Sotheby's is a British-founded American multinational corporation headquartered in New York City. One of the world's largest brokers of fine and decorative art, real estate, collectibles, Sotheby's operation is divided into three segments: auction and dealer; the company's services range from corporate art services to private sales. It is named after one of John Sotheby. Sotheby's is the world's fourth oldest auction house in continuous operation, with 90 locations in 40 countries; as of December 2011, the company had 1,446 employees worldwide. It is the world's largest art business with global sales in 2011 totalling $5.8 billion. Sotheby's was established on 11 March 1744 in London; the American holding company was incorporated in August 1983 in Michigan. In June 2006, Sotheby's Holdings, Inc. reincorporated in the State of Delaware and was renamed Sotheby's. In July 2016, Chinese insurance company Taikang Life became Sotheby's largest shareholder. Sotheby's predecessor and Leigh, was founded in London on 11 March 1744, when Samuel Baker presided over the disposal of "several hundred scarce and valuable" books from the library of Rt Hon Sir John Stanley Bt. of Alderley.
Three Swedish auction houses are older and Sotheby's great rival in London and New York, Christie's, dates from 1759 or shortly after. The current business dates back to 1804, when two of the partners of the original business left to set up their own book dealership; the library Napoleon took with him into exile at St Helena, as well as the library collections of John Wilkes, Benjamin Heywood Bright and the Dukes of Devonshire and of Buckingham were sold through Samuel Baker's auctions. After Baker's death in 1778, his estate was divided between John Sotheby. George Leigh died unmarried in 1816, but not before endeavouring to secure his succession by recruiting Samuel E Leigh into the business. Under the Sotheby family, the auction house extended its activities to auctioning prints and coins. John Wilkinson, Sotheby's Senior Accountant, became the company's new CEO; the business did not seek to auction fine arts in general until much their first major success in this field being the sale of a Frans Hals painting for nine thousand guineas as late as 1913.
In 1917, Sotheby's relocated from 13 Wellington Street to 34-35 New Bond Street, which remains as its London base to this day. They soon came to rival Christie's as leaders of the London auction market, which had become the most important for art. In 1955, Sotheby's opened an office at New York City. In 1964, Sotheby's purchased Parke-Bernet the largest auctioneer of fine art in the United States. In the following year, Sotheby's moved to New York. With international popularity of fine art auction growing, Sotheby's opened offices in Paris and Los Angeles in 1967, became the first auction house to operate in Hong Kong in 1973, Moscow in 1988. Sotheby's became a U. K. public company in 1977. A 25 percent drop from the 1980–81 record of $610 million in sales contributed to Sotheby's decision to relocate its North American headquarters from Madison Avenue to a former cigar factory at 1334 York Avenue, New York, in 1982; the auction house closed its Madison Avenue galleries at East 76th Street. The Los Angeles galleries were sold and auctions of West Coast material moved to New York.
In the following year, a group of investors privatized Sotheby's. Sotheby's was incorporated as Sotheby's Holdings, Inc. in Michigan in August 1983. Taubman took Sotheby's public in 1988, listing the company's shares on the New York Stock Exchange, making Sotheby's the oldest publicly traded company on the NYSE under the ticker symbol "BID." In June 2006, Sotheby's Holdings, Inc. reincorporated in the State of Delaware and was renamed Sotheby's shortly after. With private transactions constituting an essential and profitable business segment, through the years Sotheby's has bought art galleries and helped dealers finance purchases, it has gone into partnership with dealers on private sales. In 1990, Sotheby's teamed up with dealer William Acquavella, to form Acquavella Modern Art, a Nevada general partnership and a subsidiary of Sotheby's Holding Company; the subsidiary paid $143 million for the contents of the Pierre Matisse Gallery in Manhattan, which included about 2,300 works by such artists as Miró, Jean Dubuffet, Alberto Giacometti, Marc Chagall, began selling the works both at auction and privately.
