called megaspores, which will divide to become the egg cell, are contained in the ovule and enclosed in the carpel. The flower may consist only of these parts, as in willow, where each flower comprises only a few stamens or two carpels. Other structures are present and serve to protect the sporophylls and to form an envelope attractive to pollinators; the individual members of these surrounding structures are known as petals. The outer series is green and leaf-like, functions to protect the rest of the flower the bud; the inner series is, in general, white or brightly colored, is more delicate in structure. It functions to attract bird pollinators. Attraction is effected by color and nectar, which may be secreted in some part of the flower; the characteristics that attract pollinators account for the popularity of flowers and flowering plants among humans. While the majority of flowers are perfect or hermaphrodite, flowering plants have developed numerous morphological and physiological mechanisms to reduce or prevent self-fertilization.
Heteromorphic flowers have short carpels and long stamens, or vice versa, so animal pollinators cannot transfer pollen to the pistil. Homomorphic flowers may employ a biochemical mechanism called self-incompatibility to discriminate between self and non-self pollen grains. In other species, the male and female parts are morphologically separated, developing on different flowers; the botanical term "Angiosperm", from the Ancient Greek αγγείον, angeíon and σπέρμα, was coined in the form Angiospermae by Paul Hermann in 1690, as the name of one of his primary divisions of the plant kingdom. This included flowering plants possessing seeds enclosed in capsules, distinguished from his Gymnospermae, or flowering plants with achenial or schizo-carpic fruits, the whole fruit or each of its pieces being here regarded as a seed and naked; the term and its antonym were maintained by Carl Linnaeus with the same sense, but with restricted application, in the names of the orders of his class Didynamia. Its use with any
Augustin Pyramus de Candolle
Augustin Pyramus de Candolle spelled Augustin Pyrame de Candolle was a Swiss botanist. René Louiche Desfontaines launched de Candolle's botanical career by recommending him at an herbarium. Within a couple of years de Candolle had established a new genus, he went on to document hundreds of plant families and create a new natural plant classification system. Although de Candolle's main focus was botany, he contributed to related fields such as phytogeography, paleontology, medical botany, economic botany. Candolle originated the idea of "Nature's war", which influenced Charles Darwin and the principle of natural selection. De Candolle recognized that multiple species may develop similar characteristics that did not appear in a common evolutionary ancestor. During his work with plants, de Candolle noticed that plant leaf movements follow a near-24-hour cycle in constant light, suggesting that an internal biological clock exists. Though many scientists doubted de Candolle's findings, experiments over a century demonstrated that ″the internal biological clock″ indeed exists.
Candolle's descendants continued his work on plant classification. Alphonse de Candolle and Casimir Pyrame de Candolle contributed to the Prodromus Systematis Naturalis Regni Vegetabilis, a catalog of plants begun by Augustin Pyramus de Candolle. Augustin Pyramus de Candolle was born on 4 February 1778 in Geneva, Switzerland, to Augustin de Candolle, a former official, his wife, Louise Eléonore Brière, his family descended from one of the ancient families of Provence in France, but relocated to Geneva at the end of the 16th century to escape religious persecution. At age seven de Candolle contracted of a severe case of hydrocephalus, which affected his childhood, he is said to have had great aptitude for learning, distinguishing himself in school with his rapid acquisition of knowledge in classical and general literature and his ability to write fine poetry. In 1794, he began his scientific studies at the Collège Calvin, where he studied under Jean Pierre Étienne Vaucher, who inspired de Candolle to make botanical science the chief pursuit of his life.
He spent four years at the Geneva Academy, studying science and law according to his father's wishes. In 1798, he moved to Paris, his botanical career formally began with the help of René Louiche Desfontaines, who recommended de Candolle for work in the herbarium of Charles Louis L'Héritier de Brutelle during the summer of 1798. The position elevated de Candolle's reputation and led to valuable instruction from Desfontaines himself. De Candolle established his first genus, Senebiera, in 1799.de Candolle's first books, Plantarum historia succulentarum and Astragalogia, brought him to the notice of Georges Cuvier and Jean-Baptiste Lamarck. de Candolle, with Cuvier's approval, acted as deputy at the Collège de France in 1802. Lamarck entrusted him with the publication of the third edition of the Flore française, in the introduction entitled Principes élémentaires de botanique, de Candolle proposed a natural method of plant classification as opposed to the artificial Linnaean method; the premise of de Candolle's method is.
In 1804, de Candolle published his Essai sur les propriétés médicales des plantes and was granted a doctor of medicine degree by the medical faculty of Paris. Two years he published Synopsis plantarum in flora Gallica descriptarum. de Candolle spent the next six summers making a botanical and agricultural survey of France at the request of the French government, published in 1813. In 1807 he was appointed professor of botany in the medical faculty of the University of Montpellier, where he would become the first chair of botany in 1810, his teaching at the University of Montpellier consisted of field classes attended by 200–300 students, starting at 5:00 am and finishing at 7:00 pm. While in Montpellier, de Candolle published his Théorie élémentaire de la botanique, which introduced a new classification system and the word taxonomy. Candolle moved back to Geneva in 1816 and in the following year was invited by the government of the Canton of Geneva to fill the newly created chair of natural history.
De Candolle spent the rest of his life in an attempt to elaborate and complete his natural system of botanical classification. De Candolle published initial work in his Regni vegetabillis systema naturale, but after two volumes he realized he could not complete the project on such a large scale, he began his less extensive Prodromus Systematis Naturalis Regni Vegetabilis in 1824. However, he was able to finish two-thirds of the whole. So, he was able to characterize over one hundred families of plants, helping to lay the empirical basis of general botany. Although de Candolle's main focus was botany, throughout his career he dabbled in fields related to botany, such as phytogeography, paleontology, medical botany, economic botany. In 1827 he was elected an associated member of the Royal Institute of the Netherlands. Augustin de Candolle was the first of four generations of botanists in the de Candolle dynasty, his son, Alphonse de Candolle, whom he fathered with his wife, Mademoiselle Torras succeeded to his father's chair in botany and continued the Prodromus.
Casimir Pyrame de Candolle, Augustin de Candolle's grandson contributed to the Prodromus through his detailed, extensive research and characterization of the Piperaceae family of plants. Augustin de Candolle's great-grandson, Richard Émile Augustin de Candolle