Saltbush can refer to: Atriplex, is distributed nearly worldwide from subtropical to temperate and to subarctic regions. Most species rich are North America, South America and Eurasia. Many species are adapted to dry environments with salty soils. Certain members of genus Chenopodium, including: Chenopodium robertianum called berry saltbush, found in open areas of eastern Australia. Chenopodium nutans called climbing, or nodding saltbush, native to Australia; the small leaves are semi-succulent, have a distinctive arrowhead shape. The plant has conspicuous, bright-red berries during early autumn. Sarcobatus vermiculatus, native to North America, is a halophyte found in sunny, flat areas around the margins of playas Plants called saltbush Barrier saltbush, Enchylaena
The wolf known as the grey/gray wolf or timber wolf, is a canine native to the wilderness and remote areas of Eurasia and North America. It is the largest extant member of its family, with males averaging 43 -- females 36 -- 38.5 kg. It is distinguished from other Canis species by its larger size and less pointed features on the ears and muzzle, its winter fur is long and bushy and predominantly a mottled gray in color, although nearly pure white and brown to black occur. Mammal Species of the World, a standard reference work in zoology, recognises 38 subspecies of C. lupus. The gray wolf is the second most specialized member of the genus Canis, after the Ethiopian wolf, as demonstrated by its morphological adaptations to hunting large prey, its more gregarious nature, its advanced expressive behavior, it is nonetheless related enough to smaller Canis species, such as the coyote, golden jackal, to produce fertile hybrids. It is the only species of Canis to have a range encompassing both Eurasia and North America, originated in Eurasia during the Pleistocene, colonizing North America on at least three separate occasions during the Rancholabrean.
It is a social animal, travelling in nuclear families consisting of a mated pair, accompanied by the pair's adult offspring. The gray wolf is an apex predator throughout its range, with only humans and tigers posing a serious threat to it, it feeds on large ungulates, though it eats smaller animals, livestock and garbage. A seven-year-old wolf is considered to be old, the maximum lifespan is about 16 years; the global gray wolf population is estimated to be 300,000. The gray wolf is one of the world's best-known and most-researched animals, with more books written about it than any other wildlife species, it has a long history of association with humans, having been despised and hunted in most pastoral communities because of its attacks on livestock, while conversely being respected in some agrarian and hunter-gatherer societies. Although the fear of wolves is pervasive in many human societies, the majority of recorded attacks on people have been attributed to animals suffering from rabies. Non-rabid wolves have attacked and killed people children, but this is rare, as wolves are few, live away from people, have developed a fear of humans from hunters and shepherds.
The English'wolf' stems from the Old English wulf, itself thought to be derived from the Proto-Germanic *wulfaz. The Latin lupus is a Sabine loanword. Both derive from the Proto-Indo-European root * lukwos; the species Canis lupus was first recorded by Carl Linnaeus in his publication Systema Naturae in 1758, with the Latin classification translating into the English words "dog wolf". The 37 subspecies of Canis lupus are listed under the designated common name of "wolf" in Mammal Species of the World, published in 2005; the nominate subspecies is the Eurasian wolf known as the common wolf. The subspecies includes the domestic dog, eastern wolf and red wolf, but lists C. l. italicus as a synonym of C. l. lupus. However, the classification of several as either species or subspecies has been challenged; the evolution of the wolf occurred over a geologic time scale of at least 300,000 years. The gray wolf Canis lupus is a adaptable species, able to exist in a range of environments and which possesses a wide distribution across the Holarctic.
Studies of modern gray wolves have identified distinct sub-populations that live in close proximity to each other. This variation in sub-populations is linked to differences in habitat – precipitation, temperature and prey specialization – which affect cranio-dental plasticity; the archaeological and paleontological records show gray wolf continuous presence for at least the last 300,000 years. This continuous presence contrasts with genomic analyses, which suggest that all modern wolves and dogs descend from a common ancestral wolf population that existed as as 20,000 years ago; these analyses indicate a population bottleneck, followed by a rapid radiation from an ancestral population at a time during, or just after, the Last Glacial Maximum. However, the geographic origin of this radiation is not known. In 2018, whole genome sequencing was used to compare members of the genus Canis, along with the dhole and the African hunting dog. There is evidence of gene flow between African golden wolves, golden jackals, gray wolves.
