Persecution of Christians in the modern era
In a number of countries, Christians are subject to restrictions on Freedom of Religion, may suffer communal violence and hate crimes. The Foreign Missionary Society Act of 1962 put a limit on the number of churches constructed. Students in military training were forbidden from praying unlike Muslims. In Muslim-majority Zanzibar, part of Tanzania there have been numerous attacks on churches. A bishop condemned the lack of action by the government. An angry mob of Indigenous peoples destroyed the only Protestant church in the remote village of Chucarasi in the Bolivian Andes after beating a congregational elder unconscious. Villagers attacked their Christian neighbors because they blamed them for a hail storm that damaged local crops; the killing of the priest Faustino Gazziero in 2004. CNTV program The Comedy Club parodies of Jesus, the burning of the image of Our Lady of Mount Carmel, the subsequent mock of the faithful's grief in a nationwide newspaper. Since 2015, twelve churches have been burned in southern Chile, 10 Catholic ones and two Protestant ones.
Attacks are from the Mapuche indigenous people, who are campaigning to reclaim ancestral lands, according to authorities."We are going to burn all churches." Thus declared the note left at the ruins of the Christian Union Evangelical church in Ercilla, after an arson attack on March 31, 2016. Government regulations aimed at curbing the growth of Christian house churches in Cuba. Church burning was happening too in Alabama. According to a review published in Washington Post, the predators were young poor males. In 2015, anti-christian grafiti was painted outside the St. Nikolas Serbian Orthodox Church church; some estimates put the number of Christians in China at 97 million, but it has been claimed in 2019 that 20 million of them faced persecution, including crackdowns and church closures. Claims of persecution of Chinese Christians occurred in unsanctioned churches. According to the Christian Open Doors organization, North Korea is the leader among countries who persecute Christians. Christians in Pakistan are a minority, making up 1.6% of the population, religious minorities are discriminated against.
The Pakistan blasphemy law mandates. Critics of the laws say that Christians like Asia Bibi are sentenced to death with only hearsay for evidence of alleged blasphemy. At least a dozen Christians have been given death sentences, half a dozen of them have been murdered after being accused of violating blasphemy laws. In 2005, 80 Christians were behind bars due to these laws. Christians in Pakistan have been murdered in outbreaks of communal violence, such as the 2009 Gojra riots, they have been targeted by militant groups, with the Peshawar church attack killing 75 Christians in Peshawar in 2013, the Lahore church bombings killing 15 Christians in 2015; the campaign of violence by the Tehrik-i-Taliban Pakistan has been described as a genocide. Former Lebanese president Amine Gemayel stated in 2011 that Christians had become the target of genocide after dozens of Christians were killed in deadly attacks in Egypt and Iraq. According to Israeli ambassador to the United States Michael Oren, in the hundred years leading up to 2010 the Middle East's Christian population dwindled from 20% to less than 5%.
Oren argues that with the exception of Israel, Christians in the Middle East have endured severe political and cultural hardships: in Egypt, Muslim extremists have subjected Coptic Christians to beatings and massacres, resulting in the exodus of 200,000 Copts from their homes. In Egypt, the government does not recognize religious conversions from Islam to Christianity. Foreign missionaries are allowed in the country if they restrict their activities to social improvements and refrain from proselytizing; the Coptic Pope Shenouda III was internally exiled in 1981 by President Anwar Sadat, who chose five Coptic bishops and asked them to choose a new pope. They refused, in 1985 President Hosni Mubarak restored Pope Shenouda III, accused of fomenting interconfessional strife. In Upper Egypt, the rise in extremist Islamist groups such as the Gama'at Islamiya during the 1980s was accompanied by increased attacks on Copts and on Coptic Orthodox churches; the police have been accused of siding with the attackers in some of these cases.
