Alaska Marine Highway
The Alaska Marine Highway or the Alaska Marine Highway System is a ferry service operated by the U. S. state of Alaska. It has its headquarters in Alaska; the Alaska Marine Highway System operates along the south-central coast of the state, the eastern Aleutian Islands and the Inside Passage of Alaska and British Columbia, Canada. Ferries serve communities in Southeast Alaska that have no road access, the vessels can transport people and vehicles. AMHS's 3,500 miles of routes go as far south as Bellingham, Washington, in the contiguous United States and as far west as Unalaska/Dutch Harbor, with a total of 32 terminals throughout Alaska, British Columbia, Washington, it receives federal highway funding. It is a form of transportation of vehicles between the state and the contiguous United States, going through Canada but not requiring international customs and immigration; the Alaska Marine Highway System is a rare example in the U. S. of a shipping line offering scheduled service for the primary purpose of transportation of passengers rather than of leisure or entertainment.
Voyages can last many days, but, in contrast to the luxury of a typical cruise line, cabins cost extra, most food is served cafeteria-style. The forerunner to the Alaska Marine Highway was the Chilkoot Motorship Lines, founded in 1948 by Haines residents Steve Homer and Ray Gelotte; the company used a converted LCT-Mark VI landing craft, christened the MV Chilkoot. They operated a weekly service from Tee Harbor to Haines and Skagway, connecting the territorial capital to the international road system; the Chilkoot Motorship Lines was purchased by the territorial government, moved under the Territorial Board of Road Commissioners in 1951. In 1957, the MV Chillkoot was replaced by the MV Chilkat, which remained a part of the system until being decommissioned in 1988. In 1959, the year Alaska became a state, voters approved an $18 million bond package to improve the ferry system throughout the Southeast and Southcentral regions; the package included new docks throughout. The first of these new vessels built was the MV Malaspina, followed by the MV Matanuska and MV Taku.
With 3 new ships, a new name, the Alaska Marine Highway System was born. The following year, the ocean-certified MV Tustumena was completed, the Chilkat moved to Prince William Sound, the AMHS started service in Southcentral. In 1969, that service was expanded with the addition of the MV E. L. Bartlett, in service with the state until 2004. In 1967, two events acted to restrict transportation to and from Southeast Alaska. A slide took out the Alaska Highway to the North, BC Ferries MV Queen of Prince Rupert ran aground limiting transfer passengers ability to move between the AMHS Southern terminus of Prince Rupert, British Columbia to Seattle; until this time, portions of the passage between Southeast Alaska and Washington State were classified as outside waters, none of the vessels the AMHS operated in Southeast Alaska had the necessary ocean-going certification required to carry passengers on outside waters. Citing the need for a transportation link between Alaska and the rest of the United States governor Wally Hickel ordered the AMHS to send a vessel south to Seattle while putting a request to Congress to re-classify the route as inside waters.
The Federal government agreed to do so, which left the AMHS with a longer route system, no new vessels to serve it. Faced with the lengthy construction time and cost of building a new vessel, the AMHS looked abroad to find a quicker solution; the Stena Britannica, just a year old, was rechristened the MV Wickersham. While the Wickersham was inexpensive to purchase, could be added to the system she was never re-flagged as an American ship, so commercial operation between US ports of call was a violation of the Merchant Marine Act of 1920; the State of Alaska had felt that they would be able to get a waiver of the Jones Act for the Wickersham, but that request was blocked limiting the scheduling flexibility of the ship. While the Wickersham could pick up passengers in Washington State and deliver them to Alaska if there were an intermediary stop in Canada, moving passengers within Alaska was not allowed. Additionally, as the Wickersham was not built for Alaskan ports, she was limited as to which ports she could dock at.
The AMHS ordered the new construction of the MV Columbia, which replaced the Wickersham on the mainline Seattle route in 1974. The southern terminus of the AMHS remained in Seattle until October 1989, when it moved to the Bellingham Cruise Terminal in Fairhaven, after signing a 20-year lease with the city of Bellingham. Facing the need to increase capacity, both the Matanuska and Malaspina were stretched by 56 feet, beyond the capacity of some of the smaller harbors and leaving the Taku as the only AMHS ship in Southeast able to serve some of the smaller communities. To serve the smaller communities of Southeast, the AMHS ordered the MV LeConte in 1974 and the MV Aurora in 1978; these would be the last new ships built for the AMHS for 20 years, ending the initial construction of the AMHS. On March 24, 1989, the Exxon Valdez struck Bligh Reef in Prince William Sound; the State of Alaska's on scene response was managed from the E. L. Bartlett relieved by the Aurora. Suction trucks were placed in the car-deck, temporarily converting the ferry into a spill response vessel.
