Rio de Janeiro (state)
Rio de Janeiro is one of the 27 federative units of Brazil. It has the second largest economy of Brazil, with the largest being that of the state of São Paulo; the state of Rio de Janeiro is located within the Brazilian geopolitical region classified as the Southeast. Rio de Janeiro shares borders with all the other states in the same Southeast macroregion: Minas Gerais, Espírito Santo and São Paulo, it is bounded on the south by the South Atlantic Ocean. Rio de Janeiro has an area of 43,653 km2, its capital is the city of Rio de Janeiro, the capital of the Portuguese Colony of Brazil from 1763 to 1815, of the following United Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves from 1815 to 1822, of independent Brazil as a kingdom and republic from 1822 to 1960. The archaic demonym meaning for the Rio de Janeiro State is "fluminense", taken from the Latin word flumen, meaning "river". Despite the fact "carioca" is a most ancient demonym of Rio de Janeiro's inhabitants, it was replaced by "fluminense" in 1783, when it was sanctioned as the official demonym of the Royal Captaincy of Rio de Janeiro, a few years after the City of São Sebastião do Rio de Janeiro has become the capital city of the Brazilian colonies.
From 1783 and during the Imperial Regime, "carioca" remained only as a nickname by which other Brazilians called the inhabitants of Rio. During the first years of the Brazilian Republic, "carioca" was the name given to those who lived in the slums or a pejorative way to refer the bureaucratic elite of the Federal District. Only when the City of Rio lost its status as Federal District and became a Brazilian State when the capital was moved to Brasília earlier in 1960, "carioca" was made a co-official demonym with "guanabarino". In 1975, the Guanabara State was ended and extinct by President Ernesto Geisel becoming the present City of Rio de Janeiro and "carioca" was made the demonym of its municipality. Although "carioca" is not recognized as an official demonym of Rio de Janeiro State, Brazilians call the inhabitants of Rio de Janeiro in general as "cariocas", most of its inhabitants claim to be "cariocas". Nowadays, social movements like "Somos Todos Cariocas" have tried to achieve the official recognition of "carioca" as a co-official demonym of the Rio de Janeiro State.
The state's 22 largest cities are Rio de Janeiro, São Gonçalo, Duque de Caxias, Nova Iguaçu, Niterói, Campos dos Goytacazes, Belford Roxo, São João de Meriti, Petrópolis, Volta Redonda, Magé, Macaé, Itaboraí, Cabo Frio, Armação dos Búzios, Angra dos Reis, Nova Friburgo, Barra Mansa, Barra do Piraí, Teresópolis and Nilópolis. Rio de Janeiro is one of the smallest in Brazil, it is, the third most populous Brazilian state, with a population of 16 million of people in 2011 and has the third longest coastline in the country. In the Brazilian flag, the state is represented by the beta star in the Southern Cross. European presence in Rio de Janeiro is as old as Brazil itself, dating back to 1502. Rio de Janeiro originated from parts of the captainships of São Vicente. Between 1555 and 1567, the territory was occupied by the French, who intended to install a colony, France Antarctique. Aiming to prevent the occupation of the Frenchmen, in March 1565, the city of Rio de Janeiro was established by Estácio de Sá.
In the 17th century, cattle raising and sugar cane cultivation stimulated the city's progress, definitively assured when the port started to export gold extracted from Minas Gerais in the 18th century. In 1763, Rio de Janeiro became the capital of Colonial Brazil. With the flight of the Portuguese royal family from Portugal to Brazil in 1808, the region soon benefited from urban reforms to house the Portuguese. Chief among the promoted changes were: the transformation of agencies of public administration and justice, the creation of new churches, hospitals, the foundation of the first bank of the country - the Banco do Brasil - and the Royal Press, with the Gazette do Rio of Janeiro; the following years witnessed the creation of the Academia Real Militar. There followed a process of cultural enhancement influenced not only by the arrival of the Royal Family, but by the presence of European graphic artists who were hired to record the society and Brazilian natural features. During this same time, the Escola Real de Ciências, Artes e Ofícios was founded as well.