In April 2006, one person was killed and twelve injured in simultaneous knife attacks on three Coptic Orthodox churches in Alexandria. Since the overthrow of Hosni Mubarak in 2011, Egypt's Coptic Christians have been the target of increasing opposition and discrimination. In 2011, anti-Christian activity in Egypt included church burnings, protests against the appointment of a Coptic Christian governor in Qena, deadly confrontations with the Egyptian army. On television Islamists referred to Christians as heretics and said they should be made to pay the jizya tax. A Coptic priest accused Islamists in the country of massacring uninfected pigs predominantly owned by Copts during a swine flu scare: "They killed these innocent pigs just because they thought they violated their religion in some
Social stigma of obesity
The social stigma of obesity or anti-fat bias has resulted in additional difficulties and disadvantages for overweight and obese people. Weight stigma is similar and has been broadly defined as bias or discriminatory behaviors targeted at individuals, because of their weight; such social stigmas can span one's entire life, as long as excess weight is present, starting from a young age and lasting into adulthood. Several studies from across the world indicate overweight and obese individuals experience higher levels of stigma relative to their thinner counterparts. In addition, they marry less experience fewer educational and career opportunities, on average earn a lesser income than normal weight individuals. Although public support regarding disability services, civil rights and anti-workplace discrimination laws for obese individuals have gained support across the years and obese individuals still experience discrimination, which may have implications to physiological and psychological health.
These issues are compounded with the significant negative physiological effects associated with obesity. Anti-fat bias refers to the prejudicial assumption of personality characteristics based on an assessment of a person as being overweight or obese, it is known as "fat shaming". Fat activists allege anti-fat bias can be found in many facets of society, blame the media for the pervasiveness of this phenomenon. Research indicates that self-reported incidents of weight-based discrimination, has increased in the last few decades. Individuals who are subjected to weight-related stigma, appear to be rated more negatively when compared with other groups, such as sexual minorities, those with mental illness. Anti-fat bias has been observed in groups hoping to become physical education instructors. In one study, a group of 344 psychology or physical education majors at a New Zealand University were compared, it was found that the prospective physical education teachers were more to display implicit anti-fat attitudes than the psychology majors.
A number of studies have found that health care providers have explicit and/or implicit biases against overweight people, it has been found that overweight patients may receive lower quality care as a result of their weight. Medical professionals who specialize in the treatment of obesity have been found to have strong negative associations toward obese individuals. In one study, preschool-aged children reported a preference for average-sized children over overweight children as friends; as a consequence of anti-fat bias, overweight individuals find themselves suffering repercussions in many facets of society, including legal and employment issues in their life. Overweight individuals find themselves facing issues caused by increased weight such as decreased lifespan, joint problems, shortness of breath. According to a 2010 review of published studies, interventions seeking to reduce prejudice and social stigma against fat and obesity are ineffective. Weight-related stigma can be characterised by the following aspects: An individual does not have to be overweight or obese, to experience weight-related stigma.
Studies have indicated. This suggests. Many groups who are subjected to stigmatisation, tend to be minorities. Overweight and obese individuals make up the majority of the population in the United States, in other parts of the world. Individuals who are overweight or obese, tend to devalue their own in-group, prefer the out-group. In order to understand weight-biased attitudes, theories have been proposed to explain the discrimination. Christian S. Crandall discusses the "Justification of Stigmatization". In his Social Ideology Perspective draws on traditional North American values of self-determination and self-discipline. Based on these values, anti-fat attitudes may derive from directing blame towards individuals who are overweight; the attribution theory suggests that attitudes towards obese individuals are dependent on how much control they are perceived to have over their weight. Throughout the literature, numerous studies have shown support for this theory. One study conducted a multinational examination of weight bias across four countries with comparable obesity rates.
The study found that attributions of behavioral causes of obesity were associated with greater weight bias. Further, these individuals were more to view obesity as being due to lack of willpower. There appears to be decreased weight bias when weight was attributed to factors that were less within the individual’s control, or when individuals are perceived as trying to lose weight. Anti-fat bias leads people to associate individuals who are overweight or obese with negative personality traits such as "lazy", "gluttonous", "stupid", "smelly", "slow", or "unmotivated"; this bias is not restricted to clinically obese individuals, but encompasses those whose body shape is in some way found unacceptable according to society's modern standards. It is a classical example of the halo effect in cultures where physical preferences favor low body fat. Fat-shaming is common in the United States though most adult Americans are overweight. Huffington Post wrote "two-thirds of American adults are obese, yet overweight and obese individuals are subject to discrimination from employers, healthcare professionals and potential romantic partners".
