Atlas II was a member of the Atlas family of launch vehicles, which evolved from the successful Atlas missile program of the 1950s. It was designed to launch payloads into low orbit, geosynchronous transfer orbit or geosynchronous orbit. The Atlas line was continued by the Atlas III, used between 2000 and 2005, and the Atlas V which is still in use, Atlas II provided higher performance than the earlier Atlas I by using engines with greater thrust and longer fuel tanks for both stages. LR-89 and RS-27 were replaced by the RS-56, derived from the RS-27, the total thrust capability of the Atlas II of 490,000 pounds force enabled the booster to lift payloads of 6,100 pounds into geosynchronous transfer orbit of 22,000 miles or more. Atlas II was the last Atlas to use a three engine, stage-and-a-half design, two of its three engines were jettisoned during ascent, but its fuel tanks and other elements were retained. The two booster engines, RS-56-OBAs, were integrated into a unit called the MA-5A and shared a common gas generator.
They burned for 164 seconds before being jettisoned, the central sustainer engine, an RS-56-OSA, would burn for an additional 125 seconds. The Vernier engines on the first stage of the Atlas I were replaced by a hydrazine fueled roll control system and this series used an improved Centaur upper stage, the world’s first cryogenic propellant stage, to increase its payload capability. Atlas II had lower-cost electronics, a flight computer and longer propellant tanks than its predecessor. The original Atlas II was based on the Atlas I and its predecessors and this version flew between 1991 and 1998. Atlas IIA was a designed to service the commercial launch market. The main improvement was the switch from the RL10A-3-3A to RL10A-4 engine on the Centaur upper stage, the IIA version flew between 1992 and 2002. Atlas IIAS was largely identical to IIA, but added four Castor 4A solid rocket boosters to increase performance and these boosters were ignited in pairs, with one pair igniting on the ground, and the second igniting in the air shortly after the first pair separated.
The half-stage booster section would drop off as usual, IIAS was used between 1993 and 2004, concurrently with IIA. Led by lead engineer Samuel Wagner, the Atlas II was crucial to the development of the United States space program. Atlas IIs were launched from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Fla. by the 45th Space Wing, the final West Coast Atlas II launch was accomplished December 2003 by the 30th Space Wing, Vandenberg AFB, California
Home Box Office is an American premium cable and satellite television network that is owned by Time Warner through its respective flagship company Home Box Office, Inc. HBO is the oldest and longest continuously operating pay television service in the United States, in 2014, HBO had an adjusted operating income of US$1.79 billion, compared to the US$1.68 billion it accrued in 2013. HBO has 49 million subscribers in the United States and 130 million worldwide as of 2016, the network provides seven 24-hour multiplex channels, including HBO Comedy, HBO Latino, HBO Signature and HBO Family. It launched the streaming service HBO Now in April 2015, and has over 2 million subscribers in the United States as of February 2017. In addition to its U. S. subscriber base, HBO distributes content in at least 151 countries, HBO subscribers generally pay for an extra tier of service that includes other cable- and satellite-exclusive channels even before paying for the channel itself. Cable providers can require the use of a converter box – usually digital – in order to receive HBO, many HBO programs have been syndicated to other networks and broadcast television stations, and a number of HBO-produced series and films have been released on DVD.
The new system, which Dolan named Sterling Information Services, became the first urban underground cable system in the United States. In that same year, Time-Life, Inc. purchased a 20% stake in Dolans company, in the summer of 1971, while on a family vacation in France, Charles Dolan began to think of ideas to make Sterling Manhattan profitable. He came up with the concept for a television service. Dolan presented his idea to Time-Life management, though satellite distribution seemed only a distant possibility at the time, he persuaded Time-Life to back him on the project. To gauge whether consumers would be interested in subscribing to a pay television service, in a meeting of Dolan and some Time-Life executives who were working on the project, various other names were discussed for the new service. Home Box Office launched on November 8,1972, however, HBOs launch came without fanfare in the press, as it was not covered by any local or national media outlets. Home Box Office distributed its first sports event immediately after the film, Four months in February 1973, Home Box Office aired its first television special, the Pennsylvania Polka Festival.
