The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Javier Castellano is a jockey in American Thoroughbred horse racing. Castellano began his riding career in 1996 at Santa La Rinconada racecourses in Venezuela. In June 1997 he moved to the United States where he rode at race tracks in southern Florida until 2001 when he moved to race on the New York State racing circuit, he had his first major wins in 2004, on Frank Stronach's colt Ghostzapper and won several major races including the 2004 Breeders' Cup Classic, earning 2004 Eclipse Award for Horse of the Year and other honors. In 2006, Castellano rode Bernardini for Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum's Darley Racing, winning the Preakness Stakes, the Travers Stakes, the Jockey Club Gold Cup. Castellano received the Eclipse Award for Outstanding Jockey in 2013, 2014, 2015, 2016 each time based on having the highest purse winnings of any jockey in North America. In 2013, he finished the year with purse earnings of over $26.2 million, surpassing the single-season record held by Ramon Dominguez in 2012.
He passed 4,000 North American wins in February 2015, by the end of the year had broken his own single-season winnings and earnings record. Javier Castellano was selected as a 2017 inductee into the National Museum of Racing and Hall of Fame, with the formal ceremony scheduled for August 4 in Saratoga Springs, New York. Racing runs in Castellano's family, his father, who died in 2000, a brother all have been jockeys. He considers his father to be the biggest influence on his career; as of 2014, he and his wife Abby have three children. His father-in-law is national director of the Jockeys' Guild, his younger brother Abel Castellano, Jr. is a jockey and rode his first winner on September 22, 1999, at Santa Rita Race Course in Venezuela. In 2000 he began riding in the United States at Gulfstream Park. Javier Castellano's profile at the NTRA Official Website
The Thoroughbred is a horse breed best known for its use in horse racing. Although the word thoroughbred is sometimes used to refer to any breed of purebred horse, it technically refers only to the Thoroughbred breed. Thoroughbreds are considered "hot-blooded" horses that are known for their agility and spirit; the Thoroughbred as it is known today was developed in 17th- and 18th-century England, when native mares were crossbred with imported Oriental stallions of Arabian and Turkoman breeding. All modern Thoroughbreds can trace their pedigrees to three stallions imported into England in the 17th century and 18th century and to a larger number of foundation mares of English breeding. During the 18th and 19th centuries, the Thoroughbred breed spread throughout the world. Millions of Thoroughbreds exist today, around 100,000 foals are registered each year worldwide. Thoroughbreds are used for racing, but are bred for other riding disciplines such as show jumping, combined training, dressage and fox hunting.
They are commonly crossbred to create new breeds or to improve existing ones, have been influential in the creation of the Quarter Horse, Anglo-Arabian, various warmblood breeds. Thoroughbred racehorses perform with maximum exertion, which has resulted in high accident rates and health problems such as bleeding from the lungs. Other health concerns include low fertility, abnormally small hearts and a small hoof-to-body-mass ratio. There are several theories for the reasons behind the prevalence of accidents and health problems in the Thoroughbred breed, research is ongoing; the typical Thoroughbred ranges from 15.2 to 17.0 hands high. They are most bay, dark bay or brown, black, or gray. Less common colors recognized in the United States include palomino. White is rare, but is a recognized color separate from gray; the face and lower legs may be marked with white, but white will not appear on the body. Coat patterns that have more than one color on the body, such as Pinto or Appaloosa, are not recognized by mainstream breed registries.
Good-quality Thoroughbreds have a well-chiseled head on a long neck, high withers, a deep chest, a short back, good depth of hindquarters, a lean body, long legs. Thoroughbreds are classified among the "hot-blooded" breeds, which are animals bred for agility and speed and are considered spirited and bold. Thoroughbreds born in the Northern Hemisphere are considered a year older on the first of January each year; these artificial dates have been set to enable the standardization of races and other competitions for horses in certain age groups. The Thoroughbred is a distinct breed of horse, although people sometimes refer to a purebred horse of any breed as a thoroughbred; the term for any horse or other animal derived from a single breed line is purebred. While the term came into general use because the English Thoroughbred's General Stud Book was one of the first breed registries created, in modern usage horse breeders consider it incorrect to refer to any animal as a thoroughbred except for horses belonging to the Thoroughbred breed.