The State of Alaska determined that a new vessel was necessary, that the new vessel should be designed from the beginning to be able to take on a command and c
University of Alaska Anchorage
The University of Alaska Anchorage is a public research university located in Anchorage, Alaska. UAA administers four community campuses spread across Southcentral Alaska; these include Kenai Peninsula College, Kodiak College, Matanuska–Susitna College, Prince William Sound College. Between the community campuses and the main Anchorage campus, over 20,000 undergraduate and professional students are enrolled at UAA; this makes it the largest institution of higher learning in the University of Alaska System, as well as the state. UAA's main campus is located 4 miles southeast of its downtown area in the University-Medical District, adjacent to the Alaska Native Medical Center, Alaska Pacific University and Providence Alaska Medical Center. Nestled among an extensive green belt, close to Goose Lake Park, UAA has been recognized each of the past three years as a Tree Campus USA by the Arbor Day Foundation. Much of the campus is connected by a network of paved, outdoor trails, as well as an elevated, indoor "spine" that extends east to west from Rasmuson Hall, continuing through the student union and across UAA Drive before terminating inside the Consortium Library.
UAA is divided into six teaching units at the Anchorage campus: the College of Arts and Sciences, College of Business and Public Policy, the Community and Technical College, College of Education, College of Engineering and the College of Health. UAA offers master's degrees and graduate certificates in select programs, the ability to complete certain PhD programs through cooperating universities through its Graduate Division; as of May 2012, the university is accredited to confer doctoral degrees. UAA is accredited by the Northwest Commission on Universities. In 2019, UAA's School of Education lost its accreditation from the Council for the Accreditation of Educator Preparation. In 1954, the Anchorage Community College was founded and began offering evening classes to 414 students at Elmendorf Air Force Base. In 1962, the ACC, other community colleges around the state were incorporated into the University of Alaska statewide system. Five years ACC began offering both day and evening classes at the current campus location.
ACC provided academic study for associate degrees and the first two years of work toward baccalaureate degrees. In the late 1960s, strong interest in establishing a four-year university in Anchorage brought about the birth of the University of Alaska, Anchorage Senior College. While ACC administered the lower division college, ASC administered upper division and graduate programs leading to baccalaureate and master's degrees, as well as continuing education for professional programs. In 1971, the first commencement was held at West Anchorage High School, where 265 master's, baccalaureate and associate degrees were awarded. ASC moved to the Consortium Library Building in 1973; the following year, when the first classroom and office facility was completed, daytime courses were offered for the first time. In 1977, ASC was renamed the University of Alaska, Anchorage. Ten years ACC and UA,A merged to become what is now known as the University of Alaska Anchorage. Since 1987, the university has continued to expand.
More than 200 programs, ranging from certificate programs to associate, master's, doctoral degrees are offered at campuses in Anchorage and community campuses and extension centers throughout Southcentral Alaska. The university's mission is to discover and disseminate knowledge through teaching, research and creative expression; the University of Alaska Anchorage is an open-access university with 17,000 students. In addition to thousands of students from across the state, the university retains a large commuter population from in and around Anchorage, many of whom are non-traditional or returning students. Nearly ten percent of the student population is from outside of the United States. UAA has the largest population of student veterans in the state; the University of Alaska Anchorage partners with the University of Washington School of Law and Willamette University College of Law in Salem, Oregon to provide qualified students with the opportunity to earn a baccalaureate degree and law degree on an accelerated schedule in six years rather than the usual seven.