Anti-fat bias can be moderated by givi
Racism is the belief in the superiority of one race over another, which results in discrimination and prejudice towards people based on their race or ethnicity. The use of the term "racism" does not fall under a single definition; the ideology underlying racism includes the idea that humans can be subdivided into distinct groups that are different due to their social behavior and their innate capacities, as well as the idea that they can be ranked as inferior or superior. Historical examples of institutional racism include the Holocaust, the apartheid regime in South Africa and segregation in the United States, slavery in Latin America. Racism was an aspect of the social organization of many colonial states and empires. While the concepts of race and ethnicity are considered to be separate in contemporary social science, the two terms have a long history of equivalence in both popular usage and older social science literature. "Ethnicity" is used in a sense close to one traditionally attributed to "race": the division of human groups based on qualities assumed to be essential or innate to the group.
Therefore and racial discrimination are used to describe discrimination on an ethnic or cultural basis, independent of whether these differences are described as racial. According to a United Nations convention on racial discrimination, there is no distinction between the terms "racial" and "ethnic" discrimination; the UN convention further concludes that superiority based on racial differentiation is scientifically false, morally condemnable unjust and dangerous. It declared that there is no justification for racial discrimination, anywhere, in theory or in practice. Racist ideology can manifest in many aspects of social life. Racism can be present in social actions, practices, or political systems that support the expression of prejudice or aversion in discriminatory practices or laws. Associated social actions may include nativism, otherness, hierarchical ranking and related social phenomena. In the 19th century, many scientists subscribed to the belief that the human population can be divided into races.
The term racism is a noun describing the state of being racist, i.e. subscribing to the belief that the human population can or should be classified into races with differential abilities and dispositions, which in turn may motivate a political ideology in which rights and privileges are differentially distributed based on racial categories. The origin of the root word "race" is not clear. Linguists agree that it came to the English language from Middle French, but there is no such agreement on how it came into Latin-based languages. A recent proposal is that it derives from the Arabic ra's, which means "head, origin" or the Hebrew rosh, which has a similar meaning. Early race theorists held the view that some races were inferior to others and they believed that the differential treatment of races was justified; these early theories guided pseudo-scientific research assumptions. Today, most biologists and sociologists reject a taxonomy of races in favor of more specific and/or empirically verifiable criteria, such as geography, ethnicity, or a history of endogamy.
To date, there is little evidence in human genome research which indicates that race can be defined in such a way as to be useful in determining a genetic classification of humans. An entry in the Oxford English Dictionary defines racialism as "n earlier term than racism, but now superseded by it", cites it in a 1902 quote; the revised Oxford English Dictionary cites the shortened term "racism" in a quote from the following year, 1903. It was first defined by the Oxford English Dictionary as "he theory that distinctive human characteristics and abilities are determined by race". By the end of World War II, racism had acquired the same supremacist connotations associated with racialism: racism now implied racial discrimination, racial supremacism, a harmful intent; as its history indicates, the popular use of the word racism is recent. The word came into widespread usage in the Western world in the 1930s, when it was used to describe the social and political ideology of Nazism, which saw "race" as a given political unit.
It is agreed that racism existed before the coinage of the word, but there is not a wide agreement on a single definition of what racism is and what it is not. Today, some scholars of racism prefer to use the concept in the plural racisms, in order to emphasize its many different forms that do not fall under a single definition, they argue that different forms of racism have characterized different historical periods and geographical areas. Garner summarizes different existing definitions of racism and identifies three common elements contained in those definitions of racism. First, a historical, hierarchical power relationship between groups. Though many countries around the globe have passed laws related to race and discrimination, the first significant international human rights instrument developed by the United Nations
Leprosy stigma is a type of social stigma, a strong negative feeling towards a person with leprosy relating to their moral status in society. It is referred to as leprosy-related stigma and stigma of leprosy. Since ancient times leprosy instilled the practice of fear and avoidance in many societies because of the associated physical disfigurement and lack of understanding behind its cause; because of the historical trauma the word "leprosy" invokes, the disease is now referred to as Hansen's disease, named after Gerhard Armauer Hansen who discovered Mycobacterium leprae, the bacterial agent that causes Hansen's disease. Those who have suffered from Hansen's disease describe the impact of social stigma as far worse than the physical manifestations despite it being only mildly contagious and pharmacologically curable; this sentiment is echoed by Weis and Ramakrishna, who noted that “the impact of the meaning of the disease may be a greater source of suffering than symptoms of the disease”. The word'stigma' originated from the Greeks who used it to “refer to bodily signs designed to expose something unusual and bad about the moral status” of a person.