In 1834, the city of Rio de Janeiro was transformed into a "neutral city", remaining as capital of the state, while the captainships became provinces, with headquarters in Niterói, a neighboring city. In 1889, the city became the capital of the Republic, the neutral city became the federal district and the province a state. In 1894, Petrópolis became the capital of Rio de Janeiro, until 1902 when Niterói recovered its capital status. With the relocation of the federal capital to Brasília in 1960, the city of Rio de Janeiro became Guanabara State. Niterói remained the state capital for Rio de Janeiro state, while Rio de Janeiro served the same status for Guanabara. In 1975, the states of Guanabara and Rio de Janeiro were merged under the name of Rio de Janeiro, with the city of Rio de Janeiro as state capital; the symbols of the former State of Rio de Janeiro were preserved, while the symbols of Guanabara were kept by the city of Rio de Janeir
Guaraqueçaba Ecological Station
Guaraqueçaba Ecological Station is an ecological station in the municipality of Guaraqueçaba, Paraná, Brazil. The Guaraqueçaba ecological station with an area of 4,476 hectares was established on 31 May 1982, it is in the coastal marine biome. It is administered by the Chico Mendes Institute for Biodiversity Conservation, it lies within the Guaraqueçaba municipality of the state of Paraná. The ecological reserve is contained in the Guaraqueçaba Environmental Protection Area, it is part of the Lagamar mosaic. The region is a flat area of unconsolidated sediment of marine origins; the highest point is 30 metres above sea level. The conservation unit is in the Benito creek at the confluence of the mouths of the Tagaçaba and Serra Negra rivers, the Itaqui creek at the confluence of the mouths of the Pacotuva and Boquaçu rivers, in the mouths of the Guaraqueçaba, Poruquara and Sabuí rivers. There are black water pools between these estuaries; the unit covers areas of mangroves to the west of the Baía dos Pinheiros, to the north of the Baía de Guaraqueçaba and to the west of the Enseada do Benito, as well as the islands of Laranjeiras, Pavoçá, Sambaqui and Galheta.
The station lies in the humid tropical zone with high rainfall from February to April. Average rainfall is 2,365 millimetres. Temperatures range from 17 to 26 °C with an average of 21 °C; the vegetation is transitional forests and mangroves. The Rhizophora mangle, Laguncularia racemosa and Avicennia schaueriana are the main trees of the mangrove, flower from March to October, they are arranging into defined zones, with the Rhizophora mangle closest to the river margin. In addition to fish and birds, there are many species of crustaceans and other invertebrates in the mangroves; the Ecological Station is a "strict nature reserve" under IUCN protected area category Ia. The station was created to preserve the mangrove and island ecosystem, protect endangered species, maintain gene banks and support scientific research; the Red-tailed amazon is a protected species in the station
Ceará is one of the 27 states of Brazil, located in the northeastern part of the country, on the Atlantic coast. It is the eighth-largest Brazilian State by the 17th by area, it is one of the main tourist destinations in Brazil. The state capital is the city of the country's fourth most populous city; the name Ceará means "sings the jandaia". According to José de Alencar, one of the most important writers of Brazil and an authority in Tupi Guaraní, Ceará means turquoise or green waters. There are theories that the state name would derive from Siriará, a reference to the crabs from the seashore; the state is best known with 600 kilometers of sand. There are mountains and valleys producing tropical fruits. To the south, on the border of Paraíba, Pernambuco and Piauí, is the National Forest of Araripe. Ceará has an area of 148,016 square kilometres, it is bounded on the north by the Atlantic Ocean, on the east by the states of Rio Grande do Norte and Paraíba, on the south by Pernambuco state, on the west by Piauí.
Ceará lies upon the northeast slope of the Brazilian Highlands, upon the sandy coastal plain. Its surface is a succession of great terraces, facing north and northeast, formed by the denudation of the ancient sandstone plateau which once covered this part of the continent; the latter are the remains of the ancient plateau, capped with horizontal strata of sandstone, with a uniform altitude of 2,000 to 2,400 feet. The flat top of such a range is called a chapada or taboleira, its width in places is from 32 to 56 miles; the boundary line with Piauí follows one of these ranges, the Serra de Ibiapaba, which unites with another range on the southern boundary of the state, known as the Serra do Araripe. Another range, or escarpment, crosses the state from east to west, but is broken into two principal divisions, each having several local names; these ranges are not continuous, the breaking down of the ancient plateau having been irregular and uneven. The rivers of the state are small and, with one or two exceptions, become dry in the dry season.