These are referred to as 3+3 programs or an Accelerated JD Program because students spend three years as undergraduates and three years in law school. UAA offers Associate of Applied Science and Bachelor of Science degrees in: Air Traffic Control Aviation Administration Professional PilotingAn associate of applied science degree is offered in: Aviation MaintenanceThe University of Alaska Aviation Technology division is part of Center of Excellence for General Aviation, a collaborative research effort between the following member universities: Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University Florida A&M University University of North Dakota Wichita State University College of Arts and Sciences College of Business and Public Policy College of Education College of Health and Social Welfare Community and Technical College School of Engineering School of Nursing School of Social Work University Honors Program Graduate Division UAA/APU Consortium Library Alvin S. Okeson Library Carolyn Floyd Library Alaska Advantage Education Grant GEAR UP University of Alaska Grant As a center of research and understanding, UAA sponsors research, public service and other activities related to northern populations and in support of local and regional
Bill Walker (American politician)
William Martin Walker is an American attorney and politician who served as the 11th governor of Alaska, from 2014 to 2018. He is the second native-born governor of Alaska after William A. Egan. Walker was born in Fairbanks to businessman Ed Walker, he obtained a law degree and served as mayor, city councilor, city attorney for Valdez, as general counsel for the Alaska Gasline Port Authority. Walker ran for governor of Alaska in the Republican Party primary election in 2010, losing to incumbent Sean Parnell. Walker ran as an Independent in the 2014 election, merging his campaign with that of Democratic nominee Byron Mallott, who became Walker's running mate. Both candidates' prior respective running mates withdrew from the race and the Walker/Mallott ticket defeated Parnell and his running mate, former Anchorage mayor Daniel A. Sullivan. Walker ran for reelection in 2018, but three days after the resignation of Lieutenant Governor Mallott and amid low polling numbers he dropped out of the race on October 19 and endorsed Democrat Mark Begich.
Walker was born in Fairbanks and raised in the small, rural interior city of Delta Junction and the port of Valdez on Prince William Sound. He was the fourth child of Alaskan pioneers Ed Walker. During World War II, Ed was an Alaskan Scout with Castner's Cutthroats in the Aleutian Islands and Frances worked on the Alaska-Canadian Highway. During the 1964 Alaska earthquake, which damaged Valdez, the family lost most of their personal and business possessions. At the age of 12, Walker became a janitor to help his family. Walker worked in his family's construction business as a carpenter and teamster on the Trans-Alaska Pipeline, which helped him pay for his education. Walker graduated from Valdez High School in 1969 and received his B. S. in Business Management from Lewis & Clark College in 1973 and his J. D. from the University of Puget Sound School of Law in 1983. He and his wife owned a law firm that focused on oil and gas law. From 1977 to 1979 he served in the Valdez city council, as city attorney for Valdez, as general counsel for the Alaska Gasoline Port Authority.
He was elected mayor of Valdez, serving from 1979 through 1980. At 27, he was Valdez's youngest mayor. Walker challenged incumbent Governor Sean Parnell as well as Gerald L. Heikes, Merica Hlatcu, Sam Little, Ralph Samuels in the Republican Party primary election on August 24, 2010. Walker finished second, with 33.95% of the vote, while Parnell won the nomination with 49.49%. The general election was held on November 2, 2010 and Parnell defeated his Democratic opponent, Ethan Berkowitz. In 2013, Walker announced his intention to run in the 2014 gubernatorial election as a Republican; that year, he decided to run as a nonpartisan candidate, taking the advice and encouragement he had received from former Alaska governor Wally Hickel prior to his 2010 campaign. Walker selected Craig Fleener, a former Deputy Commissioner of the Alaska Department of Fish and Game, to run for lieutenant governor on his ticket, he campaigned on a centrist platform, mixing traditionally liberal positions. Walker opposed the construction of the Pebble Mine and acknowledged the existence of climate change and the need to adopt energy policies to help mitigate its harmful effects, but supported increasing oil and gas pipeline capacities and new drilling for petroleum in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge.
He supported gun rights, a degree of state sovereignty for Alaska, the Medicaid expansion made possible by the Affordable Care Act. On September 2, 2014, Walker held a press conference with Byron Mallott, the Democratic nominee for governor, announcing that they would merge their campaigns, with Mallott replacing Fleener as his running mate. Mallott's Democratic running mate and State Senator Hollis French stepped aside, leaving no official Democratic candidate in the election. Before their announcement the merger was met with resistance from the Alaska Republican Party, but it was ruled valid by the Alaska Supreme Court. Walker led in polls taken weeks before the November 4 general election. Parnell was criticized for his support of billions in unpopular tax reductions for the petrochemical industry and the development of a scandal featuring five years of alleged cover-ups of rampant sexual abuse, cronyism and whistleblower suppression in the Alaska National Guard, for which Parnell served as Commander in Chief.