In 1996, Sotheby's acquired Andre Emmerich Gallery to operate a division called Emmerich/Sotheby's, in 1997 it purchased a 50% interest in Deitch Projects. As a consequence, the Josef and Anni Albers Foundation, the main beneficiary of the artists' estates, as well as the estates of Morris Louis and Milton Avery announced that they would not renew their Emmerich contracts; that decision came right after it was disclosed that Sotheby's had decided to close Emmerich's prime space at 41 East 57th Street, that its artists would be handled out of Deitch Projects. Sotheby's subsequently closed Andre Emmerich in 1998 and sold its share in Deitch Projects back to Jeffrey Deitch. In 2006, Sotheby's acquired a Dutch dealership, Noortman Master Paintings, from its owner, Robert Noortman, for $82.5 million. Sotheby's and Noortman had collaborated before in 1995, when the sales of Dutch plastic millionaire Joost Ritman were divided between the two companies. In 1990, Sotheby's New
Consumer price index
A Consumer Price Index measures changes in the price level of market basket of consumer goods and services purchased by households. The CPI is a statistical estimate constructed using the prices of a sample of representative items whose prices are collected periodically. Sub-indices and sub-sub-indices are computed for different categories and sub-categories of goods and services, being combined to produce the overall index with weights reflecting their shares in the total of the consumer expenditures covered by the index, it is one of several price indices calculated by most national statistical agencies. The annual percentage change in a CPI is used as a measure of inflation. A CPI can be used to index the real value of wages, pensions, for regulating prices and for deflating monetary magnitudes to show changes in real values. In most countries, the CPI, along with the population census, is one of the most watched national economic statistics; the index is computed monthly, or quarterly in some countries, as a weighted average of sub-indices for different components of consumer expenditure, such as food, shoes, each of, in turn a weighted average of sub-sub-indices.
At the most detailed level, the elementary aggregate level, detailed weighting information is unavailable, so indices are computed using an unweighted arithmetic or geometric mean of the prices of the sampled product offers. These indices compare prices each month with prices in the price-reference month; the weights used to combine them into the higher-level aggregates, into the overall index, relate to the estimated expenditures during a preceding whole year of the consumers covered by the index on the products within its scope in the area covered. Thus the index is a fixed-weight index, but a true Laspeyres index, since the weight-reference period of a year and the price-reference period a more recent single month, do not coincide. Ideally, the weights would relate to the composition of expenditure during the time between the price-reference month and the current month. There is a large technical economics literature on index formulas which would approximate this and which can be shown to approximate what economic theorists call a true cost-of-living index.
Such an index would show how consumer expenditure would have to move to compensate for price changes so as to allow consumers to maintain a constant standard of living. Approximations can only be computed retrospectively, whereas the index has to appear monthly and, quite soon. In some countries, notably in the United States and Sweden, the philosophy of the index is that it is inspired by and approximates the notion of a true cost of living index, whereas in most of Europe it is regarded more pragmatically; the coverage of the index may be limited. Consumers' expenditure abroad is excluded. Saving and investment are always excluded, though the prices paid for financial services provided by financial intermediaries may be included along with insurance; the index reference period called the base year differs both from the weight-reference period and the price-reference period. This is just a matter of rescaling the whole time-series to make the value for the index reference-period equal to 100.
Annually revised weights are a desirable but expensive feature of an index, for the older the weights the greater is the divergence between the current expenditure pattern and that of the weight reference-period. Consumer Price Index = Market Basket of Desired Year Market Basket of Base Year × 100 or CPI 2 CPI 1 = Price 2 Price 1 Where 1 is the comparison year and CPI1 is an index of 100. Alternatively, the CPI can be performed as CPI = updated cost base period cost × 100; the "updated cost" is divided by that of the initial year multiplied by one hundred. Many but not all price indices are weighted averages using weights that sum to 1 or 100. Example: The prices of 85,000 items from 22,000 stores, 35,000 rental units are added together and averaged, they are weighted this way: Housing: 41.4%, Food and Beverage: 17.4%, Transport: 17.0%, Medical Care: 6.9%, Other: 6.9%, Apparel: 6.0%, Entertainment: 4.4%. Taxes are not included in CPI computation. C P I = ∑ i = 1 n C P I i × w e i g h t i ∑
Agriculture is the science and art of cultivating plants and livestock. Agriculture was the key development in the rise of sedentary human civilization, whereby farming of domesticated species created food surpluses that enabled people to live in cities; the history of agriculture began thousands of years ago. After gathering wild grains beginning at least 105,000 years ago, nascent farmers began to plant them around 11,500 years ago. Pigs and cattle were domesticated over 10,000 years ago. Plants were independently cultivated in at least 11 regions of the world. Industrial agriculture based on large-scale monoculture in the twentieth century came to dominate agricultural output, though about 2 billion people still depended on subsistence agriculture into the twenty-first. Modern agronomy, plant breeding, agrochemicals such as pesticides and fertilizers, technological developments have increased yields, while causing widespread ecological and environmental damage. Selective breeding and modern practices in animal husbandry have increased the output of meat, but have raised concerns about animal welfare and environmental damage.