The largest is the Jaguaribe, which flows across the state in a northeast direction. Ceará has a varied environment, with mangroves, jungle and tropical forest; the higher ranges intercept considerable moisture from the prevailing trade winds, their flanks and valleys are covered with a tropical forest, typical of the region, gathering species from tropical forests and cerrado. The less elevated areas of the plateaus are either thinly open campo. Most of the region at the lower altitudes is characterized by scrubby forests called caatingas, an endemic Brazilian vegetation; the sandy, coastal plain, with a width of 12 to 18 miles, is nearly bare of vegetation, although the coast has many enclaves of restingas and mangroves. The soil is, in general and porous and does not retain moisture; some areas in the higher ranges of Serra da Ibiapaba, Serra do Araripe and others are more appropriate for agriculture, as their soil and vegetation are less affected by the dry seasons. The beaches of the state is a major tourist attraction.
Ceará has several famous beaches such as Canoa Quebrada, Morro Branco, Taíba and Flexeiras. The beaches are divided into two groups: Sunrise Coast. Ceará lies in one of the few regions of the country. In 1980 an earthquake measuring 5.8 on the Richter scale struck near Quixeramobim in the center of the state, rattling the city of Fortaleza but causing no injuries. The climate of Ceará is hot all year; the temperature in the state varies from 22 to 36 °C. The coast is humid, tempered by the cool trade winds. In the higher ranges the temperatures are cooler and vary from about 14 to 18 °C; the record minimum temperature registered in Ceará was 8 °C, recorded in Jardim, a small city in Chapada do Araripe. The year is divided into a rainy and dry season, the rains beginning in January to March and lasting until June; the dry season, July to December, is sometimes broken by slight showers in September and October, but these are of slight importance. Sometimes the rains fail altogether, a drought ensues, causing famine and pestilence throughout the entire region.
The most destructive droughts recorded in the 18th and 19th centuries were those of 1711, 1723, 1777–1778, 1790, 1825, 1844–1845, 1877 to 1878, the last-mentioned destroying nearly all the livestock in the state, causing the death through starvation and pestilence of nearly half a million people, or over half the population. Because of the constant risk of droughts, many dams have been built throughout Ceará, the largest of them the Açude Castanhão; because of the dams, the Jaguaribe River no longer dries up completely. The t
Castanhão Ecological Station
The Castanhão Ecological Station is an ecological station in the state of Ceará, Brazil. It protects an area of caatinga vegetation adapted to arid conditions to the south of the Castanhão Dam; the Castanhão Ecological Station is divided between the municipalities of Alto Santo and Jaguaribara in the state of Ceará. It has an area of 12,579 hectares; the ESEC is about 270 kilometres from Fortaleza. It is in the Sertaneja Depression of the Sertanejos Residual Plateaus. Terrain is smooth or undulating; the ESEC is in the Jaguaribe River basin. The Castanhão Dam is one of the most important projects of DNOCS and the largest dam in Brazil on an intermittent river, it was controversial, forcing relocation of thousands of people and relocation of the municipal seat of Jaguaribara. The Castanhão Ecological Station was created in compensation for the environmental impact of the dam; the ESEC was created by federal decree on 27 September 2001. It is administered by the Chico Mendes Institute for Biodiversity Conservation.
The ESEC is classed as IUCN protected area category Ia. Objectives are to protect and preserve samples of the caatinga ecosystem, to enable development of scientific research and environmental education programs. In 2006 it was announced that the ESEC would be doubled in area to 23,000 hectares, encompassing the Serra da Micaela; this was. IBAMA would install an office in Nova Jaguaribara for research into the caatinga, the flora and fauna of the area; as of 2017 the ICMBio website still showed the area as 12,574.44 hectares. The ESEC has a tropical southern austral semi-arid climate. Annual rainfall ranges from 750 to 1,000 millimetres. Average temperature is 27 °C.36% of the area is used for agriculture and 15.7% is devoid of vegetation. 18.2% contains original vegetation. Native vegetation is woody, grassy savanna in the caatinga biome, with scattered shrub sized hyperxerophilic plants; the main species are Mimosa acustipula and Crotoneae species, pioneer plants following strong human disruption of the environment
Caetetus Ecological Station
The Caetetus Ecological Station is a state-level ecological station in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. It protects one of the last remnants of the semi-deciduous forest that once covered the west of the state, is home to a population of the endangered black lion tamarin; the Caetetus Ecological Station is divided between the municipalities of Alvinlândia and Gália in the state of São Paulo. It has an area of 2,176.10 hectares. The ESEC is in the sandstone Marília Plateau region of the Western Plateau of São Paulo, formed by rocks of the Bauru group; the land in this region slopes to the west, with an undulating relief. The ESEC has altitudes from 520 to 680 metres with gentle slopes of less than 6%; the ESEC is on the northern boundary of the Paranapanema basin. It lies south of the Peixe River basin, contains the sources of streams that feed the Paranapanema. In the higher regions the streams form waterfalls. An escarpment cut by newly-formed valleys separates the upper plateau regions from the lower area where the Meio and Lagoa streams converge.
