Free people of color
In the context of the history of slavery in the Americas, free people of color were people of mixed African and European descent who were not enslaved. The term arose in the French colonies, including La Louisiane and settlements on Caribbean islands, such as Saint-Domingue and Martinique, where a distinct group of free people of color developed. Freed African slaves were included in the term affranchis, but they were considered as distinct from the free people of color. In these territories and major cities New Orleans, those cities held by the Spanish, a substantial third class of mixed-race, free people developed; these colonial societies classified mixed-race people in a variety of ways related to visible features and to the proportion of African ancestry. Racial classifications were numerous in Latin America; the term gens de couleur was used in France's West Indian colonies prior to the abolition of slavery, where it was a short form of gens de couleur libres. It referred to free people of mixed race African and European.
In the Thirteen Colonies settled by the British to become the United States, the term free negro was used to cover the same class of people – those who were free and visibly of ethnic African descent. Many were people of mixed race, freed because of relation to their master or other whites. By the late eighteenth century, the Upper South included many slaves of mixed race. Among the most well-known is Sally Hemings, a slave held by Thomas Jefferson and considered his concubine, she was three-quarters white, a half-sister to his late wife. Their four surviving Hemings children were born into slavery because of her status, were seven-eighths white; as adults, three passed into white society and married white in generations. By the late eighteenth century prior to the Haitian Revolution, Saint-Domingue was divided into three distinct groups: free whites. More than half of the affranchis were gens de couleur libres. In addition, maroons were sometimes able to establish independent small communities and a kind of freedom in the mountains, along with remnants of Haiti's original Taino people.
When slavery was ended in the colony in 1793, by action of the French government following the French Revolution, there were 28,000 anciens libres in Saint-Domingue. The term was used to distinguish those who were free, compared to those liberated by the general emancipation of 1793. About 16,000 of these anciens libres were gens de couleur libres. Another 12,000 were affranchis, black slaves who had either purchased their freedom or had been given it by their masters for various reasons. Regardless of their ethnicity, in Saint-Domingue freedmen had been able to own land; some owned large numbers of slaves themselves. The slaves were not friendly with the freedmen, who sometimes portrayed themselves to whites as bulwarks against a slave uprising; as property owners, freedmen tended to support distinct lines set between their own class and that of slaves. Working as artisans, shopkeepers or landowners, the gens de couleur became quite prosperous, many prided themselves on their European culture and descent.
They were well-educated in the French language, they tended to scorn the Haitian Creole language used by slaves. Most gens de couleur were reared as Roman Catholic part of French culture, many denounced the Vodoun religion brought with slaves from Africa. Under the ancien régime, despite the provisions of equality nominally established in the Code Noir, the gens de couleur were limited in their freedoms, they did not possess the same rights as white Frenchmen the right to vote. Most supported slavery on the island, at least up to the time of the French Revolution, but they sought equal rights for free people of color, which became an early central issue of the unfolding Haitian Revolution. The primary adversary of the gens de couleur before and into the Haitian Revolution were the poor white farmers and tradesmen of the colony, known as the petits blancs; because of the freedmen's relative economic success in the region, sometimes related to blood ties to influential whites, the petits blancs farmers resented their social standing and worked to keep them shut out of government.
Beyond financial incentives, the free coloreds caused the poor whites further problems in finding women to start a family. The successful mulattoes won the hands of the small number of eligible women on the island. With growing resentment, the working class whites monopolized assembly participation and caused the free people of color to look to France for legislative assistance; the free people of color won a major political battle on May 15, 1791 when the National Assembly in France voted to give full French citizenship to free men of color. The decree restricted citizenship to those persons; the free people of color were encouraged, many petits blancs were enraged. Fighting broke out in Saint-Domingue over exercising the National Assembly's decree; this turmoil played into the slaves' revolts on the island. In their competition for power, both the poor whites and free coloreds enlisted the help of slaves. By doing this, the feud helped to disintegrate class discipline and propel the slave population in the colony to seek further inclusion
Georgia's 1st congressional district
Georgia's 1st congressional district is a congressional district in the U. S. state of Georgia. It is represented by Republican Buddy Carter, though the district's boundaries have been redrawn following the 2010 United States Census, which granted an additional congressional seat to Georgia; the first election using the new district boundaries were the 2012 congressional elections. The district comprises the entire coastal area of Sea Islands and much of the southeastern part of the state. In addition to Savannah, the district includes the cities of Brunswick and Waycross. There are four military bases in the district: Kings Bay Naval Submarine Base, at Kings Bay in Camden County Fort Stewart, near Hinesville in Liberty County Hunter Army Airfield in Savannah Moody Air Force Base near Valdosta Bacon County Brantley County Bryan County Camden County Charlton County Chatham County Clinch County Echols County Effingham County Glynn County Liberty County Long County Lowndes County McIntosh County Pierce County Ware County Wayne County As of May 2015, there are two living former members of the U.
