Ecma is a standards organization for information and communication systems. It acquired its current name in 1994, when the European Computer Manufacturers Association changed its name to reflect the organization's global reach and activities; as a consequence, the name is no longer considered an acronym and no longer uses full capitalization. The organization was founded in 1961 to standardize computer systems in Europe. Membership is open to large and small companies worldwide that produce, market or develop computer or communication systems, have interest and experience in the areas addressed by the group's technical bodies, it is located in Geneva. Ecma aims to develop standards and technical reports to facilitate and standardize the use of information communication technology and consumer electronics. Ecma publications, including standards, can be copied by all interested parties without copyright restrictions; the development of standards and technical reports is done in co-operation with the appropriate national and international organisations.
Unlike national standardization bodies, Ecma is a membership-based organization. It takes pride in the resulting "business-like" approach to standards, claimed to lead to better standards in less time, thanks to a less bureaucratic process focused on achieving results by consensus. Ecma has contributed to worldwide standardization in information technology and telecommunications. More than 400 Ecma Standards and 100 Technical Reports have been published, more than 2/3 of which have been adopted as international standards and/or technical reports; the memberlist of Ecma International is available on its website. Its members include IT companies, IT trade associations, universities and public institutions. Ecma International is responsible for several standards, including: ECMA-6 – 7-bit Coded Character Set approved as ISO/IEC 646 ECMA-35 – Character Code Structure and Extension Techniques approved as ISO/IEC 2022 ECMA-48 – Control Functions for Coded Character Sets approved as ISO/IEC 6429 ECMA-107 – FAT12/FAT16 file system ECMA-119 – CD-ROM volume and filestructure ECMA-130 – CD-ROM "Yellow Book" format ECMA-262 – ECMAScript Language Specification ECMA-334 – C# Language Specification ECMA-335 – Common Language Infrastructure ECMA-341 – Environmental design considerations for electronic products ECMA-363 – Universal 3D File Format ECMA-367 – Eiffel: Analysis and programming Language ECMA-372 – C++/CLI Language Specification ECMA-376 – Office Open XML ECMA-377 – Holographic Versatile Disc Recordable Cartridges ECMA-378 – Read-Only Memory Holographic Versatile Disc ECMA-388 – Open XML Paper Specification ECMA-402 – ECMAScript Internationalization API Specification ECMA-404 – JSON ECMA-408 – Dart language specification ECMA-412 – Access Systems Although Sun Microsystems submitted its Java programming language to Ecma, Sun subsequently withdrew the submission.
Thus, Ecma is not responsible for the standardization of Java. Ecma is involved in the standardization of the Office Open XML format based on the XML office document formats by Microsoft; the Ecma Office Open XML maintenance process is performed by technical committee 45. In Ecma International Standard 370, Ecma joined with the Scandinavian IT Eco Declaration organisation to put forward a guideline for informing consumers about the environmental practices of the manufacturers of ICT and consumer electronics products; the IT Eco Declaration includes information on the environmental practices of the manufacturer as well as product features, such as environmentally conscious design, acoustic noise, electrical safety, energy consumption, chemical emissions and materials included, packaging. This makes it easy to compare different suppliers and their products, as they all present the environmental features of their products in the same way, through a common industry standard reporting form. List of Ecma standards European Committee for Standardization International Electrotechnical Commission International Organization for Standardization Official website Index of Ecma Standards C# Language Specification
Madame Aema 11 is a 1995 South Korean film directed by Joe Moung-hwa. It was the eleventh and final entry in the Madame Aema series, the longest-running film series in Korean cinema. In this episode in the Madame Aema series, Aema is married to a respected scholar, preoccupied with his research and unable to satisfy her sex drive. Aema's husband becomes the target of a Japanese businessman with ties to the yakuza. Seeking to take his research, the Japanese businessman blackmail Aema's husband by taping him in a compromising position with a young woman he has sent to seduce him. Meanwhile, Aema is indulging in an affairs of her own. Lee Da-yeon: Madame Aema Lee Joo-cheol Joen Hae-yoeng Han Eun-jeong Cha Ryong Yu Ga-hui Kook Jong-hwan Na Dong-geun Choe Myeong-ho Jo Seok-hyeon "AEMA BUIN 11".. Retrieved 2009-06-29. Aema buin 11 on IMDb "Madame Emma 11 ". KMDb Korean Movie Database]. Retrieved 2009-06-29. 애마부인 11.. Retrieved 2009-06-29. 애마부인 11.. Retrieved 2009-06-29. "불능의 시대 밤의 여왕 <애마부인> 20년, 그 환각과 도피의 초상"..
