The economic policy of governments covers the systems for setting levels of taxation, government budgets, the money supply and interest rates as well as the labour market, national ownership, many other areas of government interventions into the economy. Most factors of economic policy can be divided into either fiscal policy, which deals with government actions regarding taxation and spending, or monetary policy, which deals with central banking actions regarding the money supply and interest rates; such policies are influenced by international institutions like the International Monetary Fund or World Bank as well as political beliefs and the consequent policies of parties. Every aspect of government has an important economic component. A few examples of the kinds of economic policies that exist include: Macroeconomic stabilization policy, which attempts to keep the money supply growing at a rate that does not result in excessive inflation, attempts to smooth out the business cycle. Trade policy, which refers to tariffs, trade agreements and the international institutions that govern them.
Policies designed to create economic growth Policies related to development economics Policies dealing with the redistribution of income, property and/or wealth As well as: regulatory policy, anti-trust policy, industrial policy and technology-based economic development policy Stabilization policy attempts to stimulate an economy out of recession or constrain the money supply to prevent excessive inflation. Fiscal policy tied to Keynesian economics, uses government spending and taxes to guide the economy. Fiscal stance: The size of the deficit or surplus Tax policy: The taxes used to collect government income. Government spending on just about any area of government Monetary policy controls the value of currency by lowering the supply of money to control inflation and raising it to stimulate economic growth, it is concerned with the amount of money in circulation and interest rates and inflation. Interest rates, if set by the Government Incomes policies and price controls that aim at imposing non-monetary controls on inflation Reserve requirements which affect the money multiplier Policy is directed to achieve particular objectives, like targets for inflation, unemployment, or economic growth.
Sometimes other objectives, like military spending or nationalization are important. These are referred to as the policy goals: the outcomes. To achieve these goals, governments use policy tools; these include the interest rate and money supply and government spending, exchange rates, labor market regulations, many other aspects of government. Government and central banks are limited in the number of goals. For instance, there may be pressure on the government to reduce inflation, reduce unemployment, reduce interest rates while maintaining currency stability. If all of these are selected as goals for the short term policy is to be incoherent, because a normal consequence of reducing inflation and maintaining currency stability is increasing unemployment and increasing interest rates; this dilemma can in part be resolved by using microeconomic supply-side policy to help adjust markets. For instance, unemployment could be reduced by altering laws relating to trade unions or unemployment insurance, as well as by macroeconomic factors like interest rates.
For much of the 20th century, governments adopted discretionary policies like demand management designed to correct the business cycle. These used fiscal and monetary policy to adjust inflation and unemployment. However, following the stagflation of the 1970s, policymakers began to be attracted to policy rules. A discretionary policy is supported because it allows policymakers to respond to events. However, discretionary policy can be subject to dynamic inconsistency: a government may say it intends to raise interest rates indefinitely to bring inflation under control, but relax its stance later; this makes policy non-credible and ineffective. A rule-based policy can be more credible, because it is easier to anticipate. Examples of rule-based policies are fixed exchange rates, interest rate rules, the stability and growth pact and the Golden Rule; some policy rules can be imposed by external bodies, for instance the Exchange Rate Mechanism for currency. A compromise between strict discretionary and strict rule-based policy is to grant discretionary power to an independent body.
For instance, the Federal Reserve Bank, European Central Bank, Bank of England and Reserve Bank of Australia all set interest rates without government interference, but do not adopt rules. Another type of non-discretionary policy is a set of policies which are imposed by an international body; this can occur as a result of intervention by the International Monetary Fund. The first economic problem was how to gain the resources it needed to be able to perform the functions of an early government: the military and other projects like building the Pyramids. Early governments relied on tax in kind and forced labor for their economic resources. However, with the development of money came the first policy choice. A government could raise money through taxing its citizens. However, it could now debase the coinage and so increase the money supply. Early civilizations made decisions about whether to permit and how to tax trade; some early civilizations, such as Ptolemaic Egypt adopted a closed currency policy whereby foreign merchants had to exchange their coin for local money.
This levied a high tariff on foreign trade. By the early
The 2013 Fast5 Netball World Series was the fifth staging of the annual Netball World Series, the second to be played under the new Fast5 rules, which replaced the older fastnet rules introduced in 2009. The tournament was held at Vector Arena in Auckland for the second year in a row; the 2013 tournament was contested by the top six national netball teams in 2013. Hosts New Zealand defeated Australia in the Grand Final by 56 to 27, to record their fourth overall series victory in the tournament; the 2013 Fast5 Netball World Series was played in Auckland, New Zealand over three days, from 8-10 November. All matches were held at Vector Arena, which has a capacity of 12,000. 20 matches were played over three days, under the Fast5 rules of netball. Each team played each other once during the first two days in a round-robin format; the four highest-scoring teams from this stage progressed to the finals, played on the final day of competition, in which the 1st-ranked team played the 4th-ranked team, while 2nd played 3rd.
The winners of these two matches contested the Grand Final. The tournament was contested by the six top national netball teams in the world, according to the INF World Rankings: New Zealand, England, Jamaica and South Africa. Source: Fast5 2013 Series Results 1. New Zealand 2. Jamaica 3. Australia 4. South Africa --- 5. Malawi 6. England
DC Comics is one of the largest comic book publishers in North America. DC has published comic books under a number of corporate names; this is a list of all series, mini-series, limited series, one-shots and graphic novels published under the imprints DC or AA, published by National Periodical Publications, National Comics Publications, All-American Comics, Inc. National Allied Publications, Detective Comics, Inc. and related corporate names, as well as imprints publishing titles directly related to the DC Universe characters and continuity, such as Elseworlds and DC Black Label. The list does not include collected editions. While the most recognizable name of a comic is printed on the cover, the cover title can be changed for a number of reasons. For example, Action Comics has been listed as Action Comics featuring Superman or Superman in Action Comics, or on occasion Supergirl in Action Comics; the official name, however, is found in small print inside the comics. List of DC Comics publications List of DC Comics publications List of DC Comics publications List of DC Comics publications List of DC Comics publications List of current DC Comics publications List of DC Comics reprint collections List of DC Archive Editions List of DC Comics imprint publications List of Elseworlds publications List of DC Comics charactersDC Comics has published titles under other imprints along with a number of reprints.