Home Box Office would use a network of relay towers to distribute its programming to cable systems throughout its service area. Sterling Manhattan Cable continued to lose money because the company had only a small base of 20,000 customers in Manhattan. Time-Life dropped the Sterling name and the company was renamed Manhattan Cable Television under Time-Lifes control in March 1973, Gerald Levin, who had been with Home Box Office since it began operations as its vice president of programming, replaced Dolan as the companys president and chief executive officer. In September 1973, Time-Life, Inc. completed its acquisition of the pay service. HBO would eventually increase its fortunes within two years, by April 1975, the service had around 100,000 subscribers in Pennsylvania and New York state, in 1974, they settled on using a geostationary communications satellite to transmit HBO to cable providers throughout the United States
SSL, formerly Space Systems/Loral, LLC, of Palo Alto, California, is a wholly owned manufacturing subsidiary of MacDonald Dettwiler and Associates. SSL designs and builds satellites and space systems for a variety of government. The company was founded as the Western Development Laboratories of Philco, the Space Systems Division of Aeronutronic/Ford Aerospace/was acquired in by Loral Corp. in 1990 for $715 million from Ford Motor Company, and renamed Space Systems/Loral. In 2012 Space Systems/Loral was acquired by the Canadian aerospace company MacDonald Dettwiler for $875 million, sSL’s major competitors are Boeing Satellite Systems, Lockheed Martin, Thales Alenia Space, Airbus Defence and Space and JSC Information Satellite Systems. In 1960, the Courier 1B, built by Philco, as of December 2016, there are 87 SSL-built GEO satellites currently on orbit. SSL manufactures satellites based on its SSL1300 series platform in Palo Alto, satellites in the series include ProtoStar I, ICO G1, SIRIUS FM-6 and SES NEW SKIES NSS-12.
As of September 2015 there were 80 satellites based on the 1300 series platform on orbit, the company designed and built AsiaSat 8, which was launched on 5 August 2014, and AsiaSat 6, which went into orbit on 7 September 2014. The two satellite launches cost AsiaSat $110 million, the satellites were expected to last 15 years, and contain high-powered C-band transponders providing video and broadband services to the Asia-Pacific region. SSL and Constellation Services International have proposed a space tug based on the 1300 platform. The tug would be used to bring supplies to the International Space Station as part of the Commercial Orbital Transportation Services program, NASA eventually decided to pursue another proposal for this project. SSL, continues to provide Battery Orbital Replacement Units, Battery Charge Discharge Units, SSL designed and delivered a propulsion system based on their 1300 platform for the NASA LADEE mission. On April 17,2014, between 9,30 p. m and 10,22 p. m, using a private company to provide the propulsion system leverages the capability of commercially proven technology for U. S.
Government missions. SSLs customers include AsiaSat, Bank Rakyat Indonesia Tbk. A. SES World Skies, Shin Satellite, Sirius Satellite Radio, Sky Perfect JSAT Corporation, Star One, Telesat Canada, ViaSat, WildBlue, and XM Satellite Radio. Aerospace manufacturer List of spacecraft manufacturers Technology companies based in the San Francisco Bay Area SSL company website SSL at Answers. com
The chairman is the highest officer of an organized group such as a board, a committee, or a deliberative assembly. The person holding the office is elected or appointed by the members of the group. The chair presides over meetings of the group and conducts its business in an orderly fashion. When the group is not in session, the officers duties include acting as its head, its representative to the outside world. In some organizations, this position is called president, in others, where a board appoints a president. Other terms sometimes used for the office and its holder include chair, chairwoman, presiding officer, moderator, the chairman of a parliamentary chamber is often called the speaker. The term chair is used in lieu of chairman, in response to criticisms that using chairman is sexist. In his 1992 State of the Union address, then-U. S, president George H. W. Bush used chairman for men and chair for women. A1994 Canadian study found the Toronto Star newspaper referring to most presiding men as chairman, the Chronicle of Higher Education uses chairman for men and chairperson for women.