Nonetheless, breeders of other species of purebred animals may use the two terms interchangeably, though thoroughbred is less used for describing purebred animals of other species. The term is a proper noun referring to this specific breed, though not capitalized in non-specialist publications, outside the US. For example, the Australian Stud Book, The New York Times, the BBC do not capitalize the word. Flat racing existed in England by at least 1174, when four-mile races took place at Smithfield, in London. Racing continued at fairs and markets throughout the Middle Ages and into the reign of King James I of England, it was that handicapping, a system of adding weight to attempt to equalize a horse's chances of winning as well as improved training procedures, began to be used. During the reigns of Charles II, William III, George I, the foundation of the Thoroughbred was laid; the term "thro-bred" to describe horses was first used in 1713. Under Charles II, a keen racegoer and owner, Anne, royal support was given to racing and the breeding of race horses.
With royal support, horse racing became popular with the public, by 1727, a newspaper devoted to racing, the Racing Calendar, was founded. Devoted to the sport, it recorded race results and advertised upcoming meets. All modern Thoroughbreds trace back to three stallions imported into England from the Middle East in the late 17th and early 18th centuries: the Byerley Turk, the Darley Arabian, the Godolphin Arabian. Other stallions of oriental breeding were less influential, but still made noteworthy contributions to the breed; these included the Alcock's Arabian, D'Arcy's White Turk, Leedes Arabian, Curwen's Bay Barb. Another was the Brownlow Turk, among other attributes, is thought to be responsible for the gray coat color in Thoroughbreds. In all, about 160 stallions of Oriental breeding have been traced in the historical record as contributing to the creation of the Thoroughbred; the addition of horses of Eastern bloodlines, whether Arabian, Barb, or Turk, to the native English mares led to the creation of the General Stud Book in 1791 and the practice of official registration of horses.
According to Peter Willett, about 50% of the foundation stallions appear to have been of Arabian bloodlines, wit
A jockey is someone who rides horses in horse racing or steeplechase racing as a profession. The word applies to camel riders in camel racing; the word is by origin a diminutive of jock, the Northern English or Scots colloquial equivalent of the first name John, used generically for "boy" or "fellow", at least since 1529. A familiar instance of the use of the word as a name is in "Jockey of Norfolk" in Shakespeare's Richard III. v. 3, 304. In the 16th and 17th centuries the word was applied to horse-dealers, itinerant minstrels and vagabonds, thus bore the meaning of a cunning trickster, a "sharp", whence the verb to jockey, "to outwit", or "to do" a person out of something; the current meaning of a person who rides a horse in races was first seen in 1670. Another possible origin is the Gaelic word eachaidhe, a "horseman"; the Irish name Eochaid is related to each "horse" and is translated as "horse rider". This is phonetically similar to jockey. Jockeys must be light to ride at the weights. There are horse carrying weight limits.
The Kentucky Derby, for example, has a weight limit of 126 lb including the jockey's equipment. The weight of a jockey ranges from 108 to 118 lb. Despite their light weight, they must be able to control a horse, moving at 40 mph and weighs 1,200 lb. Though there is no height limit for jockeys, they are fairly short due to the weight limits. Jockeys stand around 4 ft 10 in to 5 ft 6 in. Jockeys are self employed, nominated by horse trainers to ride their horses in races, for a fee and a percentage of the purse winnings. In Australia, employment of apprentice jockeys is in terms of indenture to a master; when an apprentice jockey finishes their apprenticeship and becomes a "fully fledged jockey", the nature of their employment and insurance requirements change because they are regarded as "freelance", like contractors. Jockeys cease their riding careers to take up other employment in racing as trainers. In this way the apprenticeship system serves to induct young people into racing employment. Jockeys start out when they are young, riding work in the morning for trainers, entering the riding profession as apprentice jockeys.