Environmental issues include contributions to global warming, depletion of aquifers, antibiotic resistance, growth hormones in industrial meat production. Genetically modified organisms are used, although some are banned in certain countries; the major agricultural products can be broadly grouped into foods, fibers and raw materials. Food classes include cereals, fruits, meat, milk and eggs. Over one-third of the world's workers are employed in agriculture, second only to the service sector, although the number of agricultural workers in developed countries has decreased over the centuries; the word agriculture is a late Middle English adaptation of Latin agricultūra, from ager, "field", which in its turn came from Greek αγρός, cultūra, "cultivation" or "growing". While agriculture refers to human activities, certain species of ant and ambrosia beetle cultivate crops. Agriculture is defined with varying scopes, in its broadest sense using natural resources to "produce commodities which maintain life, including food, forest products, horticultural crops, their related services".
Thus defined, it includes arable farming, animal husbandry and forestry, but horticulture and forestry are in practice excluded. The development of agriculture enabled the human population to grow many times larger than could be sustained by hunting and gathering. Agriculture began independently in different parts of the globe, included a diverse range of taxa, in at least 11 separate centres of origin. Wild grains were eaten from at least 105,000 years ago. From around 11,500 years ago, the eight Neolithic founder crops and einkorn wheat, hulled barley, lentils, bitter vetch, chick peas and flax were cultivated in the Levant. Rice was domesticated in China between 11,500 and 6,200 BC with the earliest known cultivation from 5,700 BC, followed by mung and azuki beans. Sheep were domesticated in Mesopotamia between 11,000 years ago. Cattle were domesticated from the wild aurochs in the areas of modern Turkey and Pakistan some 10,500 years ago. Pig production emerged in Eurasia, including Europe, East Asia and Southwest Asia, where wild boar were first domesticated about 10,500 years ago.
In the Andes of South America, the potato was domesticated between 10,000 and 7,000 years ago, along with beans, llamas and guinea pigs. Sugarcane and some root vegetables were domesticated in New Guinea around 9,000 years ago. Sorghum was domesticated in the Sahel region of Africa by 7,000 years ago. Cotton was domesticated in Peru by 5,600 years ago, was independently domesticated in Eurasia. In Mesoamerica, wild teosinte was bred into maize by 6,000 years ago. Scholars have offered multiple hypotheses to explain the historical origins of agriculture. Studies of the transition from hunter-gatherer to agricultural societies indicate an initial period of intensification and increasing sedentism. Wild stands, harvested started to be planted, came to be domesticated. In Eurasia, the Sumerians started to live in villages from about 8,000 BC, relying on the Tigris and Euphrates rivers and a canal system for irrigation. Ploughs appear in pictographs around 3,000 BC. Farmers grew wheat, vegetables such as lentils and onions, fruits including dates and figs.
Ancient Egyptian agriculture relied on its seasonal flooding. Farming started in the predynastic period at the end of the Paleolithic, after 10,000 BC. Staple food crops were grains such as wheat and barley, alongside industrial crops such as flax and papyrus. In India, wheat and jujube were domesticated by 9,000 BC, soon followed by sheep and goats. Cattle and goats were domesticated in Mehrgarh culture by 8,000–6,000 BC. Cotton was cultivated by the 5th-4th millennium BC. Archeological evidence indicates an animal-drawn plough from 2,500 BC in the Indus Valley Civilisation. In China, from the 5th century BC there was a nationwide granary system and widespread silk farming. Water-powered grain mills were in use followed by irrigation. By the late 2nd century, heavy ploughs had been developed with iron mouldboards; these spread westwards across Eurasia. Asian rice was domesticated 8,200–13,500 years ago – depending on the molecular clock estimate, used – on the Pearl River in southern China with a single genetic origin from the wild rice Oryza rufipogon
Rye is a grass grown extensively as a grain, a cover crop and a forage crop. It is a member of the wheat tribe and is related to barley and wheat. Rye grain is used for flour, beer, crisp bread, some whiskeys, some vodkas, animal fodder, it can be eaten whole, either as boiled rye berries or by being rolled, similar to rolled oats. Rye is a cereal grain and should not be confused with ryegrass, used for lawns and hay for livestock. Rye is one of a number of species that grow wild in central and eastern Turkey and in adjacent areas. Domesticated rye occurs in small quantities at a number of Neolithic sites in Turkey, such as the Pre-Pottery Neolithic B Can Hasan III near Çatalhöyük, but is otherwise absent from the archaeological record until the Bronze Age of central Europe, c. 1800–1500 BCE. It is possible that rye traveled west from Turkey as a minor admixture in wheat, was only cultivated in its own right. Although archeological evidence of this grain has been found in Roman contexts along the Rhine, in Ireland and Britain, Pliny the Elder was dismissive of rye, writing that it "is a poor food and only serves to avert starvation" and spelt is mixed into it "to mitigate its bitter taste, then is most unpleasant to the stomach".