Following Election Day, the race was considered too close to call. On November 7, Walker and Mallott held a 3,165-vote lead. On November 14, after Walker and Mallott extended their lead to 4,634 votes, media outlets called the race. Two days Parnell conceded. Walker took the oath of office on December 1, 2014, he faced a Republican-controlled legislature, but the Republican majorities were not enough to override a gubernatorial veto. With the Republican legislature opposed to Walker's attempts to expand Medicaid, Walker decided to use his executive authority to do so; as governor, Walker has attended many events across Alaska, such as the Annual Governor's Picnic which took place in Fairbanks at Pioneer Park on Sunday, June 7, 2015, in Anchorage at Delaney Park Strip on Saturday, August 1, 2015, in Juneau at the University of Alaska Southeast on August 14, 2015. He flew into Sitka after seven landslides devastated the town, causing extensive damage and killing three, he was able to secure $1 million to help in the recovery.
Walker signed the buyout bill for TransCanada's quarter share in the Alaska Liquefied Natural Gas project on November 5, 2015. Alaska's share of the project will c
Energy laws govern the use and taxation of energy, both renewable and non-renewable. These laws are the primary authorities related to energy. In contrast, energy policy refers to the policy and politics of energy. Energy law includes the legal provision for oil, "extraction taxes." The practice of energy law includes contracts for siting, licenses for the acquisition and ownership rights in oil and gas both under the soil before discovery and after its capture, adjudication regarding those rights. There is a growing academic interest in international energy law, including continuing legal education seminars, law reviews, graduate courses. In the same line, there has been growing interest on energy-specific issues and their particular relation with international trade and connected organizations like the World Trade Organization. Nigeria's government owns the Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation. Uganda has adopted a new nuclear power law, which it hopes "will boost technical cooperation between the country and the International Atomic Energy Agency," according to "a senior agency official" from that African country.
Energy is big business in Australia. The Australian Petroleum Production and Exploration Association represents 98% of the oil and gas producers in Australia. Canada has an extensive energy law, both through the federation and the provinces Alberta; these include: Alternative Fuels Act Cooperative Energy Act Energy Administration Act Energy Monitoring Act Nuclear Energy Act Canada Oil and Gas Operations Act Canada Petroleum Resources Act National Energy Board Act Electricity and Gas Inspection Act There is some academic interest in the energy law of Canada, with looseleaf periodical services and consultation with lawyers specializing in that practice, available. The Supreme Court of Canada has had issued some Canadian energy case law. Canada's energy laws are so extensive and complicated in large part because of its government-owned energy resources: The oil sands are gold not only for the oil companies, but for Alberta's provincial government, which owns the mineral rights to all the land and has encouraged the industry for three-quarters of a century.
Canada and the Quebec province own extensive hydroelectric dam facilities, which have generated not only power but controversy. European energy law has been focused on the legal mechanisms for managing short-term disruptions to the continent's energy supply, such as Germany's 1974 Law to Secure the Energy Supply; the European integrated hydrogen project was a European Union project to integrate United Nations Economic Commission for Europe guidelines and create a basis of ECE regulation of hydrogen vehicles and the necessary infrastructure replacing national legislation and regulations. The aim of this project was enhancing of the safety of hydrogen vehicles and harmonizing their licensing and approval process. Five nations have created the EurObserv'ER energy consortium; the EU has created an Energy Community to extend their policies into Southeastern Europe. Germany's renewable energy law mandates the use of renewable energy through its tariffs, it promotes the development of renewable energy sources via a system of feed-in tariffs.
It regulates the amount of energy generated by the type of renewable energy source. It creates an incentive to encourage technological advancements and costs; the results have been startling: on 6 June 2014, more than half of the nation's energy used on that date came from solar power. Despite regulatory processes adding more renewable energy to its energy mix, Germany's electric grid has become more reliable, not less; the German government has proposed abandoning "its planned phase-out of nuclear energy to help rein in surging electricity prices and protect the environment, according to proposals drawn up by an energy task force under Economy Minister Michael Glos." The German Green Party has opposed nuclear energy, as well as the market power of German utilities, claiming the "energy shortfall" has been artificially created. There is significant academic interest in German energy law. A chart summarizing German energy legislation is available. Italy has few natural resources. Lacking substantial deposits of iron, coal, or oil.
Proven natural gas reserves in the Po Valley and offshore Adriatic, constitute the country's most important mineral resource. More than 80% of the country's energy sources are imported; the energy sector is dependent on imports from abroad: in 2006 the country imported more than 86% of its total energy consumption. In the last decade, Italy has become one of the world's largest producers of renewable energy, ranking as the world's fifth largest solar energy producer in 2009 and the sixth largest producer of wind power in 2008. In 1987, after the Chernobyl disaster, a large majority of Italians passed a referendum opting for phasing out nuclear power; the government responded by closing existing nuclear power plants and putting a halt to the national nuclear program. Italy imports about 16% of its electricity need from France for 6.5 GWe, which makes it the world's biggest importer of electricity. Due to its reliance on expensive fossil fuels and imports, Italians pay 45% more than the EU average for electricity.