It is necessary for an apprentice jockey to ride a minimum of about 20 barrier trials before being permitted to ride in races. An apprentice jockey is known as a "bug boy" because the asterisk that follows the name in the program looks like a bug. All jockeys must be licensed and are not permitted to bet on a race. An apprentice jockey has a master, a horse trainer, the apprentice is allowed to "claim" weight off the horse's back: in handicapped races, more experienced riders will have their horses given an extra amount of weight to carry, whereas a jockey in their apprenticeship will have less weight on their horse, giving trainers an incentive to hire these less-experienced jockeys; this weight allowance is adjusted according to the number of winners. After a four-year indentured apprenticeship, the apprentice becomes a senior jockey and develops relationships with trainers and individual horses. Sometimes senior jockeys are paid a retainer by an owner which gives the owner the right to insist the jockey ride their horses in races.
Racing modeled on the English Jockey Club spread throughout the world with colonial expansion. The colors worn by jockeys in races are the registered "colors" of the owner or trainer who employs them; the practice of riders wearing colors stems from medieval times when jousts were held between knights. However, the origins of racing colors of various patterns may have been influenced by racing held in Italian city communities since medieval times; such traditional events are still held on town streets and are known for furious riding and the colorful spectacle they offer. While the term "silks" is used in the United States to refer to racing colors, technically "silks" are the white breeches and bib, stock or cravat. Obtaining them is a rite of passage when a jockey is first able to don silken pants and colors in their first race ride. At one time silks were invariably made of silk chosen for being a lightweight fabric, though now synthetics are used instead. Silks and their colors are important symbols of festivity.
Various awards are given annually by organizations affiliated with the sport of thoroughbred racing in countries throughout the world. They include: Australia Scobie Breasley Medal Canada Avelino Gomez Memorial Award United Kingdom Lester Award Champion Flat Jockey Award Champion Jump Jockey Award United States George Woolf Memorial Jockey Award Isaac Murphy Award Horse racing is a sport where jockeys may incur permanent and life-threatening injuries. Chief among them include concussion, bone fractures, arthritis and paralysis. Jockey insurance premiums remain among the highest of all professional sports. Between 1993 and 1996, 6,545 injuries occurred during official races for an injury rate of 606 per 1,000 jockey years. In Australia race riding is regarded as being the second most deadly job, after offshore fishing. From 2002 to 2006 five deaths and 861 serious injuries were recorded. Eating disorders are very common among jockeys, as they face extreme pressure to maintain unusually low weights for men, som
Mike E. Smith
Michael Earl Smith is an American jockey, one of the leading riders in U. S. Thoroughbred racing since the early 1990s, was inducted into the National Museum of Racing and Hall of Fame in 2003, has won the most Breeders' Cup races of any jockey with 26 Breeders' Cup wins. Smith is the second leading jockey of all time in earnings with over $312 million. In 2018, Smith rode Justify to the Triple Crown, becoming the oldest jockey to win the title at age 52. Smith was born to George Smith, a one-time jockey, Vidoll Vallejos in New Mexico; the older of two sons, Smith's parents divorced. Smith spent most of his youth on his maternal grandparents' horse farm where he began breaking horses at eight years old. Smith began riding races in his native New Mexico at age 11, took out a jockey's license at age 16 in 1982. In the ninth grade, Smith dropped out of Dexter High School. Shortly thereafter, accompanied by his paternal grandfather, he began riding a Midwestern circuit which included races at Hawthorne Race Course in Chicago, Ak-Sar-Ben in Omaha and Oaklawn Park Race Track in Hot Springs, Arkansas.
On April 17, 1987, Smith married daughter of jockey John L. Lively, in Hot Springs; the marriage ended in divorce. Smith served his apprenticeship at Canterbury Downs in Minnesota before moving to New York in 1989. In 2000, he established his home base in Southern California. On January 13, 2019 Mike married Cynthia Naanouh at a private ceremony at St. Rita's Catholic Church in Sierra Madre, CA. In 1991, Smith became one of the few American jockeys to win a European classic by claiming victory in the Irish 2,000 Guineas aboard Fourstars Allstar; that year he got his big break by becoming leading jockey in New York for the first of three years from 1991 to 1993, with 330, 297 and 313 wins, respectively. The following year, he rode Lure, in the Breeders' Cup Mile; the year after that, 1993, Smith arrived as a top jockey, setting a North American record for stakes wins in a year with 62. Among his highlights were a win in the Preakness aboard Prairie Bayou-, euthanized after breaking down in the Belmont Stakes while being ridden by Smith – and a successful defense of the Breeders' Cup Mile aboard Lure.