Since the Middle Ages people have cultivated rye in Central and Eastern Europe. It serves as the main bread cereal in most areas east of the French-German border and north of Hungary. In Southern Europe, it was cultivated on marginal lands. Claims of much earlier cultivation of rye, at the Epipalaeolithic site of Tell Abu Hureyra in the Euphrates valley of northern Syria remain controversial. Critics point to inconsistencies in the radiocarbon dates, identifications based on grain, rather than on chaff. Winter rye is any breed of rye planted in the fall to provide ground cover for the winter, it grows during warmer days of the winter when sunlight temporarily warms the plant above freezing while there is general snow cover. It can be used to prevent the growth of winter-hardy weeds, can either be harvested as a bonus crop or tilled directly into the ground in spring to provide more organic matter for the next summer's crop, it is a common nurse crop. The nematode Ditylenchus dipsaci, leaf beetle, fruit fly, gout fly, cereal chafer, dart moth, cereal bug, Hessian fly, rustic shoulder knot are among insects which can affect rye health.
Rye is grown in Eastern and Northern Europe. The main rye belt stretches from northern Germany through Poland, Belarus and Latvia into central and northern Russia. Rye is grown in North America, in South America, in Oceania, in Turkey, in Kazakhstan and in northern China. Production levels of rye have fallen in most of the producing nations, as of 2012. For instance, production of rye in Russia fell from 13.9 million metric tons in 1992 to 2.1 t in 2012. Corresponding figures for other countries are as follows: Poland – falling from 5.9 t in 1992 to 2.9 t in 2005. Most rye is consumed locally or exported only to neighboring countries, rather than being shipped worldwide. World trade of rye is low compared with other grains such as wheat; the total export of rye for 2016 was $186M compared with $30.1B for wheat. Poland consumes the most rye per person at 32.4 kg/capita. Nordic and Baltic countries are very high; the EU in general is around 5.6 kg/capita. The entire world only consumes 0.9 kg/capita.
Rye is susceptible to the ergot fungus. Consumption of ergot-infected rye by humans and animals results in a serious medical condition known as ergotism. Ergotism can cause both physical and mental harm, including convulsions, necrosis of digits and death. Damp northern countries that have depended on rye as a staple crop were subject to periodic epidemics of this condition; such epidemics have been found to correlate with periods of frequent witch trials, such as the Salem witch trials in Massachusetts in 1692. Modern grain-cleaning and milling methods have eliminated the disease, but contaminated flour may end up in bread and other food products if the ergot is not removed before milling. Rye grain is refined into a flour. Rye flour is low in glutenin, it therefore has a lower gluten content than wheat flour. It contains a higher proportion of soluble fiber. Alkylresorcinols are phenolic lipids present in high amounts in the bran layer of rye. Rye bread, including pumpernickel, is made using rye flour and is a eaten food in Northern and Eastern Europe.