An analysis of the British National Corpus found chairman used 1,142 times, chairperson 130 times, the National Association of Parliamentarians does not approve using chairperson. In World Schools Style debating, male chairs are called Mr. Chairman, the FranklinCovey Style Guide for Business and Technical Communication, as well as the American Psychological Association style guide, advocate using chair or chairperson, rather than chairman. The Oxford Dictionary of American Usage and Style suggests that the forms are gaining ground. It advocates using chair to refer both to men and to women, the word chair can refer to the place from which the holder of the office presides, whether on a chair, at a lectern, or elsewhere. During meetings, the person presiding is said to be in the chair and is referred to as the chair. Major dictionaries state that the word derives from chair and man, some authorities, including Riddicks Rules of Procedure, suggest that the second part of chairman derives from the Latin manus, and thus claim gender-neutrality for the word.
Vladimir Lenin, for example, officially functioned as the head of Soviet Russia not as tsar or as president, note in particular the popular standard method for referring to Mao Zedong, Chairman Mao. In the absence of the chairman and vice chairman, groups sometimes elect a chairman pro tempore to fill the role for a single meeting. In some organizations that have titles, deputy chairman ranks higher than vice chairman, as there are often multiple vice chairs
Bell TV, is the division of BCE Inc. that provides satellite television service across Canada. It launched on September 10,1997 and as of 2004 it has been providing Bell TV for Condos, Bell TV provides over 500 digital video and 100 HD and audio channels to, as of May 2010, over 1.8 million subscribers. Bell TV services are repackaged and resold by Telus as Telus Satellite TV, high technology development costs and delays placed Tee-Comm in a severe financial position, prompting the remaining partners to pull out in 1996. Instead, U. S. satellite-TV provider Echostar Dish Network was chosen to provide the receivers, the Hughes DirecTV system had already been optioned to Power Broadcasting, in Canada, it has since been withdrawn. ExpressVu launched service in September 1997, initially as Dish Network Canada, followed by ExpressVu Dish Network, Bell took over full ownership of ExpressVu by 2000. The ExpressVu name was retired in August 2008 along with the Today Just Got Better advertising campaign, Bells television services as a whole are now simply called Bell TV.
When disambiguation is required, the service is called Bell Satellite TV. Plans have been shelved for any additional ExpressVu satellite expenditures assuming pending CRTC, as a result of this, SES has announced that they will not be replacing the ill-fated AMC-14 now that Dish Network has cut this deal with Telesat & BCE for Nimiq 5 usage. In 2009, Telus reached a deal to resell a re-packaged version of the Bell TV service in parts of Alberta, the Telus-branded service co-exists with the Bell-branded version of Bell TV, which is still offered in the markets that Telus Satellite TV is offered. In 2012, Bell changed satellite plans in Ontario and they are now sold in packages called Good and Best similarly to its competitor Rogers Cable in that region. Channels in the Best tier can still be purchased in theme packages and this does not affect other regions such as Quebec, where there are different types of plans. Along with these changes, Bell discontinued sales and rentals of its final standard-definition television receiver, customers who still have an older SDTV with an AV input can use an HD receiver, but the quality will be limited to 480i due to technical limitations.