2002-02-08. Retrieved 2009-06-24. "<애마부인> 감독 정인엽 인터뷰". Www.cine21.com]. 2002-02-08. Retrieved 2009-06-24
Hans-Jürgen Treder was a German theoretical physicist and in the GDR, specializing in general relativity and cosmology. He had an interest in the history of science and philosophy. Treder took an early interest in physics; as a student in 1944, he sought contact with Werner Heisenberg in Berlin to meet and communicate with him. After the second world war he studied at the Humboldt University of Berlin in physics and philosophy. In 1956 he was awarded his doctorate from the Humboldt University of Berlin. In 1957, he became a research assistant at the Research Institute of Mathematics of the German Academy of Sciences at Berlin. After earning a Habilitation in 1962, in 1963 he became professor of theoretical physics at Humboldt University of Berlin and director of the Academy Institute of Pure Mathematics. With work on gravitational radiation at that time he earned international recognition. In 1965, he was instrumental in organizing the conference for the 50th anniversary of the publication of Einstein's field equations.
In 1966 he became a full member of the German Academy of Sciences and was Director of the Berlin-Babelsberg Observatory of the Academy of Sciences. Following reorganization in 1969, he headed the newly established Central Institute for Astrophysics, in which the independent observatories in Potsdam, the Babelsberg Observatory, the Sonneberg Observatory and the Karl Schwarzschild Observatory, Tautenburg were summarized; until 1973, he led the research field of cosmic physics at the Academy of Sciences, in astrophysics and geophysics. He gave to health reasons and focused on the management of the ZIAP, he not only made it a center of theoretical gravitational physics, but included magnetohydrodynamics - which played an important role in astrophysics on a par with the gravitational theory in the model training - and geophysics, formative in Potsdam later. On Einstein's 100th Birthday, 1979, he managed to secure a summer house by Einstein in Caputh, Brandenburg as a guest of the Academy in consultation with the administrators of the estate of Otto Nathan and Einstein.
In 1982 he handed over the ZIAP to Karl-Heinz Schmidt. Treder was director and founder of the Laboratory of Einstein Academy in Potsdam Caputh he remained until 1992, he has published in the last years of his life with his friend, the geophysicist Wilfried Schröder, many works in the Earth and space physics, including solar variability. In addition, the edition of the book Einstein and geophysics, as well as some volumes of the works of Hans Ertel. Focus of their work was the physical consequences for the solar activity. Treder was chairman of the International Society "History of Geophysics and Cosmical Physics". Treder enjoyed high reputation in the GDR and the full confidence of the political leadership, he enjoyed privileges such as full freedom to travel and own chauffeur driven car. Calls from the West declined from Treder, he was not only an avowed Marxist, but felt the history of science in Berlin connected, about which he wrote some books, he lived on the grounds of the Babelsberg Observatory, but was maverick and was after the turn not retain its leading role in the scientific organization, from which he had but retired early as the 1980s, when he turned to the History of Science and the philosophy of science turned.