One African golden wolf from the Egyptian Sinai Peninsula showed high admixture with the Middle Eastern gray wolves and dogs, highlighting the role of the land bridge between the African and Eurasian continents in canid evolution. There was evidence of gene flow between golden jackals and Middle Eastern wolves, less so with European and Asian wolves, least with North American wolves; the study proposes that the golden jackal ancestry found in North American wolves may have occurred before the divergence of the Eurasian and North American gray wolves. The study indicates that the common ancestor of the coyote and gray wolf has genetically admixed with a ghost population of an extinct unidentified canid; the canid is genetically close to the dhole and has evolved after the divergence of the African hunting dog from the other canid species. The basal position of the coyote compared to the wolf is proposed to be due to the coyote retaining more of the mitochondrial genome of this unknown canid.
In 2013, a genetic study found that the wolf population in Europe was divided along a north-south axis and formed five major clusters. Three clusters were identified occupying southern and
The Transverse Ranges are a group of mountain ranges of southern California, in the Pacific Coast Ranges physiographic region in North America. The Transverse Ranges begin at the southern end of the California Coast Ranges and lie within Santa Barbara, Los Angeles, San Bernardino and Riverside counties; the Peninsular Ranges lie to the south. The name Transverse Ranges is due to their east–west orientation, making them transverse to the general northwest–southeast orientation of most of California's coastal mountains; the ranges extend from west of Point Conception eastward 500 kilometers into the Mojave and Colorado Desert. The geology and topography of the ranges express three distinct segments that have contrasting elevations, rock types, vegetation; the western segment extends to the San Gabriel Mountains and San Gabriel fault. The central segment includes; the eastern segment extends from the San Andreas fault eastward to the Colorado Desert. The central and eastern segments have the highest elevations.
Most of the ranges lie in the California chaparral and woodlands ecoregion. Lower elevations are dominated by chaparral and scrubland, while higher elevations support large conifer forests. Most of the ranges in the system are fault blocks, were uplifted by tectonic movements late in the Cenozoic Era. West of Tejon Pass, the primary rock types are varied, with a mix of sedimentary and metamorphic rocks, while regions east of the pass are dominated by plutonic granitic and metasedimentary rocks; the western and central segments of the Transverse Ranges are bounded to the north and east by the San Andreas Fault, which separates those segments from the Mojave Desert. The eastern segment bounds the southern Mojave Desert. Notable passes along the San Andreas fault include Tejon Pass, Cajon Pass, San Gorgonio Pass. Components of Transverse Ranges to the north and east of the fault include the San Bernardino Mountains, Little San Bernardino Mountains and Eagle Mountains; the western and southern boundaries are acknowledged to be the Pacific Ocean and the northern Channel Islands.
Onshore the Los Angeles Basin lies at the southern boundary of the western and central segments of the ranges. Major passes not along the San Andreas Fault include Gaviota Pass, San Marcos Pass, the Conejo Grade, Newhall Pass, Cahuenga Pass; the Transverse Ranges manifest themselves as a series of parallel ridges with an average height of 3,000–8,000 feet. The ranges are dissected by young, steep streams of low flow rate; the mountains are notable for being difficult to traverse. There are few passes that are sufficiently low or wide enough to accommodate significant volumes of traffic; this has resulted in situations where major cities are linked to the rest of the state by few roads. This results in significant traffic issues throughout Southern California when a pass has to be shut down due to heavy snow or construction. Major cities, such as Santa Barbara during the 2005 La Conchita landslide, may be cut off from timely road access to the rest of Southern California. Major peaks of the Transverse Ranges with at least 500 feet of prominence, listed by height: This segment begins at Point Conception in Santa Barbara County, include the Santa Ynez Mountains that run parallel to the coast behind Santa Barbara.