Bell TV broadcasts from two satellites, Nimiq 4 and 6. Nimiq 4 was launched on September 19,2008, and Nimiq 6 was launched on May 17,2012, both satellites follow an equatorial path, giving coverage to most of Canada. Nimiq is an Inuktitut word for that which unifies and was chosen from a naming contest in 1998. The two satellites are owned and operated by Telesat Canada, Bells uplink site is located in North York, Ontario. Nimiq 4, located at 82° W primarily serves Bell’s high-definition television content, Nimiq 6, located at 91. 1° W primarily serves Bell’s standard-definition television and radio content. Each satellite has 32 Ku-band transponders, a transponder usually has enough bandwidth to broadcast approximately 10 channels
Communications satellites are used for television, radio and military applications. There are over 2,000 communications satellites in Earth’s orbit, Wireless communication uses electromagnetic waves to carry signals. These waves require line-of-sight, and are thus obstructed by the curvature of the Earth, the purpose of communications satellites is to relay the signal around the curve of the Earth allowing communication between widely separated points. Communications satellites use a range of radio and microwave frequencies. To avoid signal interference, international organizations have regulations for which frequency ranges or bands certain organizations are allowed to use and this allocation of bands minimizes the risk of signal interference. The concept of the communications satellite was first proposed by Arthur C. Clarke, building on work by Konstantin Tsiolkovsky and on the 1929 work by Herman Potočnik Das Problem der Befahrung des Weltraums — der Raketen-motor, in October 1945 Clarke published an article titled Extraterrestrial Relays in the British magazine Wireless World.
The article described the fundamentals behind the deployment of artificial satellites in geostationary orbits for the purpose of relaying radio signals, Arthur C. Clarke is often quoted as being the inventor of the communications satellite and the term Clarke Belt employed as a description of the orbit. Decades a project named Communication Moon Relay was a project carried out by the United States Navy. Its objective was to develop a secure and reliable method of communication by using the Moon as a passive reflector. The first artificial Earth satellite was Sputnik 1, put into orbit by the Soviet Union on October 4,1957, it was equipped with an on-board radio-transmitter that worked on two frequencies,20.005 and 40.002 MHz. Sputnik 1 was launched as a step in the exploration of space, while incredibly important it was not placed in orbit for the purpose of sending data from one point on earth to another. And it was the first artificial satellite in the leading to todays satellite communications.
The first artificial satellite used solely to further advances in communications was a balloon named Echo 1. Echo 1 was the worlds first artificial communications satellite capable of relaying signals to other points on Earth and it soared 1,600 kilometres above the planet after its Aug.12,1960 launch, yet relied on humanitys oldest flight technology — ballooning. Launched by NASA, Echo 1 was a 30-metre aluminized PET film balloon served as a passive reflector for radio communications. The worlds first inflatable satellite — or satelloon, as they were informally known — helped lay the foundation of todays satellite communications, the idea behind a communications satellite is simple, Send data up into space and beam it back down to another spot on the globe. Echo 1 accomplished this by serving as an enormous mirror,10 stories tall
TiVo is a digital video recorder developed and marketed by TiVo Corporation and introduced in 1999. Since its launch in the United States, TiVo has been available in Australia, Mexico, New Zealand, Puerto Rico, Taiwan, Spain. Newer models, have adopted the CableCARD standard, which is deployed in the United States. TiVo was developed by Jim Barton and Mike Ramsay through a corporation they named Teleworld which was renamed to TiVo Inc. Though they originally intended to create a network device, it was redesigned as a device that records digitized video onto a hard disk. They began the first public trials of the TiVo device and service in late 1998 in the San Francisco Bay Area, because 31 March 1999 was a blue moon, the engineering staff code-named this first version of the TiVo DVR Blue Moon. The original TiVo DVR digitized and compressed analog video from any source, TiVo integrates its DVR service into the set-top boxes of satellite and cable providers. In late 2000, Philips Electronics introduced the DSR6000, the first DirecTV receiver with an integrated TiVo DVR and this new device, nicknamed the DirecTiVo, stored digital signals sent from DirecTV directly onto a hard disk.
In early 2000, TiVo partnered with electronics manufacturer Thomson Multimedia and this partnership resulted in the Thomson PVR10UK, a stand-alone receiver released in October 2000 that was based on the original reference design used in the United States by both Philips and Sony. TiVo ended UK unit sales in January 2003, though it continued to sell subscriptions, TiVo branded products returned to the UK during 2010 under an exclusive partnership with cable television provider Virgin Media. TiVo was launched in Australia in July 2008 by Hybrid Television Services, TiVo launched a special 2009 Christmas TiVo DVR that has a 320Gb hard Drive and comes with the HNP free. TiVo Australia launched Blockbuster on demand and as of early December launched a service called Caspa on Demand. TiVo went on sale in New Zealand on 6 November 2009, Janet Jacksons Super Bowl halftime show incident set a record for being the most watched and replayed moment in TiVo history. The baring of one of Jacksons breasts at the end of her duet with Justin Timberlake, a company representative stated The audience measurement guys have never seen anything like it.