Rye is used to make crisp bread. Rye grain is used to make like rye whiskey and rye beer. Other uses of rye grain include an herbal medicine known as rye extract. Rye straw is used as livestock bedding, as a cover crop and green manure for soil amendment, to make crafts such as corn dollies. Physical properties of rye affect attributes of the final food product such as seed size and surface area, porosity; the surface area of the seed directly correlates to the heat transfer time. Smaller seeds have increased heat transfer. Seeds with lower amounts of porosity have lower tendencies to lose water during the process of drying. Rye grows well in much poorer soils than those necessary for most cereal grains. Thus, it is an especially
The euro is the official currency of 19 of the 28 member states of the European Union. This group of states is known as the eurozone or euro area, counts about 343 million citizens as of 2019; the euro is the second largest and second most traded currency in the foreign exchange market after the United States dollar. The euro is subdivided into 100 cents; the currency is used by the institutions of the European Union, by four European microstates that are not EU members, as well as unilaterally by Montenegro and Kosovo. Outside Europe, a number of special territories of EU members use the euro as their currency. Additionally, 240 million people worldwide as of 2018 use currencies pegged to the euro; the euro is the second largest reserve currency as well as the second most traded currency in the world after the United States dollar. As of August 2018, with more than €1.2 trillion in circulation, the euro has one of the highest combined values of banknotes and coins in circulation in the world, having surpassed the U.
S. dollar. The name euro was adopted on 16 December 1995 in Madrid; the euro was introduced to world financial markets as an accounting currency on 1 January 1999, replacing the former European Currency Unit at a ratio of 1:1. Physical euro coins and banknotes entered into circulation on 1 January 2002, making it the day-to-day operating currency of its original members, by March 2002 it had replaced the former currencies. While the euro dropped subsequently to US$0.83 within two years, it has traded above the U. S. dollar since the end of 2002, peaking at US$1.60 on 18 July 2008. In late 2009, the euro became immersed in the European sovereign-debt crisis, which led to the creation of the European Financial Stability Facility as well as other reforms aimed at stabilising and strengthening the currency; the euro is managed and administered by the Frankfurt-based European Central Bank and the Eurosystem. As an independent central bank, the ECB has sole authority to set monetary policy; the Eurosystem participates in the printing and distribution of notes and coins in all member states, the operation of the eurozone payment systems.
The 1992 Maastricht Treaty obliges most EU member states to adopt the euro upon meeting certain monetary and budgetary convergence criteria, although not all states have done so. The United Kingdom and Denmark negotiated exemptions, while Sweden turned down the euro in a 2003 referendum, has circumvented the obligation to adopt the euro by not meeting the monetary and budgetary requirements. All nations that have joined the EU since 1993 have pledged to adopt the euro in due course. Since 1 January 2002, the national central banks and the ECB have issued euro banknotes on a joint basis. Euro banknotes do not show. Eurosystem NCBs are required to accept euro banknotes put into circulation by other Eurosystem members and these banknotes are not repatriated; the ECB issues 8% of the total value of banknotes issued by the Eurosystem. In practice, the ECB's banknotes are put into circulation by the NCBs, thereby incurring matching liabilities vis-à-vis the ECB; these liabilities carry interest at the main refinancing rate of the ECB.
The other 92% of euro banknotes are issued by the NCBs in proportion to their respective shares of the ECB capital key, calculated using national share of European Union population and national share of EU GDP weighted. The euro is divided into 100 cents. In Community legislative acts the plural forms of euro and cent are spelled without the s, notwithstanding normal English usage. Otherwise, normal English plurals are sometimes used, with many local variations such as centime in France. All circulating coins have a common side showing the denomination or value, a map in the background. Due to the linguistic plurality in the European Union, the Latin alphabet version of euro is used and Arabic numerals. For the denominations except the 1-, 2- and 5-cent coins, the map only showed the 15 member states which were members when the euro was introduced. Beginning in 2007 or 2008 the old map is being replaced by a map of Europe showing countries outside the Union like Norway, Belarus, Russia or Turkey.