The western Transverse Ranges include the Topatopa Mountains and the Santa Susana Mountains of Ventura County and Los Angeles County, the Simi Hills, the Santa Monica Mountains that run along the Pacific coast behind Malibu, whose eastern portion are known as the Hollywood Hills, the Chalk Hills. The northern Channel Islands of California are part of the Transverse Ranges; the Ranges include the steep San Gabriel Mountains northeast of Los Angeles, the Verdugo Mountains, the Liebre-Sawmill Mountains, the San Rafael Hills, Puente Hills, San Jose Hills, Chino Hills. The San Bernardino Mountains, Little San Bernardino Mountains, the Pinto and Orocopia Mountains are within the eastern segment; the Mojave Desert and California's low desert, including the Coachella Valley, are at the eastern end of the ranges. Ranges north of the western segment that are nearly transverse but are part of the California Coast Ranges include the San Rafael Mountains and the Sierra Madre Mountains; the Tehachapi Mountains north of the Mojave Desert, although nearly transverse, are the southern end of the Sierra Nevada.
The climate in most of the range is Csb under the Köppen climate classification. Snow falls above 6,000 feet most winters, above 3,000 feet every few years, it is rare for elevations above 8,000 feet to go multiple winters without snow during severe droughts. Due to low humidity, the regional snow line lies at about 14,000–16,000 feet, above the highest elevation of the range.
World Wide Fund for Nature
The World Wide Fund for Nature is an international non-governmental organization founded in 1961, working in the field of the wilderness preservation, the reduction of human impact on the environment. It was named the World Wildlife Fund, which remains its official name in Canada and the United States. WWF is the world's largest conservation organization with over five million supporters worldwide, working in more than 100 countries, supporting around 1,300 conservation and environmental projects, they have invested over $1 billion in more than 12,000 conservation initiatives since 1995. WWF is a foundation with 55% of funding from individuals and bequests, 19% from government sources and 8% from corporations in 2014. WWF aims to "stop the degradation of the planet's natural environment and to build a future in which humans live in harmony with nature." The Living Planet Report is published every two years by WWF since 1998. In addition, WWF has launched several notable worldwide campaigns including Earth Hour and Debt-for-Nature Swap, its current work is organized around these six areas: food, freshwater, wildlife and oceans.
WWF has been accused by BuzzFeed News, Kathmandu Post, the Rainforest Foundation Fund and Survival International of protecting paramilitary forces funded by the organization to fight poaching that have engaged in human rights abuses despite an internal report acknowledging them in 2015. They have attacked African and South Asian villages, torturing and killing villagers. Investigators revealed that the WWF engaged in cover ups and lobbied to release rangers when they were arrested; the Conservation Foundation, a precursor to WWF, was founded in 1948 by Fairfield Osborn as an affiliate of the New York Zoological Society with an aim of protecting the world's natural resources. The advisory council included leading scientists such as Charles Sutherland Elton, G. Evelyn Hutchinson, Aldo Leopold, Carl Sauer, Paul Sears, it supported much of the scientific work cited by Rachel Carson's Silent Spring, including that of John L. George, Roger Hale, Robert Rudd, George Woodwell; the idea for a fund on behalf of endangered animals was proposed by Victor Stolan to Sir Julian Huxley in response to articles he published in the British newspaper The Observer.
This proposal led Huxley to put Stolan in contact with Max Nicholson, a person who had had thirty years experience of linking progressive intellectuals with big business interests through the Political and Economic Planning think tank. Nicholson thought up the name of the organization. WWF was conceived on 29 April 1961, under the name of World Wildlife Fund, its first office was opened on 11 September that same year in Morges, Switzerland. WWF was conceived to act as a funding institution for existing conservation groups such as the International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources and The Conservation Foundation. Godfrey A. Rockefeller played an important role in its creation, assembling the first staff, its establishment was marked with the signing of the "Morges Manifesto", the founding document that sets out the fund's commitment to assisting worthy organizations struggling to save the world's wildlife: They need above all money, to carry out mercy missions and to meet conservation emergencies by buying land where wildlife treasures are threatened, in many other ways.