Treder was a member of the Leibniz-Sozietät. He unfolded a high scientific productivity and published nearly 500 individual contributions and more than 20 monographs. Gravitational shock waves. Non-analytic wave solutions of Einstein's field equations, Akademie-Verlag, Berlin 1962 H. J. Treder, H. H. V. Borzeszkowski, A. V. D. Merwe, Wolfgang Your Gray. Fundamental principles of general relativity theories: local and global aspects of gravitation and cosmology. Plenum Press, New York. CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list H. J. Treder; the relativity of inertia. Berlin. H. J. Treder. Theory of gravitation and the principle of equivalence. Berlin: Akademie-Verlag. H. J. Treder, E. roundabout, D. E. Liebscher. For Quantengeometrodynamik - Collected Works. Series of the Institute of Mathematics of the Academy of Sciences. Berlin: Akademie-Verlag. CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list H. J. Treder; the meaning of quantum gravity. Dordrecht, Reidel. H. J. Treder. Greater Cosmic systems - the telescopic aspects of gravitation and inertia-free Gravidynamik.
Publications of the Research Field Earth and Space Sciences. Akademie Verlag. H. J. Treder, M. Steenbeck. Possibilities of experimental gravity research. Berlin: Akademie-Verlag; some popular writings of Treder: H. J. Treder. Great physicists and their problems - Studies in the History of Physics. Akademie Verlag. H. J. Treder. Relativity and the Cosmos. Space and Time in physics and cosmology. Vieweg, Wiesbaden. H. J. Treder. Over principles of the dynamics of Einstein, Hertz and Poincare. WTB, Akademie Verlag. Berlin. H. J. Treder. Philosophical problems of physical space: gravity, geometry and relativity. Akademie Verlag. H. J. Treder. Relativity and the Cosmos - Space and Time in physics and cosmology. WTB, Akademie Verlag. W. Schröder. Einstein and Geophysics. Bremen, Science Edition. H. J. Treder. Fundamental questions of physics - past, present a
Ronald Bartell is a former American football cornerback. He was drafted by the St. Louis Rams in the second round of the 2005 NFL Draft, he played college football at Howard. Bartell played safety and receiver for Renaissance High School in Detroit, from 1996-1999, he ran track and played basketball. He caught 23 passes for 385 yards with four touchdowns on offense and had 45 tackles and four interceptions on defense as a senior when he was named All-City, All-Metro and City Defensive Back of the Year. Bartell began his college football career at Central Michigan University but left the school in 2002 "distraught with the direction the program was going" and stated he went through five position coaches in 2½ years at the school and he felt he wasn't getting any better, he transferred to Howard University where he started in 38 out of 45 games and was an administration of criminal justice major. Bartell was a Second-team All-Mid-Eastern Athletic Conference as a senior. Bartell was selected by the St. Louis Rams in the second round in the 2005 NFL Draft.
On July 29, 2005, Bartell agreed to a 4-year $3.04 million contract with the Rams. In his rookie season he recorded 34 tackles. In the 2006 season he made three interceptions, his first career interception came at the Oakland Raiders on December 17, 2006. The 2007 season was a career best in terms of tackles made as he ended the campaign with 67, along with one sack and two interceptions. In 2007 Bartell started the first four games in place of right cornerback Fakhir Brown, on the NFL suspended list. Bartell ended the season starting six games for the injured left cornerback Tye Hill and in between he started two games as the Rams nickleback when the team opened in a five defensive back alignment. In 2008 Bartell again began the season starting at right corner back for Fakhir Brown, who had a broken collar bone and was released and re-signed. After Brown returned, starting left cornerback Tye Hill was again hurt and placed on injured reserve. Bartell started the final 11 games as the left corner.