In 2004, a new Energy Law brought the possibility of joint ventures with foreign companies to build nuclear power plants and import electricity. In 2005, Italy's power company, ENEL made an agreement with Elec
Anchorage is a unified home rule municipality in the U. S. state of Alaska. With an estimated 298,192 residents in 2016, it is Alaska's most populous city and contains more than 40 percent of the state's total population. All together, the Anchorage metropolitan area, which combines Anchorage with the neighboring Matanuska-Susitna Borough, had a population of 401,635 in 2016, which accounts for more than half of the state's population. At 1,706 square miles of land area, the city is the fourth largest city by land in the United States and larger than the smallest state, Rhode Island, at 1,212 square miles. Anchorage is in the south-central portion of Alaska, at the terminus of the Cook Inlet, on a peninsula formed by the Knik Arm to the north and the Turnagain Arm to the south; the city limits span 1,961.1 square miles which encompass the urban core, a joint military base, several outlying communities and all of Chugach State Park. Due to its location equidistant from New York City and Tokyo, Anchorage lies within 9 1⁄2 hours by air of nearly 90% of the industrialized world.
For this reason, the Anchorage International Airport is a common refueling stop for many international cargo flights and home to a major FedEx hub, which the company calls a "critical part" of its global network of services. Anchorage has won the All-America City Award four times: in 1956, 1965, 1984–85, 2002, by the National Civic League, it has been named by Kiplinger as the most tax-friendly city in the United States. Russian presence in south-central Alaska was well-established in the 19th century. In 1867, U. S. Secretary of State William H. Seward brokered a deal to purchase Alaska from Imperial Russia for $7.2 million, or about two cents an acre. His political rivals lampooned the deal as "Seward's folly," "Seward's icebox," and "Walrussia." In 1888, gold was discovered along Turnagain Arm. Alaska became an organized incorporated United States territory in 1912. Anchorage, unlike every other large town in Alaska south of the Brooks Range, was neither a fishing nor mining camp; the area surrounding Anchorage lacks significant economic metal minerals.
A number of Dena'ina settlements existed along Knik Arm for years. By 1911 the families of J. D. "Bud" Whitney and Jim St. Clair lived at the mouth of Ship Creek and were joined there by a young forest ranger, Jack Brown, his bride, Nellie, in 1912; the city grew from its happenstance choice as the site, in 1914, under the direction of Frederick Mears, of a railroad-construction port for the Alaska Engineering Commission. The area near the mouth of Ship Creek, where the railroad headquarters was located became a tent city. A townsite was mapped out on higher ground to the south of the tent city noted in the years since for its order and rigidity compared with other Alaska town sites. In 1915, territorial governor John Franklin Alexander Strong encouraged residents to change the city's name to one that had "more significance and local associations". In the summer of that year, residents held a vote to change the city's name. However, the territorial government declined to change the city's name.
Anchorage was incorporated on November 23, 1920. Construction of the Alaska Railroad continued until its completion in 1923; the city's economy in the 1920s and 1930s centered on the railroad. Col. Otto F. Ohlson, the Swedish-born general manager of the railroad for nearly two decades, became a symbol of residents' contempt due to the firm control he maintained over the railroad's affairs, which by extension became control over economic and other aspects of life in Alaska. Between the 1930s and the 1950s, the city experienced massive growth as air transportation and the military became important. Aviation operations in Anchorage commenced along the firebreak south of town, which residents used as a golf course. An increase in air traffic led to clearing of a site directly east of town site boundaries starting in 1929. However, Merrill Field still sees a significant amount of general aviation traffic. Elmendorf Air Force Base and Fort Richardson were constructed in the 1940s, served as the city's primary economic engine until the 1968 Prudhoe Bay discovery shifted the thrust of the economy toward the oil industry.