These bodily signs can be thought of as the lesions causing physical deformities in a person's skin in the context of leprosy. American sociologist Erving Goffman defines "stigma" as an attribute, discrediting, it is associated with 1) physical deformities, such as facial plaques, facial palsy, claw hand deformity or footdrop. Stigma itself is constructed based on “historical processes, cross-cultural differences, structural inequalities,” which determine social norms. Leprosy stigma has been universal. In Western Europe, it reached its peak during the Middle Ages, at a time when the disease was viewed as rendering the person "unclean". Many "lazar houses" were built. Patients had to carry bells to signal their presence but to attract charitable gifts; the discovery by Hansen in 1873 that leprosy was infectious and transmitted by a bacterium worsened leprosy stigma. It long became associated with sexually transmitted diseases and during the nineteenth century was thought to be a stage of syphilis.
The stigma of the disease was renewed among Europeans in the imperial era when they found it was "hyperepidemic in regions that were being colonized." It became associated with poor, developing countries, whose residents were believed by Europeans to be inferior in most ways. Since the late twentieth century, with efforts by the World Health Organization to control the disease through distribution of free medication, many international organizations have been working to end the stigma attached to leprosy, they work to educate people and raise awareness of the facts about leprosy, in particular that it is only mildly contagious. Stigma surrounding Hansen's disease favored society and sacrificed the individual rights of those afflicted. Numerous societies in the Middle Ages and nineteenth and twentieth centuries required separation of persons with leprosy from the general population. In some countries, stigma against people affected by leprosy is still widespread. In Japan, the government required segregation of persons with leprosy, a separation that increased the social stigma against them.
In medieval times, leprosy patients lived apart, settling around temples or shrines, where they begged for charity from passers-by. Starting in 1909, the government required leprosy patients to be hospitalized in the leprosy sanatoria, believing this would prevent transmission of the disease. In some cases, patients were forcibly taken to the sanatoria and their houses were disinfected in the presence of neighbors, their families were affected by leprosy stigma. Some patients attempted suicide; the law lasted until 1996. In Kumamoto, Japan, a patient with leprosy named Matsuo Fujimoto was tried on charges of an explosion in 1951 and murder in 1952. During the questioning and trial procedures, he was discriminated against as a leprosy patient, he was convicted and executed in 1962. Kumamoto Prefecture Governor Yoshiko Shiotani reported in 2003 that a hotel rejected reservations of ex-patients of Kikuchi Keifuen Sanatorium who were on the Prefecture's home visit program. Many people protested against the hotel.
When the patients rejected the apology of the hotel, there were violent protests against the patients. The hotel tore down this building in June 2004. In the Japanese drama film Sweet Bean directed by Naomi Kawase the issue of leprosy stigma affecting the character of Tokue turns out to be the main subject of the story and leads to a brief description of an existing community of ex-patients. In Jopling's original report, he quoted Hansen as saying "the Norwegian state has always handled its leprosy victims humanely". Hospitalized patients were free to go out during the day to sell their handwork in the market, were allowed to have visitors. There was little evidence of stigma. Many patients immigrated to the United States, but, because of seeking to escape poverty; the concept of heredity was rooted, when leprosy was thought to be inherited, persons with the disease were shunned. As deformity was considered divine punishment, stigma was associated with it. Evidence of leprosy can be traced as far back as 500-300 B.
C. in Chinese literature, when it was considered punishme
Anti-Catholicism is hostility towards Catholics or opposition to the Catholic Church, its clergy and its adherents. At various points after the Reformation, some majority Protestant states, including England and Scotland made anti-Catholicism and opposition to the Pope and Catholic rituals major political themes, with anti-Catholic sentiment at times leading to religious discrimination against Catholic individuals. Historian John Wolffe identifies four types of anti-Catholicism: constitutional-national, theological and socio-cultural. Catholics in Protestant countries were suspected of conspiring against the state in furtherance of papal interests. Support for the alien pope led to allegations challenging loyalty to the state. In majority Protestant countries with large scale immigration, such as the United States and Australia, suspicion or discrimination of Catholic immigrants overlapped or were conflated with nativism and ethnocentric or racist sentiments. In the Early modern period, the Catholic Church struggled to maintain its traditional religious and political role in the face of rising secular powers in Catholic countries.