Money, for example, to pay guardians of wildlife refuges.... Money for education and propaganda among those who would care and help if only they understood. Money to send out experts to danger spots and to train more local wardens and helpers in Africa and elsewhere. Money to maintain a sort of'war room' at the international headquarters of conservation, showing where the danger spots are and making it possible to ensure that their needs are met before it is too late. Dutch Prince Bernhard of Lippe-Biesterfeld helped found the World Wildlife Fund, becoming its first President in 1961. In 1963, the Foundation held a conference and published a major report warning of anthropogenic global warming, written by Noel Eichhorn based on the work of Frank Fraser Darling, Edward Deevey, Erik Eriksson, Charles Keeling, Gilbert Plass, Lionel Walford, William Garnett. In 1970, along with Duke of Edinburgh and a few associates, Prince Bernhard established the WWF's financial endowment The 1001: A Nature Trust to handle the WWF's administration and fund-raising.
1001 members each contributed $10,000 to the trust. Prince Bernhard resigned his post after being involved in the Lockheed Bribery Scandal. WWF has set up operations around the world, it worked by fundraising and providing grants to existing non-governmental organizations, based on the best-available scientific knowledge and with an initial focus on the protection of endangered species. As more resources became available, its operations expanded into other areas such as the preservation of biological diversity, sustainable use of natural resources, the reduction of pollution, climate change; the organization began to run its own conservation projects and campaigns, by the 1980s started to take a more strategic approach to its conservation activities. In 1986, the organization changed its name to World Wide Fund for Nature, while retaining the WWF initials. However, it continued at that time to operate under the original name in the United States and Canada; that year was the 25th anniversary of WWF's foundation, an event marked by a gathering in Assisi, Italy to which the organization's International President HRH Prince Philip, the Duke of Edinburgh, invited religi
The tule elk is a subspecies of elk found only in California, ranging from the grasslands and marshlands of the Central Valley to the grassy hills on the coast. The subspecies name derives from the tule, a species of sedge native to freshwater marshes on which the Tule elk feeds; when the Europeans first arrived, an estimated 500,000 tule elk roamed these regions, but by 1870 they were thought to be extirpated. However, in 1874-1875 a single breeding pair was discovered in the tule marshes of Buena Vista Lake in the southern San Joaquin Valley. Conservation measures were taken to protect the species in the 1970s. Today, the wild population exceeds 4,000. Tule elk can reliably be found in Carrizo Plain National Monument, Point Reyes National Seashore, portions of the Owens Valley from Lone Pine to Bishop, on Coyote Ridge in Santa Clara Valley, San Jose, California. Considered the smallest of the wapiti in North America, the tule elk were the dominant large ungulate in California prior to the arrival of the Spanish.
It is described as the smallest subspecies of all American elks, with the average weight of adult males only 450 to 550 lb and females average of 375 to 425 lb. Although tule elk have been reported as half the size of the Roosevelt elk, sometimes referred to as the dwarf elk, this moniker may be misleading as the smaller size of some tule elk may reflect poor nutrition of elk subsisting on marginal habitat such as the Owens River watershed. California Department of Fish and Wildlife records show recent bull elk on Grizzly Island in Suisun Bay weigh up to 900 pounds; this is a similar size to Roosevelt elk bulls which weigh between 1,100 pounds. Wildlife biologist Dale McCullough described an elk transplanted from Buttonwillow in the San Joaquin Valley to a golf course in Monterey that grew to the size of a Rocky Mountain elk. Hunter H. C. Banta described the tule elk in the 1850s as "I found no difference in size between these elk and the Oregon, Washington and Colorado elk, felt sure that the bulls would weight 700 to 800 pounds".