The audience reaction charts looked like an electrocardiogram, a TiVo DVR serves a function similar to that of a videocassette recorder, in that both allow a television viewer to record programming for viewing at a time. Unlike a videocassette recorder, which uses removable magnetic tape cartridges, a TiVo DVR automatically records programs which the user is likely to be interested in. TiVo DVRs implement a feature which TiVo calls trick play, allowing the viewer to pause live television and rewind. More recent TiVo DVRs can be connected to a local area network, allowing the TiVo device to download information and even video programs, music
Marshall is a city in and the county seat of Harrison County in the northeastern corner of the U. S. state of Texas. Marshall is a cultural and educational center in East Texas. At the 2010 census, the population of Marshall was about 23,523, Marshall was a political and production center of the Confederacy during the Civil War. Later it was a railroad center of the T&P Railroad from the late 19th century until the mid-20th century. This area of Texas was developed for cotton plantations, planters brought slaves with them from other regions or bought them in the domestic slave trade. It had a proportion of slaves than other regions of the state, and the wealth of the county depended on slave labor. The city was founded in 1841 as the seat of Harrison County after failed attempts to establish a county seat on the Sabine River. The Republic of Texas decided to choose the land donated for the seat by Peter Whetstone, the citys growing importance was confirmed when Marshall was linked by a telegraph line to New Orleans, it was the first city in Texas to have a telegraph service.
By 1860, Marshall was the fourth-largest city in Texas and the seat of its richest county, developed as cotton plantations, the county held more slaves than any other in the state. Many planters and other whites were strongly anti-Union because of their investment in slavery, for example, brothers Lionel and Emmanuel Kahn, Jewish merchants in Marshall, fought on opposing sides in the conflict. When Governor Sam Houston refused to take an oath of allegiance to the Confederacy, pendleton Murrah, Texass third Confederate governor, was from Marshall. The city became a major Confederate supply depot and manufactory of gunpowder for the Confederate Army, the city was used as the capital of Missouris Confederate government-in-exile, earning it the nickname the City of Seven Flags. This was a nod to the flag of Missouri, in addition to the six flags of nations, Marshall became the seat of Confederate civil authority and headquarters of the Trans-Mississippi Postal Department after the fall of Vicksburg.
The city may have been the target of a failed Union advance that was rebuffed at Mansfield. Toward the end of the American Civil War, the Confederate government had $9.0 million in Treasury notes and they may have intended Marshall as the destination of a government preparing to flee from advancing armies. Marshall was occupied by Union forces on June 17,1865, during Reconstruction, the city was home to an office of the Freedmens Bureau and was the base for Union troops. In 1873 the Methodist Episcopal Church founded Wiley College to educate freedmen, African Americans came to the city seeking opportunities and protection until 1878. The White Citizens Party, led by former Confederate General Walter P. Lane and his brother George and their militia ran Unionists and many African Americans out of town
The City of Englewood is a Home Rule Municipality located in Arapahoe County, United States. As of 2010, the population was 30,255, Englewood is part of the Denver-Aurora Metropolitan Area. Englewood is located in the South Platte River Valley east of the Front Range, downtown is located immediately east of the confluence of Little Dry Creek and the South Platte River, between Santa Fe Drive and Broadway. Englewood is the fourth most populous city in Arapahoe County and, the history of Englewood begins when gold was discovered on what came to be called Little Dry Creek by William Green Russell, an early settler of the high plains, in 1858. Two years later, Thomas Skerritt, considered to be the founder of the city, established a home in the area, four years the first road connecting Denver and Orchard Place was created by Skerritt himself using his own plough. In 1879 the first telephone arrived in the area,1883 was an important year, as it was the year that the Cherrelyn horsecar path was laid.