That year, he won his first Eclipse Award for Outstanding Jockey, won an ESPY Award as top jockey. In 1994, he broke his own record for stakes wins with 68, 20 of them Grade I races. Several of those wins came while riding that year's Eclipse Award for Horse of the Year winner, Holy Bull, he rode two winners in that year's Breeders' Cup, again won the Eclipse Award as leading jockey. Smith went on to ride two Breeders' Cup winners in both 1995 and 1997. In 1994, he was voted the Mike Venezia Memorial Award for "extraordinary sportsmanship and citizenship"; the dangers of Smith's profession became evident in 1998, when he suffered major injuries in two separate spills. A broken shoulder in March took him out of action for two months. In August, while leading the Saratoga meeting, he broke two vertebrae in his back, requiring him to wear a body cast for several months, he came back six months after the fall. In 2000, he moved his home base from New York to Southern California; that year he won the George Woolf Memorial Jockey Award that honors a rider whose career and personal conduct exemplify the best example of participants in the sport of thoroughbred racing.
In 2002, he served as the regular rider for his second Horse of Azeri. He rode Azeri to a win in the Breeders' Cup Distaff, rode Vindication to a win in the Breeders' Cup Juvenile. In 2005, he rode 50–1 longshot Giacomo to victory in the Kentucky Derby; the win, Smith's first in the Derby, was something of a vindication for him. He was aboard Giacomo's sire Holy Bull, the 2–1 favorite in the 1994 Derby, but could finish only 12th after Holy Bull was bumped coming out of the starting gate. In 2008, he added two more Breeders' Cup victories first in the Breeders' Cup Juvenile Fillies with Stardom Bound, with the 4-year-old Zenyatta in the Ladies' Classic. A year Smith returned to the Breeders' Cup with Zenyatta, this time to capture the Breeders' Cup Classic. Smith partnered Zenyatta to 16 straight victories of a 19-for-20 career that saw her become the first horse to win two different Breeders' Cup races, the richest female racehorse with the earnings of $7,304,580. After capturing the Breeders' Cup Ladies Classic on Royal Delta in 2011, Smith became the all-time leader for most Breeders' Cup wins, with 17.
By 2016, his record rose to 25 Breeders' Cup wins. Smith was inducted into the National Museum of Racing and Hall of Fame in 2003. Smith is one of the jockeys featured in Jockeys. Mike Smith earned the 5,000th victory of his Hall of Fame career when he teamed with 2011 sprint champion Amazombie to capture the $150,000 Potrero Grande Stakes at Santa Anita Park on April 7, 2012; as he became older, Smith chose to ride fewer but more lucrative races, his success in doing so his ability to stay calm in the most high-pressure races, earned him the nickname "Big Money Mike". In 2017, Smith became the 14th winner of the Laffit Pincay Jr. Award given by the Hall of Fame jockey it is named for. Recipients are given the award for having served the sport of horse racing "with integrity, extraordinary dedication and distinction." "When we started this award back in 2004, Mike Smith was the sort of person we had in mind as one of our winners," Pincay said. "I only got to
United States national rugby union team
The United States national rugby union team, nicknamed the Eagles, is controlled by USA Rugby. USA Rugby is a member of Rugby Americas North, one of six regional governing bodies under World Rugby; until sevens made its debut at the 2016 Rio Games, the United States was the reigning Olympic champion in rugby, having won gold at the 1920 and 1924 Summer Olympics. As of November 26, 2018, the Eagles are ranked 12th in the world by the World Rugby Rankings, their previous highest ranking, achieved ahead of the 2007 World Cup, was 14th. The highest profile tournament in which the Eagles play is the Rugby World Cup; the Eagles have played in all but one Rugby World Cup since the tournament began in 1987. The United States has expressed interest in hosting the 2027 Rugby World Cup; the United States competed in the Pacific Nations Cup every Summer from 2013 to 2015. The U. S. has competed in the Pan American Championship. In April 2015, USA Rugby announced the creation of a new, annual International Championship to be contested among the top-6 ranked rugby nations in the Americas: Argentina, Canada, Chile and the United States.