S. House of Representatives from Georgia's 1st congressional district. Georgia's congressional districts List of United States congressional districts Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present PDF map of Georgia's 1st district at nationalatlas.gov Georgia's 1st district at GovTrack.us
Statenville is an unincorporated community in and the county seat of Echols County, United States. It is a census-designated place, with a population of 1,040 at the 2010 census; the ZIP code is 31648, the area code 229. The town of Statenville was called Troublesome, it grew up at a ford on the Alapaha River in the 1850s. Troublesome was renamed Statenville when the latter was designated county seat in 1858 of the newly-formed Echols County, it is named for James Watson Staten, but was erroneously incorporated as "Statesville" in 1859. In 1965, the state amended the city's charter to read "Statenville". In 1995, a new state law revoked the city charter, along with dozens of others in Georgia which had inactive governments; this left Echols and Webster as the only counties in Georgia with no incorporated communities whatsoever. Columbia County has the unicorporated county seat of Appling, though most court functions take place in Evans. Knoxville is the unincorporated county seat of Crawford County, with the city of Roberta just to its west that grew with the railroad.
Statenville is located in western Echols County, just east of the Alapaha River. U. S. Route 129 passes through the community, leading north 27 miles to Lakeland, south 6 miles to the Florida border, south 14 miles to Jasper, Florida. Georgia State Route 94 crosses US 129 in the center of Statenville, leading east 28 miles to Fargo and northwest 18 miles to Valdosta. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the Statenville CDP has a total area of all land; the Echols County School District consists of two schools. The district has over 700 students; the South Georgia Regional Library operates the Hansford Allen Echols County Library. Named after timber and turpentine farmer Handsford Allen, who contributed money towards the establishment of the library, it is the smallest library in the system, it opened with its construction funded by State of Georgia money. The community had its library in other locations: first in a Methodist church and in the school district superintendent's courthouse office. Echols County, including the communities of Statenville, Mayday, Needmore, Potter and Haylow
The Suwannee River is a major river that runs through South Georgia southward into Florida in the southern United States. It is a wild blackwater river, about 246 miles long; the Suwannee River is the site of the prehistoric Suwanee Straits which separated peninsular Florida from the panhandle. The headwaters of the Suwanee River are in the Okefenokee Swamp in the town of Georgia; the river runs southwestward into the Florida Panhandle drops in elevation through limestone layers into a rare Florida whitewater rapid. Past the rapid, the Suwanee turns west near the town of White Springs, Florida connects to the confluences of the Alapaha River and Withlacoochee River. Starting at the confluences of those three rivers, that confluence forms the southern borderline of Hamilton County, Florida; the Suwanee bends southward near the town of Ellaville, followed by Luraville, Florida joins together with the Santa Fe River from the east, south of the town of Branford, Florida. The river drains into the Gulf of Mexico on the outskirts of Suwannee, Florida.
The Spanish recorded the native Timucua name of Guacara for the river that would become known as the Suwannee. Different etymologies have been suggested for the modern name. San Juan: D. G. Brinton first suggested in his 1889 Notes on the Floridian Peninsula that Suwannee was a corruption of the Spanish San Juan; this theory is supported by Jerald Milanich, who states that "Suwannee" developed through "San Juan-ee" from the 17th-century Spanish mission of San Juan de Guacara, located on the Suwannee River. Shawnee: The migrations of the Shawnee throughout the South have been connected to the name Suwannee; as early as 1820, the Indian agent John Johnson said "the'Suwaney' river was doubtless named after the Shawanoese, Suwaney being a corruption of Shawanoese." However, the primary southern Shawnee settlements were along the Savannah River, with only the village of Ephippeck on the Apalachicola River being securely identified in Florida, casting doubt on this etymology. "Echo": In 1884, Albert S. Gatschet claimed that Suwannee derives from the Creek word sawani, meaning "echo", rejecting the earlier Shawnee theory.