The Meio stream is a tributary of the São João River, which in turn is a tributary of the Turvo River, which feeds the Paranapanema. The Gália State Reserve was created from part of the Fazenda Paraíso as a forest reserve on 9 August 1976 by decree 8.346 by Governor Paulo Egidio Martins, who declared the land to be of public utility, to be expropriated by the state treasury and to be used for research and preservation of natural reserves. Governor André Franco Montoro transformed it into the Caetetus Ecological Station by decree 26.718 of 6 February 1987. By law 9.264 of 19 December 1995 the name was changed to "Olavo Amaral Ferraz Ecological Station". The Köppen climate classification is Cwa, mesothermic with dry winter, rains from October to March and periods of drought from April to September. Average annual rainfall is 1,431 millimetres. Average annual temperature is 21.5 °C. Average temperatures range from 16.5 °C in June to 24.7 °C in February. Minimum and maximum temperatures are 30 °C respectively.
The ESEC contains a significant remnant of broad leaved forest. Seasonal semi-deciduous forest once covered the western plateau of São Paulo. There are no other significant remnants of natural forest within a radius of 200 kilometres, so the ESEC is of great importance in understanding the original regional ecosystem. Common plants species include chupa-ferro, guaraiúva, catiguá and peroba-rosa, with heights varying from 8 to 32 metres; the forests include the most valuable timber species exploited in the early 20th century, including the cedar, cabreúva, ipês, jequitibá, guarantã and amendoim, as well as many other less well known species. The ESEC is home to the black lion tamarin, one of the world's most endangered primates. After six years with no record of their presence, two adult black lion tamarins were discovered at the ESEC in August 2016 near the administrative headquarters. Other medium and large mammals threatened with extinction or vulnerable in the region include the cougar and oncilla.
Vulnerable large animals threatened in the ESEC, include the collared peccary, white-lipped peccary and South American tapir. 12 brown howler individuals were released in the ESEC in 1986, but this is too small a population to be viable. A census of birds from October 2005 to December 2006 recorded 226. Another 68 species have been reported by other authors, making a total of 293 in the ESEC. Many were endemic to the Atlantic Forest of cerrado, some were endangered in the state of São Paulo; the blue-winged macaw is considered vulnerable. The ESEC provides interpretation of nature and environmental education through the Paraiso Trail and the Cipó Trail, both of which have interpretive signs about the regional vegetation. Students and organized groups make scheduled visits daily, with the aim of promoting environmental awareness; the ESEC is supported by IPE and by the FNMA
Rondônia is a state in Brazil, located in the northern part of the country. To the west is a short border with the state of Acre, to the north is the state of Amazonas, in the east is Mato Grosso, in the south and southwest is Bolivia, its capital is Porto Velho. The state was named after Cândido Rondon. Rondonia was home to over 200,000 km2 of rainforest, but has become one of the most deforested places in the Amazon. By 2003 around 70,000 km2 of rainforest had been cleared; the area around the Guaporé River is part of the Beni savanna ecoregion. The Samuel Dam is located on the Jamari River. According to the IBGE of 2008, there were 1,519,000 people residing in the state; the population density was 6.6 inh./km². Urbanization: 66.8%. The last PNAD census revealed the following numbers: 832,000 Brown people, 546,000 White people, 115,000 Black people, 16,000 Asian people, 8,000 Amerindian people; as of 2011 there were 21 Indigenous Territories in Rondônia, with two more in process of being demarcated.
The largest of these, the Uru-Eu-Wau-Wau Indigenous Territory, covers over 1.8 million hectares. Another, the Rio Omerê Indigenous Territory, is home to the Kanoê and Akuntsu people, who number only four and five individuals respectively. Belmonte Airport is located in the state capital of Porto Velho. Official Website Rondonia Web
Caatinga is a type of desert vegetation, an ecoregion characterized by this vegetation in interior northeastern Brazil. The name "Caatinga" is a Tupi word meaning "white forest" or "white vegetation". Caatinga is a xeric shrubland and thorn forest, which consists of small, thorny trees that shed their leaves seasonally. Cacti, thick-stemmed plants, thorny brush, arid-adapted grasses make up the ground layer. Most vegetation experiences a brief burst of activity during the three-month long rainy season. Caatinga falls within earth's tropical zone and is one of 6 major ecoregions of Brazil, it covers nearly 10 % of Brazil's territory. It is home to 26 million people and more than 2000 species of vascular plants, reptiles, amphibians and mammals. Caatinga covers the interior portion of northeastern Brazil bordering the Atlantic seaboard, extending across eight states: Piauí, Ceará, Rio Grande do Norte, Paraíba, Alagoas, Sergipe and parts of Minas Gerais, as well the southeasternmost point of Rio de Janeiro in Cabo Frio.