The Cherrelyn trolley was and is an important city icon, being carried up Broadway by horse,1903 brought incorporation, but Skerritt was edged out by J. C. Jones as the first city mayor. Jones was a prominent landowner, having originally owned almost all of what is now north Englewood, the next two years brought the establishment of the first newspaper in the city, soon to be named the Herald. In 1905 Swedish National Sanitorium was founded, soon to become the massive present-day Swedish Medical Center,1906 brought the first pavement and street lights, and a year the police and fire departments were established. In 1908 the famed Cherrelyn horse trolley stopped running,1948 was a start of a great period of change for the city. 2,500 acres on the Platte Canyon were purchased, and this ensured water independence from the powerful Denver Water, and in fact, Englewood provides water to most of the south metro area now due to its vast, early-established water rights. Soon after the city embarked on a building boom, most of the city was in fact built up by 1960.
In 1965 City Park was sold to make way for Cinderella City, the developer provided the funds to create a vast city park network to replace the single City Park that the mall was built on. Thirty years later, the city demolished the mall in order to make way for a new, transit-oriented development that would contain a new Civic Center, library. The RTD completed its southwest light rail corridor in 2000, in 2004 Englewood opened the Pirates Cove water park as part of a multimillion-dollar improvement package for the city parks system. In addition to Pirates Cove many improvements were made to the South Platte River trail system and to the Englewood Recreation Center, Englewood is a full-service city with its own, independent park and public works systems. Englewood provides snowplow service to neighboring municipalities and water to a portion of the metro area. Englewood is located at 39°38′49″N 104°59′31″W, the city is 5,371 feet above sea level, higher than Denver
C band (IEEE)
The communications C-band was the first frequency band that was allocated for commercial telecommunications via satellites. The same frequencies were already in use for terrestrial microwave radio relay chains. Nearly all C-band communication satellites use the band of frequencies from 3.7 to 4.2 GHz for their downlinks, note that by using the band from 3.7 to 4.0 GHz, this C-band overlaps somewhat into the IEEE S-band for radars. The C-band communication satellites typically have 24 radio transponders spaced 20 MHz apart, the transponders on the same polarization are always 40 MHz apart. Of this 40 MHz, each transponder utilizes about 36 MHz, the C-band is primarily used for open satellite communications, whether for full-time satellite television networks or raw satellite feeds, although subscription programming exists. Typical antenna sizes on C-band capable systems ranges from 7.5 to 12 feet on consumer satellite dishes, rain fade – the collective name for the negative effects of adverse weather conditions on transmission – is mostly a consequence of precipitation and moisture in the air.
Slight variations in the assignments of C-band frequencies have been approved for use in parts of the world. This latter region is the most populous one, since it includes the Peoples Republic of China, Pakistan and this is known as the 5-centimeter band by amateurs and the C-band by AMSAT. Particle accelerators may be powered by C-band RF sources, the frequencies are standardized at 5.996 GHz or 5.712 GHz, which is the second harmonic of S-band
Federal Communications Commission
The FCC works towards six goals in the areas of broadband, the spectrum, the media, public safety and homeland security, and modernizing itself. The FCC was formed by the Communications Act of 1934 to replace the radio regulation functions of the Federal Radio Commission, the FCC took over wire communication regulation from the Interstate Commerce Commission. The FCCs mandated jurisdiction covers the 50 states, the District of Columbia, the FCC provides varied degrees of cooperation and leadership for similar communications bodies in other countries of North America. The FCC is funded entirely by regulatory fees and it has an estimated fiscal-2016 budget of US$388 million. Consistent with the objectives of the Act as well as the 1993 Government Performance and Results Act and these are, Broadband All Americans should have affordable access to robust and reliable broadband products and services. Competition Competition in the provision of services, both domestically and overseas, supports the Nations economy.