Stephen Boyd's 1885 Indian Local Names with Their Interpretation and Henry Gannett's 1905 work The Origin of Certain Place Names in the United States repeat this interpretation, calling sawani an "Indian word" for "echo river". Gatschet's etymology survives in more recent publications mistaking the language of translation. For example, a University of South Florida website states that the "Timucuan Indian word Suwani means Echo River... River of Reeds, Deep Water, or Crooked Black Water". In 2004, William Bright repeats it again, now attributing the name "Suwanee" to a Cherokee village of Sawani, unlikely as the Cherokee never lived in Florida or South Georgia; this etymology is now considered doubtful: 2004's A Dictionary of Creek Muscogee does not include the river as a place-name derived from Muscogee, lacks entries for "echo" and for words such as svwane, sawane, or svwvne, which would correspond to the anglicization "Suwannee". The Suwannee River area has been inhabited by humans for thousands of years.
During the first millennium CE, it was inhabited by the people of the Weedon Island archaeological culture, around 900 CE, a derivative local culture, known as the Suwanee River Valley culture, developed. By the 16th century, the river was inhabited by two related Timucua language-speaking peoples: the Yustaga, who lived on the west side of the river. By 1633, the Spanish had established the missions of San Juan de Guacara, San Francisco de Chuaquin, San Augustin de Urihica along the Suwannee to convert these western Timucua peoples. In the 18th century, Seminoles lived by the river; the steamboat Madison operated on the river before the Civil War, the sulphur springs at White Springs became popular as a health resort, with 14 hotels in operation in the late 19th century. This river is the subject of the Stephen Foster song "Old Folks at Home", in which he calls it the Swanee Ribber. Foster had named the Pedee River of South Carolina in his first lyrics, it has been called Swanee River because Foster had used an alternative contemporary spelling of the name.
Foster never saw the river he made world-famous. George Gershwin's song, with lyrics by Irving Caesar, made popular by Al Jolson, is spelled "Swanee" and boasts that "the folks up North will see me no more when I get to that Swanee shore". Both of these songs feature banjo-strumming and reminiscences of a plantation life more typical of 19th-century South Carolina than of among the swamps and small farms in the coastal plain of south Georgia and north Florida. Don Ameche starred as Foster in the fictional biographical film Swanee River; when approaching the Suwannee River via several major highways, motorists are greeted with a sign which announces they are crossing the Historic Suwannee River, complete with the first line of sheet music from "Old Folks at Home". This is Florida's state song, designated as such in 1935. In 2008, its original lyrics were replaced with a politically correct version. There is a Foster museum and carillon tower at Stephen Foster Folk Culture Center State Park in White Springs.
The spring itself is called White Sulphur Springs because of its high sulphur content. Since there was a belief in the healing qualities of its waters, the Springs were long popular as a health resort; the idiom "up the Swannee" or "down the swanny" means something is going badly wrong, analogous to "up the creek without a paddle". A unique aspect of the Suwannee River is the Suwannee River Wilder
Georgia State Route 376
State Route 376 is a 16.0-mile-long east–west state highway that travels within portions of Lowndes and Echols counties in the southern part of the U. S. state of Georgia. It connects Clyattville via Lake Park; the roadway was built in the late 1950s and designated as SR 376 in 1972. SR 376 begins at an intersection with SR 31 within Lowndes County; the highway travels to curves to the east. It curves back to the southeast and makes a longer curve to the east-northeast, it has an interchange with Interstate 75. The route continues to the east-northeast and enters the western part of Lake Park, where it intersects US 41/SR 7; the three highways travel concurrently into the main part of town, where SR 376 splits off to a east-northeastern direction. It travels through rural areas of Echols County, crosses over the Alapahoochee River, until it meets its eastern terminus, an intersection with SR 135 west of Statenville. SR 376 is not part of the National Highway System, a system of roadways important to the nation's economy and mobility.