The 2005 Base Realignment and Closure process led to the combining of the two bases to form Joint Base Elmendorf-Richardson. On March 27, 1964, the magnitude 9.2 Good Friday earthquake hit Anchorage, killing 115 people and causing $116 million in damages. The earth-shaking event lasted nearly five minutes, it was the world's second-largest earthquake in recorded history. Rebuilding dominated the remainder of the 1960s. In 1968, ARCO discovered oil in Prudhoe Bay on the Alaska North Slope, the resulting oil boom spurred further growth in Anchorage. In 1975, the City of Anchorage and the Greater Anchorage Area Borough merged into the geographically larger Municipality of Anchorage The city continued to grow in the 1980s, capital projects and an aggressive beautification campaign took place. During this time Anchorage became known as the "Gree
A big-box store is a physically large retail establishment part of a chain of stores. The term sometimes refers, by extension, to the company that operates the store; the store may sell general dry goods, in which case it is a department store, or may be limited to a particular specialty or may sell groceries, in which case some countries use the term hypermarket. Typical architectural characteristics include the following: Large, free-standing, cuboid single-floor structure built on a concrete slab; the flat roof and ceiling trusses are made of steel, the walls are concrete block clad in metal or masonry siding. The structure sits in the middle of a large, paved parking lot, it is meant to be accessed by vehicle, rather than by pedestrians. Floor space several times greater than traditional retailers in the sector, providing for a large amount of merchandise. In countries where space is at a premium, such as the United Kingdom, the relevant numbers are smaller and stores are more to have two or more floors.
Commercially, big-box stores can be broken down into two categories: general merchandise, specialty stores which specialize in goods within a specific range, such as hardware, books, or consumer electronics respectively. In the late 20th and early 21st centuries, many traditional retailers—such as Tesco and Praktiker opened stores in the big-box-store format in an effort to compete with big-box chains, which are expanding internationally as their home markets reach maturity. Big-box development has at times been opposed by labor unions because the employees of such stores are not unionized. Unions such as the United Food and Commercial Workers Local 770 and the Joint Labor Management Committee of the Retail Food Industry have expressed concern about the grocery market because stores such as Kmart and Walmart now sell groceries. Unions and cities are attempting to use land-use ordinances to restrict these businesses; because it is inaccessible to pedestrians and can only be reached by motor vehicles, the big-box store has been criticized as unsustainable and a failure of urban planning.
The first company in Australia to use the big-box model was IKEA beginning operation in Australia in 1975. Bunnings Warehouse followed in 1995 and Mitre 10 Australia adopted the model with the "Mitre 10 Mega" stores first opening at Beenleigh, Queensland in 2004. Costco has since expanded across Australia since opening its first store in 2009. Apart from major American big-box stores such as Walmart Canada and now-defunct Target Canada, there are many retail chains operating in Canada; these include stores such as Hudson's Bay/Home Outfitters, Loblaws/Real Canadian Superstore, Winners/HomeSense, Canadian Tire/Mark's/Sport Chek, Shoppers Drug Mart, Chapters/Indigo Books and Music and many others. The indigenous Loblaw Companies Limited has expanded and multiplied its Real Canadian Superstore branded outlets to try to fill any genuine big-box market and fend off the damaging competition that a large Walmart penetration would inflict on Canadian-based retailers. In the early 21st century, commercial developers in Canada such as RioCan chose to build big-box stores in lieu of traditional shopping malls.
Examples include Deerfoot Meadows, Stonegate Shopping Centre and Preston Crossing, South Edmonton Common, Heartland Town Centre. There are more than 300 power centers, which contain multiple big-box stores, located throughout Canada. Most large grocery stores in China are of the big box variety, selling big screen TVs, mobile phones and clothing. Many foreign names appear, such as Carrefour, Tesco, Lotte Mart, Walmart, as well as dozens of Chinese chains. Most stores are three stories with moving sidewalk-style escalators; some stores are so large as to have 60 checkout terminals and their own fleet of buses to bring customers to the store at no charge. To contend against Carrefour, PARKnSHOP opened the first superstore in 1996 based on the concept of a wet market. Most superstores in Hong Kong emphasizes one-stop shopping, such as providing car park services. Today, PARKnSHOP has more than 50 superstores and megastores, making it the largest superstore network in Hong Kong; the first Wellcome superstore opened in 2000 and it has only 17 superstores.
In addition, CRC has four superstores in Hong Kong. However, because Hong Kong is a densely populated city, the sizes of superstores are smaller than those in other countries; some superstores are running at deficit, such as Chelsea Heights which therefore has stopped selling fresh fish. Furthermore, some PARKnSHOP superstores and megastores, such as Fortress World, belong to the same corporation, Hutchison Whampoa. Many configurations exist: the hypermarket that sells many kinds of goods under one roof, most of which are integrated within a shopping mall.