The competitive framework for communications services should foster innovation and offer consumers reliable, Media The Nations media regulations must promote competition and diversity and facilitate the transition to digital modes of delivery. Public Safety and Homeland Security Communications during emergencies and crisis must be available for public safety, defense, the Nations critical communications infrastructure must be reliable, interoperable and rapidly restorable. The FCC is directed by five appointed by the President of the United States and confirmed by the United States Senate for five-year terms. The U. S. President designates one of the commissioners to serve as chairman, only three commissioners may be members of the same political party. None of them may have a financial interest in any FCC-related business, commissioners may continue serving until the appointment of their replacements, but may not serve beyond the end of the next session of Congress following term expiration.
In practice, as of 2016 this means that commissioners may serve up to 1 1/2 years beyond the term expiration dates listed above if no replacement is appointed. The Consumer & Governmental Affairs Bureau develops and implements the FCCs consumer policies, CGB serves as the public face of the FCC through outreach and education, as well as through their Consumer Center, which is responsible for responding to consumer inquiries and complaints. CGB maintains partnerships with state and tribal governments in such areas as emergency preparedness. The Enforcement Bureau is responsible for enforcement of provisions of the Communications Act 1934, FCC rules, FCC orders, major areas of enforcement that are handled by the Enforcement Bureau are consumer protection, local competition, public safety, and homeland security. S. The International Bureau oversees FCC compliance with the international Radio Regulations, the Media Bureau handles post-licensing matters regarding direct broadcast satellite service.
The Wireless Telecommunications Bureau regulates domestic wireless telecommunications programs and policies, the Wireline Competition Bureau develops policy concerning wire line telecommunications. The Wireline Competition Bureaus main objective is to promote growth and economical investments in technology infrastructure, markets
United States dollar
The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States and its insular territories per the United States Constitution. It is divided into 100 smaller cent units, the circulating paper money consists of Federal Reserve Notes that are denominated in United States dollars. The U. S. dollar was originally commodity money of silver as enacted by the Coinage Act of 1792 which determined the dollar to be 371 4/16 grain pure or 416 grain standard silver, the currency most used in international transactions, it is the worlds primary reserve currency. Several countries use it as their currency, and in many others it is the de facto currency. Besides the United States, it is used as the sole currency in two British Overseas Territories in the Caribbean, the British Virgin Islands and Turks and Caicos Islands. A few countries use the Federal Reserve Notes for paper money, while the country mints its own coins, or accepts U. S. coins that can be used as payment in U. S. dollars. After Nixon shock of 1971, USD became fiat currency, Article I, Section 8 of the U. S.
Constitution provides that the Congress has the power To coin money, laws implementing this power are currently codified at 31 U. S. C. Section 5112 prescribes the forms in which the United States dollars should be issued and these coins are both designated in Section 5112 as legal tender in payment of debts. The Sacagawea dollar is one example of the copper alloy dollar, the pure silver dollar is known as the American Silver Eagle. Section 5112 provides for the minting and issuance of other coins and these other coins are more fully described in Coins of the United States dollar. The Constitution provides that a regular Statement and Account of the Receipts and that provision of the Constitution is made specific by Section 331 of Title 31 of the United States Code. The sums of money reported in the Statements are currently being expressed in U. S. dollars, the U. S. dollar may therefore be described as the unit of account of the United States. The word dollar is one of the words in the first paragraph of Section 9 of Article I of the Constitution, dollars is a reference to the Spanish milled dollar, a coin that had a monetary value of 8 Spanish units of currency, or reales.
In 1792 the U. S. Congress passed a Coinage Act, Section 20 of the act provided, That the money of account of the United States shall be expressed in dollars, or units. And that all accounts in the offices and all proceedings in the courts of the United States shall be kept and had in conformity to this regulation. In other words, this act designated the United States dollar as the unit of currency of the United States, unlike the Spanish milled dollar the U. S. dollar is based upon a decimal system of values. Both one-dollar coins and notes are produced today, although the form is significantly more common