For the season he played in 16 games, starting 14 and made 56 tackles, one sack, three interceptions, 20 passes defensed, two forced fumbles and one fumble recovered. Bartell became a free agent following the 2008 season, but was re-signed by the Rams to a four-year, $28 million contract, including $13.6 million in guarantees on March 2, 2009. Bartell fractured his neck during the Rams' 2011 season opener vs the Philadelphia Eagles and missed the rest of the season on injured reserve, he was released by the Rams on March 12, 2012. Bartell signed with the Oakland Raiders on March 16, 2012, he was released on December 10, 2012. Bartell signed with the Detroit Lions on December 17, 2012, he was released by the Lions on August 31, 2013. Bartell is now the owner of the restaurant "Kuzzo's Waffles," in Detroit, he opened the restaurant in 2013. Oakland Raiders bio Ron Bartell profile on ESPN.com
Brulotte v. Thys Co. 379 U. S. 29, was a 1964 decision of the United States Supreme Court holding that a contract calling for payment of patent royalties after the expiration of the licensed patent was misuse of the patent right and unenforceable under the Supremacy Clause, state contract law notwithstanding. The decision was subjected to academic criticism but the Supreme Court has rejected that criticism and reaffirmed the Brulotte decision in Kimble v. Marvel Entertainment, LLC. Thys owned patents on hop-picking machinery, he sold a machine to Brulotte, a farmer in Washington, for $3000 and granted him a license to use the machine for a minimum royalty of $500 for each hop-picking season or $3.33 per 200 pounds of hops harvested by the machine, whichever was greater. The license had no termination date. Of the seven patents covering the machine, the last expired by 1957. Brulotte failed to pay the royalties and Thys sued him for breach of contract in Washington State court; the trial court rendered judgment for Thys and the Supreme Court of Washington affirmed.
The Supreme Court of Washington held that in the present case the period during which royalties were required though beyond the expiry of the patents, was only "a reasonable amount of time over which to spread the payments for the use of the patent." The Supreme Court reversed in an opinion written for the Court by Justice William O. Douglas. Justice John Marshall Harlan II dissented. Justice Douglas began the majority opinion by citing precedents holding that patent "rights become public property once the 17-year period expires." He quoted Chief Justice Stone, speaking for the Court in Scott Paper Co. v. Marcalus Co.:... any attempted reservation or continuation in the patentee or those claiming under him of the patent monopoly, after the patent expires, whatever the legal device employed, runs counter to the policy and purpose of the patent laws. The Court rejected the claim that the contract spread the payment for using the patent over a longer period; the payments were proportioned to the extent of use after the patents expired: "The royalty payments due for the post-expiration period are by their terms for use during that period, are not deferred payments for use during the pre-expiration period."
Thys "was using the licenses to project its monopoly beyond the patent period." Because the license made no distinction between the pre- and post-expiration period, the contracts were "on their face a bald attempt to exact the same terms and conditions for the period after the patents have expired as they do for the monopoly period," contrary to patent policy. That made them unenforceable; the Court therefore ruled: n light of those considerations, we conclude that a patentee's use of a royalty agreement that projects beyond the expiration date of the patent is unlawful per se. If that device were available to patentees, the free market visualized for the post-expiration period would be subject to monopoly influences that have no proper place there.... A patent empowers the owner to exact royalties as high as he can negotiate with the leverage of that monopoly, but to use that leverage to project those royalty payments beyond the life of the patent is analogous to an effort to enlarge the monopoly of the patent by tieing the sale or use of the patented article to the purchase or use of unpatented ones.
The exaction of royalties for use of a machine after the patent has expired is an assertion of monopoly power in the post-expiration period when, as we have seen, the patent has entered the public domain.... Fter expiration of the last of the patents incorporated in the machines "the grant of patent monopoly was spent" and... an attempt to project it into another term by continuation of the licensing agreement is unenforceable. Justice Harlan disagreed: " I think that more discriminating analysis than the Court has seen fit to give this case produces a different result." In his analysis, what Thys did was no more objectionable than restrictions on the machine rather than the patented idea that it embodied. "In fact Thys sells the use of an idea. The company should be free to restrict the use of its machine." Despite criticism of Brulotte, the Supreme Court reaffirmed the decision in Kimble v. Marvel in 2015; the decision was criticized by academics and economic theorists. In a subsequent opinion, 50 years nonetheless affirming Brulotte, the Supreme Court listed some of the criticism suggesting that the case should be overruled: Scheiber v. Dolby Labs. Inc. 293 F. 3d 1014, 1017–1018 Ayres & Klemperer, Limiting Patentees’ Market Power Without Reducing Innovation Incentives: The Perverse Benefits of Uncertainty and Non-Injunctive Remedies, 97 Mich. L. Rev. 985, 1027.