The calves are similar to deer fawns, with white spots. Genetic studies based on mitochondrial and nuclear DNA confirm that Tule elk, Roosevelt elk and Rocky Mountain elk should be considered distinct subspecies; the 2010 nuclear DNA study found five alleles at one locus, indicating that there has either been a mutation at this locus subsequent to the single breeding pair reported by Henry Miller and nineteenth century game warden A. C. Tibbet, or there were three surviving tule elk at the genetic bottleneck. Sebastián Vizcaíno described seeing elk on his 1602 exploration of the Monterey area, "Among the animals there are large, fierce bears, other animals called elks, from which they make elk leather jackets." The arrival of the Spanish in the late 18th century introduced cattle and horses to the grasslands of the Central Valley, competing with the native elk. Unrestricted hunting further reduced the herds. By the time elk hunting was banned by the State Legislature in 1873, the tule elk was believed to be extinct.
California cattle baron Henry Miller protected tule elk after a pair was discovered on his ranch in the tule marshes near Buena Vista Lake by game warden A. C. Tibbett in 1874. Miller is credited for the survival of the subspecies. After his death, the huge Miller-Lux ranch was subdivided and the hunting of the elk resumed; the population was reduced to 72 head. By 1895, habitat loss and poaching had reduced the elk population to only 28. In the years that followed, the elk were transplanted 21 times, with each attempt failing. In 1933, rancher Walter Dow took a small group of penned elk to his ranch in Owens Valley, east of the Sierra Nevada. Although not native habitat for the elk, they thrived. In the same year, the state put a small herd at Cache Creek; this herd has not fared well due to poor range conditions. This herd may have interbred with the Rocky Mountain elk. In 1960, the state held a hearing in Owens Valley to determine how many elk should be allowed to live there, they decided. Through efforts of the California Department of Fish and Game, three permanent elk herds were established in California.
By 1969, the Tupman State Reserve, Cache Creek and Owens Valley, Inyo County were in place. A private citizen from Los Angeles, Beula Edmiston, formed a group to attempt a preservation program for the elk. After more than 10 years of lobbying both on the federal and state levels, in 1971, California passed legislation requiring the elk may not be hunted until their numbers surpass 2,000 head statewide or until it could be determined that suitable elk habitat no longer existed in the state, mandated the California Department of Resources to reintroduce the elk into former habitats wherever possible. In 1976, the US Congress passed a resolution which stated 2000 tule elk is an appropriate national goal, directed federal agencies to make federal lands available for preservation of tule elk. An Interagency Task Force of representatives from the National Park Service, US Forest Service, the Armed Forces, Bureau of Land Management, California Department of Parks and Recreation, the California Department of Fish and Game selected sites for the reintroduction of tule elk within the state.
A herd was established at the San Luis Wildlife Refuge in 1974, elk were released at the Concord Naval Weapons Station in 1977. In 1978, herds were established at Mount Hamilton in Santa Clara County, Lake Pillsbury in Lake County, Jawbone Canyon in Kern County, Point Reyes National Seashore, Fort Hunter
The pronghorn is a species of artiodactyl mammal indigenous to interior western and central North America. Though not an antelope, it is known colloquially in North America as the American antelope, prong buck, pronghorn antelope, prairie antelope, or antelope because it resembles the true antelopes of the Old World and fills a similar ecological niche due to parallel evolution, it is the only surviving member of the family Antilocapridae. During the Pleistocene epoch, about 12 antilocaprid species existed in North America. Three other genera existed when humans are now extinct; as a member of the superfamily Giraffoidea, the pronghorn's closest living relatives are the giraffes and okapi. The Giraffoidea are in turn members of the infraorder Pecora, making pronghorns more distant relatives of the Cervidae and Bovidae, among others; the scientific name of the pronghorn is Antilocapra americana. The pronghorn is the sole extant member of the family Antilocapridae; this species was first described by American ornithologist George Ord in 1815.