As a result of these struggles, there arose a hostile attitude towards the considerable political, social and religious power of the Pope and the clergy in the form of anti-clericalism. The Inquisition was a favorite target of attack. Anti-clerical forces gained strength after 1789 in some Catholic nations, such as France and Mexico. Political parties formed that expressed a hostile attitude towards the considerable political, social and religious power of Catholic Church in the form of anti-clericalism, attacks on the power of the pope to name bishops, international orders the Jesuits. Protestant Reformers, including John Wycliffe, Martin Luther, John Calvin, Thomas Cranmer, John Thomas, John Knox, Roger Williams, Cotton Mather, John Wesley, as well as most Protestants of the 16th-18th centuries, identified the Papacy with the Antichrist; the Centuriators of Magdeburg, a group of Lutheran scholars in Magdeburg headed by Matthias Flacius, wrote the 12-volume Magdeburg Centuries to discredit the Papacy and lead other Christians to recognize the Pope as the Antichrist.
The fifth round of talks in the Lutheran–Catholic dialogue notes, In calling the pope the "Antichrist", the early Lutherans stood in a tradition that reached back into the eleventh century. Not only dissidents and heretics but saints had called the bishop of Rome the "Antichrist" when they wished to castigate his abuse of power. What Lutherans incorrectly understood as a papal claim to unlimited authority over everything and everyone reminded them of the Apocalyptic imagery of Daniel 11, a passage, applied to the pope as the Antichrist of the last days prior to the Reformation. Doctrinal works of literature published by the Lutherans, the Reformed churches, the Presbyterians, the Baptists, the Anabaptists, the Methodists contain references to the Pope as the Antichrist, including the Smalcald Articles, Article 4, the Treatise on the Power and Primacy of the Pope, the Westminster Confession, Article 25.6, the 1689 Baptist Confession of Faith, Article 26.4. In 1754, John Wesley published his Explanatory Notes Upon the New Testament, an official Doctrinal Standard of the United Methodist Church.
In his notes on the Book of Revelation, he commented: "The whole succession of Popes from Gregory VII are undoubtedly Antichrists. Yet this hinders not, but that the last Pope in this succession will be more eminently the Antichrist, the Man of Sin, adding to that of his predecessors a peculiar degree of wickedness from the bottomless pit."Referring to the Book of Revelation, Edward Gibbon stated that "The advantage of turning those mysterious prophecies against the See of Rome, inspired the Protestants with uncommon veneration for so useful an ally." Protestants condemned the Catholic policy of mandatory celibacy for priests. During the Enlightenment Era, which spanned the 17th and 18th centuries, with its strong emphasis on the need for religious toleration, the Inquisition was a favorite target of attack for intellectuals. Institutional anti-Catholicism in Britain and Ireland began with the English Reformation under Henry VIII; the Act of Supremacy of 1534 declared the English crown to be'the only supreme head on earth of the Church in England' in place of the pope.
Any act of allegiance to the latter was considered treasonous because the papacy claimed both spiritual and political power over its followers. It was under this act that saints Thomas More and John Fisher were executed and became martyrs to the Catholic faith. Queen Mary, Henry's daughter, was a devout Catholic and during her five years as queen she tried to reverse the Reformation, she executed Protestant leaders. Protestants reviled her as "Bloody Mary". Anti-Catholicism among many of the English was grounded in their fear that the pope sought to reimpose not just religio-spiritual authority over England but secular power in alliance with their arch-enemy France or Spain. In 1570, Pope Pius V sought to depose Elizabeth with the papal bull Regnans in Excelsis, which declared her a heretic and purported to dissolve the duty of all Elizabeth's subjects of their allegiance to her; this rendered Elizabeth's subjects who persisted in their allegiance to the Catholic Church politically suspect, made the position of her Catholic subjects untenable if they tried to maintain both all
Persecution of Bahá'ís
Persecution of Bahá'ís occurs in various countries in Iran, where the Bahá'í Faith originated, the location of one of the largest Bahá'í populations in the world. The origins of persecution stem from a variety of Bahá'í teachings inconsistent with traditional Islamic belief, including the finality of Muhammad's prophethood, the placement of Bahá'ís outside the Islamic faith. Thus, Bahá'ís are seen as apostates from Islam, according to some Islamists, must choose between repentance and death. Bahá'í spokespeople, as well as the United Nations, Amnesty International, the European Union, the United States, peer-reviewed academic literature have stated that the members of the Bahá'í community in Iran have been subjected to unwarranted arrests, false imprisonment, torture, unjustified executions and destruction of property owned by individuals and the Bahá'í community, denial of employment, denial of government benefits, denial of civil rights and liberties, denial of access to higher education.