Other criticism of Brulotte includes the following: Harold See and Frank M. Caprio, The Trouble with Brulotte: The Patent Royalty Term and Patent Monopoly Extension, 1990 Utah L. Rev. 813. Note, Patents: Supreme Court Holds Post-Expiration Royalty Agreements Unlawful Per Se, 1965 Duke L. J. 836, 841. Paul Goldstein, Federal System Ordering of the Copyright Interest, 69 Colum. L. Rev. 49, 70 (" In the presence of only the most attenuated federal interest, absent any generalized public concern, the Brulotte rule gives t
A fictional brand is a non-existing brand used in artistic or entertainment productions, such as paintings, comics, movies, TV serials, music. The fictional brand may be designed to imitate, satirize or differentiate itself from a real corporate brand; such a device may be required where real corporations are unwilling to license their brand names for use in the fictional work where the work holds the product in a negative light. More fictional brands have been used for commercial purposes through the process of reverse product placement. Consumer attachment to those brands in the fictional world may be leveraged through “defictionalisation” or “productisation” in the real world, it has been suggested. Examples include Harry Potter’s Bertie Botts’ Every Flavour Beans, now available as real candy manufactured by the Jelly Belly Company. Works of fiction mention or show specific brands to give more realism to the plot or scenery. Specific brands provide descriptive details that the author can use to craft a plot: a character may own a factory that manufactures a popular product, or may make a scene by demanding a particular brand.
Real brands are used. Sometimes a specific brand is needed due to its prior associations. Sometimes the author will use a common brand only to make the scene more natural or create a specific ambience. More such uses are instances of product placement – the insertion of "casual" positive references to brands in movies, television programming and books. However, this practice is so widespread in the entertainment industry that it gives authors another reason to avoid the use of real brands: any such reference would be suspected by the public of being paid advertising, could diminish the artistic or intellectual merit of the work. Another advantage to a fictional brand is. In this sense, an author can invent a brand of car, for which he can make up details; that way, he doesn't have to go look up specifications on a car, which would take time and effort- he could just make them up. Sometimes on television or movies, a real brand would not be permitted due to restrictions in advertising particular products cigarettes and alcohol.
A fictional brand would be created that bears some resemblance to a real brand. Television programs made in Canada for the Canadian market are not permitted to show or mention real brand names except in certain specific circumstances; the CRTC's prohibition of product placement exists to prevent producers from accepting payola if accepting it affects creative control or leads producers to attempt to deceive the audience. In some instances brand names are inked, taped, or edited out; the restriction does not apply to news or current affairs programs when mention of the brand is necessary to and present the subject matter, it does not apply to televised sporting events, where branding may be beyond the station's control. Programs produced, yet another reason to use a fictional brand is that sometimes a product is itself a major "character" in the plot, using a real brand would limit creativity as the author would be constrained by the actual attributes of that brand. A subset of this is comedic brands, the most famous being "Acme" for the maker of complicated gadgets that never quite work.
The use of a real brand may be excluded when the plot is meant to develop in a time or place where the real brand would not have existed anyway. Alternately, made-up brands are more humorous than real brands, why a lot of cartoons and sitcoms prefer them. List of fictional beverages List of fictional vehicles Brand Trademark Product placement Brand management Saturday Night Live commercial – featuring fictional brands, many listed with this entry Not a Real Thing: Sorting the Minutiae of Imaginary Worlds Searching for a Big Kahuna Burger Topher's List of Fictional Cereals