The contest was named the Americas Rugby Championship and began in 2016. The United States won the 2017 Americas Rugby Championship after drawing with Argentina XV, it was the United States' first 15-a-side rugby union title in over 90 years. Informal football games such as rugby became popular in the United States in the mid-19th century. Rugby union was played as early as 1872 among rugby clubs in the San Francisco Bay Area composed of British expatriates. On December 2, 1882, the first Californian representative rugby team to play an outside opponent, took on a group of rugby-playing ex-Britons, who called themselves the Phoenix Rugby Club of San Francisco. California lost to the Phoenix club 7–4; the first recorded rugby game in the U. S. place in May 1874. The game sparked an interest on college campuses nationwide. In 1876 Yale, Harvard and Columbia formed the Intercollegiate Football Association, which used the rugby code. In 1886 Harvard's Oscar Shafter Howard introduced these rules to the campus of the University of California, Berkeley.
American football was fierce, as injuries mounted, the public became alarmed at its brutalities and President Theodore Roosevelt threatened to outlaw the sport. Beginning in 1906, rugby union became the game of choice at Stanford University, University of California and several other colleges in California. Rugby's popularity, was short lived, the sport had died out by the outbreak of World War I. A California student team toured Australia and New Zealand in 1910, invited their hosts to return the visit. Australia obliged by touring North America in 1912, the U. S. national team played its first international match on November 16, 1912 against Australia in Berkeley, California. The visitors won 12–8. A year the U. S. hosted New Zealand at the same venue on November 15, 1913, but the Kiwis ran away with the contest 51–3. Rugby union had not been played competitively in most of the U. S. for more than a decade before the 1920 Olympics. The U. S. Olympic committee decided that because "California is the only state playing Rugby in the US, the Committee will give sanction but no financial aid".
The U. S. assembled a California-based team, with six players from the University of California, Berkeley. The Olympic Games Committee of the Amateur Athletic Union paid the expenses to transport the team from California to the games in Antwerp. By the time the US Rugby team arrived in Europe and Romania had withdrawn from the competition. France and the U. S. were the only teams left to compete. The U. S. won a shock 8–0 victory over France to earn the gold medal. The stunned French suggested that the U. S. team tour France, which they did. Between 1920 and 1924, rugby union disappeared once again in the U. S. as American football soared in popularity. The 1924 Paris Olympics caused France to challenge the U. S. to defend its title. Once again, the U. S. Olympic Committee granted permission but no funds. Nonetheless, seven players of the 1920 team dusted off their boots, raised $20,000, found 15 new players including some American football players who had never played in a rugby union match; the assembled U.
S. team was again based from Northern California, with 9 Stanford alumni, 5 from Santa Clara, 3 from Cal. The team headed for England to play some tuneup matches; the French Olympic Committee had scheduled the rugby event to kick off the 1924 Paris Games at Colombes Stadium in Paris. Romania and the U. S. were expected to provide only token opposition for the European champions. On Sunday, May 11, the U. S. pounded Romania 39 to 0, including nine tries. The final was played at Colombes Stadium on May 18 before an estimated crowd of 30,000 - 50,000 that had gathered to watch the rugby final and the awarding of the first medal of the 1924 Olympics. Bookmakers set the odds at five to one with a 20-point spread. However, the Americans were not intimidated, the American captain Babe Slater wrote in his diary before the match "we are sure going to let them know they have been in a battle." Despite the odds, the U. S. team started well, led by captain Colby "Babe" Slater, led 3-0 at the half. Heavy tackling by the Americans, derived from American football and exhausted the French, as the U.
S. scored four tries in the second half to defeat the French 17-3. Rare vintage film footage of the 1924 gold medal match was rel
William Lee "Bill" Shoemaker was an American jockey. For 29 years he held the world record for total professional jockey victories. Referred to as "Bill", "Willie," and "The Shoe", William Lee Shoemaker was born in the town of Fabens, Texas. At 38 ounces, Shoemaker was so small at birth. Put in a shoebox in the oven to stay warm, he survived, but remained small, growing to 4 feet 10 inches and weighing 91 pounds, his diminutive size proved an asset as he went on to become a giant in thoroughbred horse racing, despite dropping out of El Monte High School in El Monte, California. Shoemaker's career as a jockey began in his teenage years, with his first professional ride on March 19, 1949; the first of his eventual 8,833 career victories came a month on April 20, aboard Shafter V, at Golden Gate Fields in Albany, California. In 1951, he won the George Woolf Memorial Jockey Award. At the age of 19, he was making so much money the Los Angeles Superior Court appointed attorney Horace Hahn as his guardian, with the consent of his parents.