The road that would become SR 376 was built between 1957 and 1960 along the same alignment as it travels today. In 1972, the entire road was designated as SR 376. Georgia portal U. S. Roads portal Media related to Georgia State Route 376 at Wikimedia Commons
Time in the United States
Time in the United States, by law, is divided into nine standard time zones covering the states and its possessions, with most of the United States observing daylight saving time for the spring and fall months. The time zone boundaries and DST observance are regulated by the Department of Transportation. Official and precise timekeeping services are provided by two federal agencies: the National Institute of Standards and Technology; the clocks run by these services are kept synchronized with each other as well as with those of other international timekeeping organizations. It is the combination of the time zone and daylight saving rules, along with the timekeeping services, which determines the legal civil time for any U. S. location at any moment. Before the adoption of four standard time zones for the continental United States, many towns and cities set their clocks to noon when the sun passed their local meridian, pre-corrected for the equation of time on the date of observation, to form local mean solar time.
Noon occurred at different times but time differences between distant locations were noticeable prior to the 19th century because of long travel times and the lack of long-distance instant communications prior to the development of the telegraph. The use of local solar time became awkward as railways and telecommunications improved. American railroads maintained many different time zones during the late 1800s; each train station set its own clock making it difficult to coordinate train schedules and confusing passengers. Time calculation became a serious problem for people traveling by train, according to the Library of Congress; every city in the United States used a different time standard so there were more than 300 local sun times to choose from. Time zones were therefore a compromise, relaxing the complex geographic dependence while still allowing local time to be approximate with mean solar time. Railroad managers tried to address the problem by establishing 100 railroad time zones, but this was only a partial solution to the problem.
Weather service chief Cleveland Abbe had needed to introduce four standard time zones for his weather stations, an idea which he offered to the railroads. Operators of the new railroad lines needed a new time plan that would offer a uniform train schedule for departures and arrivals. Four standard time zones for the continental United States were introduced at noon on November 18, 1883, when the telegraph lines transmitted time signals to all major cities. In October 1884, the International Meridian Conference at Washington DC adopted a proposal which stated that the prime meridian for longitude and timekeeping should be one that passes through the centre of the transit instrument at the Greenwich Observatory in the United Kingdom; the conference therefore established the Greenwich Meridian as the prime meridian and Greenwich Mean Time as the world's time standard. The US time-zone system grew from this, in which all zones referred back to GMT on the prime meridian. In 1960, the International Radio Consultative Committee formalized the concept of Coordinated Universal Time, which became the new international civil time standard.
UTC is, within about 1 second, mean solar time at 0°. UTC does not observe daylight saving time. For most purposes, UTC is considered interchangeable with GMT, but GMT is no longer defined by the scientific community. UTC is one of several related successors to GMT. Standard time zones in the United States are defined at the federal level by law 15 USC §260; the federal law establishes the transition dates and times at which daylight saving time occurs, if observed. It is the authority of the Secretary of Transportation, in coordination with the states, to determine which regions will observe which of the standard time zones and if they will observe daylight saving time; as of August 9, 2007, the standard time zones are defined in terms of hourly offsets from UTC. Prior to this they were based upon the mean solar time at several meridians 15° apart west of Greenwich. Only the full-time zone names listed below are official. View the standard time zone boundaries here; the United States uses nine standard time zones.
As defined by US law they are: From east to west, the four time zones of the contiguous United States are: Eastern Time Zone, which comprises the states on the Atlantic coast and the eastern two thirds of the Ohio Valley. Central Time Zone, which comprises the Gulf Coast, Mississippi Valley, most of the Great Plains. Mountain Time Zone, which comprises the states and portions of states that include the Rocky Mountains and the western quarter of the Great Plains. Pacific Time Zone, which comprises the states on the Pacific coast, plus Nevada and the Idaho panhandle. Alaska Time Zone, which comprises most of the state of Alaska. Hawaii-Aleutian Time Zone, which includes Hawaii and most of the length of the Aleutian Islands chain. Samoa Time Zone, which comprises American Samoa. Chamorro Time Zone, which comprises Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands. Atlantic Time Zone, which comprises Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands; some United States Minor Outlying Islands are outside the time zones defined by 15 U.