The pronghorn were first seen and described by Spanish explorers in the 16th century, but were not formally recorded or scrutinised till the 1804–1806 expedition by Captain Meriwether Lewis and Second Lieutenant William Clark. The expedition, which aimed to unravel water routes in the continent for commercial purposes, led to the discovery or formal recognition of a variety of flora and fauna of North America. Following the discovery of a few subspecies of the sharp-tailed grouse and Clark came across the pronghorn near the mouth of the Niobrara River, in present-day Nebraska. Clark was the first to kill a pronghorn, described his experience as follows: I walked on shore to find an old Vulcanoe... in my walk I killed a Buck Goat of this Countrey, about the height of the Grown Deer, its body Shorter the horns, not hard and forks 2⁄3 up one prong Short the other round & Sharp arched, is above its Eyes the Color is a light gray with black behind its ears down the neck, its face white round its neck, its Sides and its rump round its tail, Short & white.
Lewis and Clark made several other observations on the behavior of the pronghorn and how the local tribes hunted them. They described the animal, which they referred to as the "Antelope" or the "Goat", as follows: Of all the animals we have seen the Antelope seems to possess the most wonderful fleetness. Shy and timorous they repose only on the ridges, which command a view of all the approaches of an enemy... When they first see the hunters they run with great velocity... The Indians near the Rocky Mountains hunt these animals on horseback, shoot them with arrows; the Mandans' mode of hunting them is to form a large, strong pen or fold, from which a fence made of bushes widens on each side. The animals are surrounded by the hunters, driven towards this pen, in which they imperceptibly find themselves enclosed, are at the mercy of the hunters. Pronghorns have distinct white fur on their rumps, breasts and across their throats. Adult males are 1.3–1.5 m long from nose to tail, stand 81–104 cm high at the shoulder, weigh 40–65 kg.
The females weigh 34 -- 48 kg. The feet have two hooves, with no dewclaws, their body temperature is 38 °C. The orbits are prominent and set high with never an anteorbital pit, their teeth are hypsodont, their dental formula is 0.0.3.33.1.3.3. Each "horn" of the pronghorn is composed of a slender, laterally flattened blade of bone that grows from the frontal bones of the skull, forming a permanent core; as in the Giraffidae, skin covers the bony cores, but in the pronghorn, it develops into a keratinous sheath, shed and regrown annually. Unlike the horns of the family Bovidae, the horn sheaths of the pronghorn are branched, each sheath having a forward-pointing tine. Males have a horn sheath about 12.5–43 cm long with a prong. Females have smaller horns that range from 2.5–15.2 cm and sometimes visible. Males are further differentiated from females in having a small patch of black hair at the angle of the mandible. Pronghorns have a musky odor. Males mark territory with a preorbital scent gland, on the sides of the head.
They have large eyes with a 320° field of vision. Unlike deer, pronghorns possess a gallbladder; the pronghorn is the fastest land mammal in the Western Hemisphere, being built for maximum predator evasion through running. The top speed is hard to measure and varies between individuals, it is cited as the second-fastest land animal, second only to the cheetah. It can, sustain high speeds longer than cheetahs. University of Idaho zoologist John Byers has suggested the pronghorn evolved its running ability to escape from extinct predators such as the American cheetah, since its speed exceeds that of extant North American predators. Compared to its body size, the pronghorn has a large windpipe and lungs to allow it to take in large amounts of ai
Santa Lucia Range
The Santa Lucia Mountains or Santa Lucia Range is a rugged mountain range in coastal central California, running from Monterey County southeast for 105 miles into central San Luis Obispo County. It includes Cone Peak, which at 5,158 feet tall and three miles from the coast, is the highest peak in proximity to the ocean in the lower 48 United States; the range forms the eastern boundary of the Big Sur region, was a barrier to exploring the coast of California for early Spanish explorers. The Santa Lucia Mountains are part of the Outer South California Coast Ranges, in the Pacific Coast Ranges System, its northern section runs parallel to the southern section of the Diablo Range, part of the Inner South Coast Ranges, which lies to the east across the Salinas Valley. The range's highest summit is Junipero Serra Peak, 1,784 metres in Monterey County and the Los Padres National Forest. Junipero Serra Peak, 5,857 feet. Cone Peak, 5,158 feet. Cone Peak features the steepest coastal elevation in the lower 48 United States, rising nearly a mile above sea level, only three miles from the Pacific Ocean.