Thirty years he won the Eclipse Award for Outstanding Jockey in the United States. Shoemaker won eleven Triple Crown races during his career, spanning four different decades, but the Crown itself eluded him; the breakdown of these wins is as follows: Kentucky Derby: Swaps, Tomy Lee, Lucky Debonair and Ferdinand Preakness Stakes: Candy Spots and Damascus Belmont Stakes: Gallant Man, Sword Dancer, Jaipur and Avatar Two of Shoemaker's most noted rides were in the Kentucky Derby. He lost the 1957 Kentucky Derby aboard Gallant Man, when he stood up in the stirrups too soon, having misjudged the finish line, where Gallant Man finished second to Iron Liege, ridden by Bill Hartack. At the 1986 Kentucky Derby, Shoemaker became the oldest jockey to win the race aboard the 18-1 outsider Ferdinand; the following year, he rode Ferdinand to a victory over Alysheba in the Breeders' Cup Classic. Shoemaker rode the popular California horse Silky Sullivan, about which he is quoted as saying: "You just had to let him run his race... and if he decided to win it, you'd better hold on because you'd be moving faster than a train."When Shoemaker earned his 6,033rd victory in September 1970, he broke jockey Johnny Longden's record.
In 1999, Shoemaker's own record of 8,833 career victories was broken by Panamanian-born Laffit Pincay Jr. Win number 8,833, Shoemaker's last, came at Gulfstream Park in Hallandale, Florida, on January 20, 1990 aboard Beau Genius. Two weeks on February 3, Shoemaker rode his last race on Patchy Groundfog, at Santa Anita Park in Arcadia, California, he finished fourth, to Eddie Delahoussaye, on Exemplary Leader. All told, Bill Shoemaker rode in a record 40,350 races. In 1990, he was voted the Mike Venezia Memorial Award for "extraordinary sportsmanship and citizenship"; the Marlboro Cup of 1976 at Belmont Park proved to be maybe his greatest racing achievement, it was upon the mighty Forego. Forego's drive started from eighth position out of eleven horses on the backstretch, it culminated with a tremendous charge through the muddy middle-of-the-track stretch run, leading to a victory by a nose over the dead-game Honest Pleasure. Shoemaker was quoted as saying that Forego was the best horse he had ridden.
Soon after retiring as a jockey in 1990, Shoemaker returned to the track as a trainer, where he had modest success, training for such clients as Gulfstream magnate Allen Paulson and composer Burt Bacharach. He continued to train racehorses until his retirement on November 2, 1997, his final stats as a trainer were 90 wins from 714 earnings of $3.7 million. Shoemaker was involved in a solo drunk-driving car accident on April 8, 1991, in San Dimas, when he rolled over the Bronco II he was driving; the accident left him paralyzed from the neck down, he thereafter used a wheelchair. Shoemaker sued Ford, Ford settled with Shoemaker for US$1,000,000. Shoemaker authored three murder mysteries, they were compared to the large stable of best-selling horse mysteries by fellow jockey/author Dick Francis. Shoemaker's Stalking Horse, Fire Horse, Dark Horse all featured jockey-turned-sleuth Coley Killebrew using his racetrack experience in and about his restaurant and the horse world. Shoemaker was inducted into the National Museum of Racing and Hall of Fame in 1958.
He was immortalized as part of a series of portraits by Andy Warhol in the mid-1970s. His youngest living relative is his niece Lucy Shoemaker. Shoemaker and Nagler, Barney. Shoemaker Doubleday ISBN 0-385-23945-9 Shoemaker made racing history by Ron Flatter ESPN Story Del Mar Media Guide Bill Shoemaker at Find a Grave