S. C. § exist in waters defined by Nautical time. In practice, military crews may
To be in exile means to be away from one's home, while either being explicitly refused permission to return or being threatened with imprisonment or death upon return. In Roman law, exsilium denoted both voluntary exile and banishment as a capital punishment alternative to death. Deportation was forced exile, entailed the lifelong loss of citizenship and property. Relegation was a milder form of deportation, which preserved the subject's property; the terms diaspora and refugee describe group exile, both voluntary and forced, "government in exile" describes a government of a country that has relocated and argues its legitimacy from outside that country. Voluntary exile is depicted as a form of protest by the person who claims it, to avoid persecution and prosecution, an act of shame or repentance, or isolating oneself to be able to devote time to a particular pursuit. Article 9 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights states that "No one shall be subjected to arbitrary arrest, detention or exile."
In some cases the deposed head of state is allowed to go into exile following a coup or other change of government, allowing a more peaceful transition to take place or to escape justice. A wealthy citizen who moves to a jurisdiction with lower taxes is termed a tax exile. Creative people such as authors and musicians who achieve sudden wealth sometimes choose this solution. Examples include the British-Canadian writer Arthur Hailey, who moved to the Bahamas to avoid taxes following the runaway success of his novels Hotel and Airport, the English rock band the Rolling Stones who, in the spring of 1971, owed more in taxes than they could pay and left Britain before the government could seize their assets. Members of the band all moved to France for a period of time where they recorded music for the album that came to be called Exile on Main Street, the Main Street of the title referring to the French Riviera. In 2012, Eduardo Saverin, one of the founders of Facebook, made headlines by renouncing his U.
S. citizenship before his company's IPO. The dual Brazilian/U. S. Citizen's decision to move to Singapore and renounce his citizenship spurred a bill in the U. S. Senate, the Ex-PATRIOT Act, which would have forced such wealthy tax exiles to pay a special tax in order to re-enter the United States. In some cases a person voluntarily lives in exile to avoid legal issues, such as litigation or criminal prosecution. An example of this is Asil Nadir, who fled to the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus for 17 years rather than face prosecution in connection with the failed £1.7 bn company Polly Peck in the United Kingdom. Examples include: Iraqi academics asked to return home "from exile" to help rebuild Iraq in 2009 Jews who fled persecution from Nazi Germany People undertaking a religious or civil liberties role in society may be forced into exile due to threat of persecution. For example, nuns were exiled following the Communist coup d'état of 1948 in Czechoslovakia, it is an alternative theory developed by a young anthropologist, Balan in 2018.
According to him, comfortable exile is a “social exile of people who have been excluded from the mainstream society. Such people are considered “aliens” or internal “others” on the grounds of their religious, ethnic, linguistic or caste-based identity and therefore they migrate to a comfortable space elsewhere after having risked their lives to restore representation and civil rights in their own country and capture a comfortable identity to being part of a dominant religion, society or culture.” When a large group, or a whole people or nation is exiled, it can be said that this nation is in exile, or "diaspora". Nations that have been in exile for substantial periods include the Jews, who were deported by Babylonian king Nebuchadnezzar II in 586 BC and again following the destruction of the second Temple in Jerusalem in AD 70. Many Jewish prayers include a yearning to return to the Jewish homeland. After the partitions of Poland in the late 18th century, following the uprisings against the partitioning powers, many Poles have chosen – or been forced – to go into exile, forming large diasporas in France and the United States.
The entire population of Crimean Tatars that remained in their homeland Crimea was exiled on 18 May 1944 to Central Asia as a form of ethnic cleansing and collective punishment on false accusations. At Diego Garcia, between 1967 and 1973 the British Government forcibly removed some 2,000 Chagossian resident islanders to make way for a military base today jointly operated by the US and UK. Since the Cuban Revolution over one million Cubans have left Cuba. Most of these self-identify as exiles as their motivation for leaving the island is political in nature, it is to be noted that at the time of the Cuban Revolution, Cuba only had a population of 6.5 million, was not a country that had a history of significant emigration, it being the sixth largest recipient of immigrants in the world as of 1958. Most of the exiles' children consider themselves to be Cuban exiles, it is to be noted that under Cuban law, children of Cubans born abroad are considered Cuban citizens. During a foreign occupation or after a coup d'état, a government in exile of a such afflicted country may be established abroad.
One of the most well-known instances of this is the Polish government-in-exile, a government in exile that commanded Polish armed forces operating outside Poland after German occupation during World War II. Other examples include the Free French Forces government of Charles De Gaulle of the same time, the Central Tibetan A