The 1-, 2- and 5-cent coins, keep their old design, showing a geographical map of Europe with the 15 member states of 2002 raised somewhat above the rest of the map. All common sides were designed by Luc Luycx; the coins have a national side showing an image chosen by the country that issued the coin. Euro coins from any member state may be used in any nation that has adopted the euro; the coins are issued in denominations of €2, €1, 50c, 20c, 10c, 5c, 2c, 1c. To avoid the use of the two smallest coins, some cash transactions are rounded to the nearest five cents in the Netherlands and Ireland and in Finland; this practice is discouraged by the Commission, as is the practice of certain shops of refusing to accept high-value euro notes. Commemorative coins with €2 face value have been issued with changes to the design of the national side of the coin; these include both issued coins, such as the €2 commemorative coin for the fiftieth anniversary of the signing of the Treaty of Rome, nationally i
An alum is a type of chemical compound a hydrated double sulfate salt of aluminium with the general formula XAl2·12H2O, where X is a monovalent cation such as potassium or ammonium. By itself, "alum" refers to potassium alum, with the formula KAl2·12H2O. Other alums are named after the monovalent ion, such as ammonium alum; the name "alum" is used, more for salts with the same formula and structure, except that aluminium is replaced by another trivalent metal ion like chromium, and/or sulfur is replaced by other chalcogen like selenium. The most common of these analogs is chrome alum KCr2·12H2O. In most industries, the name "alum" is used to refer to aluminium sulfate Al23·nH2O, used for most industrial flocculation. In medicine, "alum" may refer to aluminium hydroxide gel used as a vaccine adjuvant; the western desert of Egypt was a major source of alum substitutes in antiquity. These evaporites were FeAl24·22H2O, MgAl24·22H2O, NaAl2·6H2O, MgSO4·7H2O and Al23·17H2O; the production of potassium alum from alunite is archaeologically attested on the island Lesbos.
This site was abandoned in the 7th century but dates back at least to the 2nd century CE. Native alumen from the island of Melos appears to have been a mixture of alunogen with potassium alum and other minor sulfates. A detailed description of a substance called. By comparing Pliny's description with the account of stupteria given by Dioscorides, it is obvious the two are identical. Pliny informs us that a form of alumen was found in the earth, calls it salsugoterrae. Pliny wrote that different substances were distinguished by the name of alumen, but they were all characterised by a certain degree of astringency, were all employed in dyeing and medicine. Pliny says that there is another kind of alum that the Greeks call schiston, which "splits into filaments of a whitish colour", From the name schiston and the mode of formation, it appears that this kind was the salt that forms spontaneously on certain salty minerals, as alum slate and bituminous shale, consists chiefly of sulfates of iron and aluminium.
One kind of alumen was a liquid, apt to be adulterated. This property seems to characterize a solution of iron sulfate in water. Contamination with iron sulfate was disliked as this darkened and dulled dye colours. In some places the iron sulfate may have been lacking, so the salt would be white and would be suitable, according to Pliny, for dyeing bright colors. Pliny describes several other types of alumen but it is not clear as to what these minerals are; the alumen of the ancients was not always potassium alum, not an alkali aluminum sulfate. Alum and green vitriol both have sweetish and astringent taste, they a had overlapping uses. Therefore, through the Middle Ages and other writers do not seem to have discriminated the two salts from each other. In the writings of the alchemists we find the words misy and chalcanthum applied to either compound. In the early 1700s, Georg Ernst Stahl claimed that reacting sulfuric acid with limestone produced a sort of alum; the error was soon corrected by Johann Pott and Andreas Marggraf, who showed that the precipitate obtained when an alkali is poured into a solution of alum, namely alumina, is quite different from lime and chalk, is one of the ingredients in common clay.
Marggraf showed that perfect crystals with properties of alum can be obtained by dissolving alumina in sulfuric acid and adding potash or ammonia to the concentrated solution. In 1767, Torbern Bergman observed the need for potassium or ammonium sulfates to convert aluminium sulfate into alum, while sodium or calcium would not work; the composition of common alum was determined by Louis Vauquelin in 1797. As soon as Martin Klaproth discovered the presence of potassium in leucite and lepidolite, Vauquelin demonstrated that common alum is a double salt, composed of sulfuric acid and potash. In the same journal volume, Jean-Antoine Chaptal published the analysis of four different kinds of alum, Roman alum, Levant alum, British alum and alum manufactured by himself, confirming Vauquelin's result; some alums occur as the most important being alunite. The most important alums – potassium and ammonium – are produced industrially. Typical recipes involve combining the sulfate monovalent cation; the aluminium sulfate is obtained by treating minerals like alum schist and cryolite with sulfuric acid.