The Bahá'í Faith was established in 1863 by Bahá'u'lláh in Iran. Eighty-nine percent of Iranians adhere to the Twelver branch of Shi'a Islam, which holds as a core doctrine the expected advent of a messianic figure known as the Qa'im or as the Imam Mahdi; the Báb claimed he was the Imam Mahdi and thus he had equal status to Muhammad with the power, which he exercised, to abrogate the final provisions of Islamic law. Bahá'u'lláh, a Bábí who claimed to be the one foretold by the Báb, claimed a similar station for himself in 1863 as a Manifestation of God and as the promised figure foretold in the sacred scriptures of the major religious traditions of the past and founded what came to be known as the Bahá'í Faith. Concerning the historical context of the persecutions, Friedrich W. Affolter in "War Crimes, Genocide, & Crimes against Humanity" writes: Bahá'u'lláh's writings deal with a variety of themes that challenge long-cherished doctrines of Shí'i Islam. In addition to making the'heretic' claim of being a'Manifestation of God,' he suggested that school curricula should include'Western Sciences,' that the nation states should establish a world federal government, that men and women were equal.
Bahá'u'lláh wrote that in this time and age, priests were no longer necessary for religious guidance. Humanity, he argued, had reached an age of maturity where it was incumbent upon every individual to search for God and truth independently; these principles did not only call into question the need for a priesthood, but the entire Shí'i ecclesiastical structure and the vast system of endowments and fees that sustained it. No surprise that in the following decades until the overthrow of the Qájár dynasty in 1925, it was the mullas who instigated attacks against the Bahá'ís in cities or villages where the clerical establishment was influential. In addition to this, the Bábí religion, the forerunner of the Bahá'í Faith had a violent history in Iran. Friedrich W. Affolter writes: Initially, the mullas hoped to stop the Bábí movement from spreading by denouncing its followers as apostates and enemies of God; these denouncements torture of early Bábís. When the Bábís organized to defend themselves, the government sent troops into a series of engagements that resulted in heavy losses on both sides.
The Báb himself was imprisoned from 1846 until 1850 and publicly executed. In August 1852, two deranged Bábís attempted to kill the Shah in revenge for the execution of the Báb; this resulted in an extensive pogrom during which more than 20,000 Bábís – among them 400 Shí'i mullas who had embraced the Bábí teachings – lost their lives. Others have stated that the Bábís armed themselves and prepared for a holy war that became defensive when they encountered state troops in several locations and that two to three thousand Bábís were killed. Bahá ` u ` lláh took a more conciliatory position. Instead, he attempted to engage various governments in dialog. To this day, Bahá'ís are a persecuted minority group in Iran and other predominantly Muslim countries, since they are seen as apostates from Islam, supporters of the West and Israel; the Iranian constitution, drafted during the Iranian Constitutional Revolution in 1906 set the groundwork for the institutionalized persecution of Bahá'ís. While the constitution was modelled on Belgium's 1831 constitution, the provisions guaranteeing freedom of worship were omitted.