Altogether, the Caatinga comprises about 10 % of the surface area of Brazil. By comparison, it is over nine times the surface area of Portugal, whence came Brazil's early European settlers, 20% larger than the U. S. state of Texas. Located between 3°S 45°W and 17°S 35°W, the Caatinga experiences irregular winds from all directions. Rainfall is thus intense, totalling 20 -- 80 cm on average. Although the climate is hot and semi-arid, the Caatinga includes several enclaves of humid tropical forest, with trees 30–35 m tall. To the northwest, the Caatinga is bounded by the Maranhão Babaçu forests; the Caatinga has only two distinguishable seasons: a hot and dry winter, a cold and rainy summer. During the dry winter periods there is no undergrowth, as plants try to conserve water. Roots protrude through the surface of the stony soil before it is evaporated. Leaves fall off the trees to reduce transpiration. With all the foliage and undergrowth dead during the drought periods and all the trees having no leaves the Caatinga has a yellow-grey, desert-like look.
During the peak periods of drought the Caatinga's soil can reach temperatures of up to 60 °C. The drought ends in December or January, when the rainy season starts. After the first rains, the grey, desert-like landscape starts to transform and becomes green within a few days. Small plants start growing in the now moist soil and trees grow back their leaves. Rivers that are dry during the past 6 or 7 months start to fill up and streams begin to flow again; the Caatinga is poorly represented in the Brazilian Conservation Area network, with only 1% in Integral Protection Conservation Areas and 6% in Sustainable Use Conservation Areas. Economic developed has fragmented the native biome. Estimates on the amount of Caatinga transformed affected by economic development range 25-50%, making Caatinga the most degraded ecosystem in Brazil. Caatinga harbors a unique biota, with thousands of endemic species. Caatinga contains over 1,000 vascular plant species in addition to 187 bees, 240 fish species, 167 reptiles and amphibians, 516 birds, 148 mammal species, with endemism levels varying from 9 percent in birds to 57 percent in fishes.
The Caatinga does not correspond to a single type of vegetation, but rather a broad mosaic. Nonetheless, all vegetative structure is adapted to the xeric climate. Succulent and crassulaceous species dominate. Palm stands contain carnaúba or babaçu palms, but tucumã and macaúba; the Caatinga has enough endemic species to constitute a floristic province. Most authors divide the Caatinga into two different subtypes: dry and humid, but categorizations vary to as many as eight different vegetative regimes; the Caatinga is home to nearly 50 endemic species of birds, including Lear's macaw, Spix's macaw, moustached woodcreeper, Caatinga parakeet, Caatinga antwren, Sao Francisco black tyrant and Caatinga cacholote. Endemic mammal species include: eleven rodents - Caatinga vesper mouse, Wiedomys pyrrhorhinos, Trinomys yonenagae, Trinomys albispinus minor, Trinomys albispinus sertonius, Thylamys karimii, Dasyprocta sp. n. Oryzomys sp. n. Oxymycterus sp. n. Rhipidomys sp. n. ssp. 1, Rhipidomys sp. n. ssp. 2 one primate - Callicebus barbarabrownae two bats - Xeronycteris vieirai and Chiroderma sp.
N Based on radiocarbon dating of potsherds, proponents of historical ecology such as William Denevan and William Balee have suggested that large sections of the Caatinga region may be of anthropogenic origin. Over 1000 years ago, native peoples may have unintentionally created the environment of the modern-day Caatinga through constant slash-and-burn agriculture, thereby stymying plant succession and preventing major rainforests from growing within the region. Conversely, fossil evidence suggests that the Caatinga may have been part of a much larger dry belt; the local population lives in extreme poverty, many rely on extraction of natural resources for a livelihood. There are few drinkable water sources, harvesting is difficult because of the irregular rainfall. Native plants are used in local agriculture, much of it slash-and-burn. Pilocarpus jaborandi