Aluminium-based alums are named by the monovalent cation. Unlike the other alkali metals, lithium does not form alums; the most important alums are Potassium alum, KAl2·12H2O called "potash alum" or "alum". Sodium alum, NaAl2·12H2O called "soda alum" or "SAS". Ammonium alum, NH4Al2·12H2O. Aluminium-based alums have a number of common chemical properties, they are soluble in water, have a sweetish taste, react acid to litmus, crystallize in regular octahedra. In alums each metal ion is surrounded by six water molecules; when heated, they liquefy, if the heating is continued, the water of crystallization is driven off, the salt froths and swells, at last an amorphous powder remains. They are acidic. Alums crystallize in one of three different
Tourism is travel for pleasure or business. Tourism may be international, or within the traveller's country; the World Tourism Organization defines tourism more in terms which go "beyond the common perception of tourism as being limited to holiday activity only", as people "traveling to and staying in places outside their usual environment for not more than one consecutive year for leisure and not less than 24 hours and other purposes". Tourism can be domestic or international, international tourism has both incoming and outgoing implications on a country's balance of payments. Tourism suffered as a result of a strong economic slowdown of the late-2000s recession, between the second half of 2008 and the end of 2009, the outbreak of the H1N1 influenza virus, but recovered. International tourism receipts grew to US$1.03 trillion in 2005, corresponding to an increase in real terms of 3.8% from 2010. International tourist arrivals surpassed the milestone of 1 billion tourists globally for the first time in 2012, emerging markets such as China and Brazil had increased their spending over the previous decade.
The ITB Berlin is the world's leading tourism trade fair. Global tourism accounts for ca. 8% of global greenhouse gas emissions. The word tourist was used in 1772 and tourism in 1811, it is formed from the word tour, derived from Old English turian, from Old French torner, from Latin tornare. Tourism has become an important source of income for many regions and entire countries; the Manila Declaration on World Tourism of 1980 recognized its importance as "an activity essential to the life of nations because of its direct effects on the social, cultural and economic sectors of national societies and on their international relations."Tourism brings large amounts of income into a local economy in the form of payment for goods and services needed by tourists, accounting as of 2011 for 30% of the world's trade in services, for 6% of overall exports of goods and services. It generates opportunities for employment in the service sector of the economy associated with tourism; the hospitality industries which benefit from tourism include transportation services.
This is in addition to goods bought by tourists, including souvenirs. On the flip-side, tourism can degrade sour relationships between host and guest. In 1936, the League of Nations defined a foreign tourist as "someone traveling abroad for at least twenty-four hours", its successor, the United Nations, amended this definition in 1945, by including a maximum stay of six months. In 1941, Hunziker and Kraft defined tourism as "the sum of the phenomena and relationships arising from the travel and stay of non-residents, insofar as they do not lead to permanent residence and are not connected with any earning activity." In 1976, the Tourism Society of England's definition was: "Tourism is the temporary, short-term movement of people to destinations outside the places where they live and work and their activities during the stay at each destination. It includes movements for all purposes." In 1981, the International Association of Scientific Experts in Tourism defined tourism in terms of particular activities chosen and undertaken outside the home.
In 1994, the United Nations identified three forms of tourism in its Recommendations on Tourism Statistics: Domestic tourism, involving residents of the given country traveling only within this country Inbound tourism, involving non-residents traveling in the given country Outbound tourism, involving residents traveling in another countryThe terms tourism and travel are sometimes used interchangeably. In this context, travel implies a more purposeful journey; the terms tourism and tourist are sometimes used pejoratively, to imply a shallow interest in the cultures or locations visited. By contrast, traveler is used as a sign of distinction; the sociology of tourism has studied the cultural values underpinning these distinctions and their implications for class relations. International tourist arrivals reached 1.035 billion in 2012, up from over 996 million in 2011, 952 million in 2010. In 2011 and 2012, international travel demand continued to recover from the losses resulting from the late-2000s recession, where tourism suffered a strong slowdown from the second half of 2008 through the end of 2009.
After a 5% increase in the first half of 2008, growth in international tourist arrivals moved into negative territory in the second half of 2008, ended up only 2% for the year, compared to a 7% increase in 2007. The negative trend intensified during 2009, exacerbated in some countries due to the outbreak of the H1N1 influenza virus, resulting in a worldwide decline of 4.2% in 2009 to 880 million international tourists arrivals, a 5.7% decline in international tourism receipts. The World Tourism Organization reports the following ten destinations as the most visited in terms of the number of international travelers in 2017. International tourism receipts grew to US$1.26 Trillion in 2015, corresponding to an increase in real terms of 4.4% from 2014. The World Tourism Organization reports the following entities as the top ten tourism earners for the year 2015: The World Tourism Organizati