Subsequent legislation provided some recognition to Zoroastrians and Christians as equal citizens under state law, but it did not guarantee freedom of religion and "gave unprecedented institutional powers to the clerical establishment."The Islamic Republic of Iran, established after the Iranian revolution, recognizes four religions, whose status is formally protected: Zoroastrianism, Judaism and Islam. Members of the first three minority religions receive special treatment under Iranian law. For example, their members are allowed to drink alcohol, representatives of several minority communities are guaranteed seats in parliament. However, religious freedom in Iran is far from absolute. Conversion away from Islam is forbidden, with both missionaries risking prison; those seeking to start a new religious group face severe restrictions. The Bahá' í Faith faces an technical hurdle. Iranian law recognizes all those who accept the existence of God and the prophethood of Muhammad as Muslims. Bahá'ís accept both of thes
White supremacy or white supremacism is the racist belief that white people are superior to people of other races and therefore should be dominant over them. White supremacy has roots in scientific racism, it relies on pseudoscientific arguments. Like most similar movements such as neo-Nazism, white supremacists oppose members of other races as well as Jews; the term is typically used to describe a political ideology that perpetuates and maintains the social, historical, or institutional domination by white people. Different forms of white supremacism put forth different conceptions of, considered white, different groups of white supremacists identify various racial and cultural groups as their primary enemy. In academic usage in usage which draws on critical race theory or intersectionality, the term "white supremacy" can refer to a political or socioeconomic system, in which white people enjoy a structural advantage over other ethnic groups, on both a collective and individual level. White supremacy has ideological foundations that date back to 17th-century scientific racism, the predominant paradigm of human variation that helped shape international relations and racial policy from the latter part of the Age of Enlightenment until the late 20th century.
White supremacy was dominant in the United States both before and after the American Civil War, it persisted for decades after the Reconstruction Era. In the antebellum South, this included the holding of African Americans in chattel slavery, in which four million of them were denied freedom; the outbreak of the Civil War saw the desire to uphold white supremacy being cited as a cause for state secession and the formation of the Confederate States of America. In an editorial about Native Americans in 1890, author L. Frank Baum wrote: "The Whites, by law of conquest, by justice of civilization, are masters of the American continent, the best safety of the frontier settlements will be secured by the total annihilation of the few remaining Indians."In some parts of the United States, many people who were considered non-white were disenfranchised, barred from government office, prevented from holding most government jobs well into the second half of the 20th century. Professor Leland T. Saito of the University of Southern California writes: "Throughout the history of the United States, race has been used by whites for legitimizing and creating difference and social and political exclusion."
The Naturalization Act of 1790 limited U. S. citizenship to whites only. The denial of social and political freedom to minorities continued into the mid-20th century, resulting in the civil rights movement. Sociologist Stephen Klineberg has stated that U. S. immigration laws prior to 1965 declared "that Northern Europeans are a superior subspecies of the white race". The Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965 opened entry to the U. S. to immigrants other than traditional Northern European and Germanic groups, altered the demographic mix in the U. S as a result. Many U. S. states banned interracial marriage through anti-miscegenation laws until 1967, when these laws were invalidated by the Supreme Court of the United States' decision in Loving v. Virginia; these mid-century gains had a major impact on white Americans' political views. For sociologist Howard Winant, these shifts marked the end of "monolithic white supremacy" in the United States. After the mid-1960s, white supremacy remained an important ideology to the American far-right.
According to Kathleen Belew, a historian of race and racism in the United States, white militancy shifted after the Vietnam War from supporting the existing racial order to a more radical position—self-described as "white power" or "white nationalism"—committed to overthrowing the United States government and establishing a white homeland. Such anti-government militia organizations are one of three major strands of violent right-wing movements in the United States, with white supremacist groups and a religious fundamentalist movement being the other two. Howard Winant writes that, "On the far right the cornerstone of white identity is belief in an ineluctable, unalterable racialized difference between whites and nonwhites." In the view of philosopher Jason Stanley, white supremacy in the United States is an example of the fascist politics of hierarchy, in that it "demands and implies a perpetual hierarchy" in which whites dominate and control non-whites. Some academics argue that outcomes from the 2016 United States Presidential Election reflect ongoing challenges with white supremacy.
Psychologist Janet Helms suggested that the normalizing behaviors of social institutions of education and healthcare are organized around the "birthright of...the power to control society's resources and determine the rules for ". Educators, literary theorists, other political experts have raised similar questions, connecting the scapegoating of disenfranchised populations to white superiority. White supremacism has been depicted in music videos, feature films, journal entries, on social media; the 1915 silent drama film The Birth