Ventana Double Cone, 4,856 feet. Mount Carmel, 4,420 feet; the first European to document the Santa Lucias was Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo in 1542 while sailing northward along the coast on a Spanish naval expedition. Cabrillo named the southern portion of the range the Sierras de San Martín, as he was passing the area on 11 November, the feast day for Saint Martin, he named the northern part Sierras Nevadas. The present name for the range was documented in 1602 by Sebastián Vizcaíno, tasked by the Spanish to complete a detailed chart of the coast. Passing by the range on 14 December, he named the range Sierra de Santa Lucia in honor of Saint Lucy of Syracuse; the first European land exploration of Alta California, the Spanish Portolà expedition, camped on the coast near Ragged Point in present-day San Luis Obispo County on September 13, 1769. The expedition was forced to bypass the inaccessible coast and travel inland through the San Antonio Valley; the rough trail required much improvement by the scouts, it was September 24 before the party emerged from the mountains at the San Antonio River near today's settlement of Jolon.
They traveled north through the Salinas Valley before arriving at Monterey Bay, where they founded Monterey and named it their capital.. Like other Pacific Coast Ranges, the mountains' close proximity to the Pacific Ocean cause moisture to be deposited on the west-facing slopes, creating a suitable environment for conifers; this creates a rain shadow over Salinas Valley to the east, drier. The higher peaks receive some snowfall during the winter; the climate is classified as Mediterranean. Rainfall varies from 16 to 60 inches throughout the range. Most of the precipitation falls during the winter on the higher mountains in the north. During the summer and low clouds are frequent along the coast up to an elevation of 2-3,000 feet. Surface runoff from rainfall is rapid, many streams dry up in the summer, except for some perennial streams in the wetter areas in the north; the rock of the Santa Lucias is dominated by granitic basement of the Salinian Block, between the San Andreas Fault and Sur-Nacimiento Fault.
The core of the Salinian block formed as part of the same batholith which forms the core of the Sierra Nevada Mountains and the Peninsular Ranges of Baja California. It was separated from the North American Plate and transported north by the action of the San Andreas Fault from an original position, it is predominantly Mesozoic pre-Cretaceous metamorphic rocks. There is some Cretaceous sedimentary rock of the Great Valley Sequence, considerable Miocene marine sediments, some other Cenozoic sediments. Units west of the Sur-Nacimiento Fault are dominated by rocks of the Franciscan Assemblage; the western slopes of the range facing the Pacific Ocean are moist with healthy forest growth. The east side is drier, with chaparral and open woods of pine and oak woodlands of several Quercus species; these mountains are home to the southernmost native stands of coast redwood trees, since the climate gets drier towards the south. This range is the only known habitat of the Vortriede's spineflower. California State Route 1 runs along the Big Sur coast on the coastal slopes of the range, while U.
S. Route 101 lies in the Salinas Valley to the East; the only road across the Santa Lucia Range is Nacimiento-Fergusson Road, from Lucia to Jolon. Pacific Southwest Airlines Flight 1771 crashed in the mountains near Cayucos on December 7, 1987 after a gunman killed both pilots, causing the aircraft to crash. A total of 43 people were killed with no survivors; the Santa Lucia Highlands AVA, a producer of California wine, is located in the region. Tierra Redonda Mountain Los Padres National Forest — official Monterey Ranger District website — recreation maps and info. Ventana Wilderness Alliance — dedicated to the protection, preservation and restoration of the wilderness qualities and biodiversity of the public lands within California's northern Santa Lucia Mountains