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Economy of Brunei

The economy of Brunei is small and wealthy, is a mixture of foreign and domestic entrepreneurship, government regulation and welfare measures, village traditions. It is entirely supported by exports of crude oil and natural gas, with revenues from the petroleum sector accounting for over half of GDP. Per capita GDP is high, substantial income from overseas investment supplements income from domestic production; the government subsidizes food and housing. The government has shown progress in its basic policy of diversifying the economy away from oil and gas. Brunei's leaders are concerned that increased integration in the world economy will undermine internal social cohesion although it has taken steps to become a more prominent player by serving as chairman for the 2000 APEC forum. Growth in 1999 was estimated at 2.5% due to higher oil prices in the second half. Brunei is the third-largest oil producer in Southeast Asia, averaging about 180,000 barrels per day, it is the ninth-largest producer of liquefied natural gas in the world.

This is a chart of trend of gross domestic product of Brunei Darussalam at market prices estimated by the International Monetary Fund with figures in millions of Bruneian dollars. For purchasing power parity comparisons, the US dollar is exchanged at 1.52 Bruneian dollars only. Mean wages were $25.38 per man-hour in 2009. The government regulates the immigration of foreign labor out of concern it might disrupt Brunei's society. Work permits for foreigners must be continually renewed. Despite these restrictions, foreigners make up a significant portion of the work force; the government reported a total work force of 122,800 in 1999, with an unemployment rate of 5.5%. Oil and natural gas account for all exports. Since only a few products other than petroleum are produced locally, a wide variety of items must be imported. Brunei statistics show Singapore as the largest point of origin of imports, accounting for 25% in 1997. However, this figure includes some transshipments. Japan and Malaysia were the second-largest suppliers.

As in many other countries, Japanese products dominate local markets for motor vehicles, construction equipment, electronic goods, household appliances. The United States was the third-largest supplier of imports to Brunei in 1998. Brunei's substantial foreign reserves are managed by the Brunei Investment Agency, an arm of the Ministry of Finance. BIA's guiding principle is to increase the real value of Brunei's foreign reserves while pursuing a diverse investment strategy, with holdings in the United States, western Europe, the Association of South East Asian Nations countries; the Brunei Government encourages more foreign investment. New enterprises that meet certain criteria can receive pioneer status, exempting profits from income tax for up to 5 years, depending on the amount of capital invested; the normal corporate income tax rate is 30%. There is no personal income tax or capital gains tax. One of the government's most important priorities is to encourage the development of Brunei Malays as leaders of industry and commerce.

There are no specific restrictions of foreign equity ownership, but local participation, both shared capital and management, is encouraged. Such participation helps when tendering for contracts with Brunei Shell Petroleum. Companies in Brunei must either be incorporated locally or registered as a branch of a foreign company and must be registered with the Registrar of Companies. Public companies must have a minimum of seven shareholders. Private companies must have a minimum of two but not more than 50 shareholders. At least half of the directors in a company must be residents of Brunei; the government owns a cattle farm in Australia. At 2,262 square miles, this ranch is larger than Brunei itself. Eggs and chickens are produced locally, but most of Brunei's other food needs must be imported. Agriculture and fisheries are among the industrial sectors that the government has selected for highest priority in its efforts to diversify the economy; the following table shows the main economic indicators in 1980–2017.

Brunei Shell Petroleum, a joint venture owned in equal shares by the Brunei Government and the Royal Dutch/Shell group of companies, is the chief oil and gas production company in Brunei. It operates the country's only refinery. BSP and four sister companies constitute the largest employer in Brunei after the government. BSP's small refinery has a distillation capacity of 10,000 barrels per day; this satisfies domestic demand for most petroleum products. The French oil company Elf Aquitaine became active in petroleum exploration in Brunei in the 1980s, its affiliate Elf Petroleum Asia BV has discovered commercially exploitable quantities of oil and gas in three of the four wells drilled since 1987, including a promising discovery announced in early 1990. UNOCAL, partnered with New Zealand's Fletcher Challenge has been granted concessions for oil exploration. Brunei is preparing to tender concessions for deep water gas exploration. Brunei's oil production peaked in 1979 at over 240,000 barrels per day.

Since it has been deliberately cut back to extend the life of oil reserves and improve recovery rates. Petroleum production is averaging some 200,000 barrels per day. Japan has traditionally been the main customer for Brunei's oil exports, but its share dropped from 45% of the total in 1982 to 19% in 1998. In contrast, oil exports to South Korea increased from only 8% of the total in 19

Sleep cycle

The sleep cycle is an oscillation between the slow-wave and REM phases of sleep. It is sometimes called the ultradian sleep cycle, sleep–dream cycle, or REM-NREM cycle, to distinguish it from the circadian alternation between sleep and wakefulness. In humans this cycle takes 1–2 hours. Electroencephalography shows the timing of sleep cycles by virtue of the marked distinction in brainwaves manifested during REM and non-REM sleep. Delta wave activity, correlating with slow-wave sleep, in particular shows regular oscillations throughout a good night's sleep. Secretions of various hormones, including renin, growth hormone, prolactin, correlate positively with delta-wave activity, while secretion of thyroid-stimulating hormone correlates inversely. Heart rate variability, well known to increase during REM, predictably correlates inversely with delta-wave oscillations over the ~90-minute cycle. In order to determine in which stage of sleep the asleep subject is, electroencephalography is combined with other devices used for this differentiation.

EMG is a crucial method to distinguish between sleep phases: for example, in general, a decrease of muscle tone is characteristic of the transition from wake to sleep, during REM sleep there is a state of muscles atonia, resulting in an absence of signals in the EMG. EOG, the measure of the eyes’ movement, is the third method used in the sleep architecture measurement. Moreover, methods based on cardiorespiratry parameters are effective in the analysis of sleep architecture, if they are associated the other aforementioned measurements. Homeostatic functions thermoregulation, occur during non-REM sleep, but not during REM sleep. Thus, during REM sleep, body temperature tends to drift away from its mean level, during non-REM sleep, to return to normal. Alternation between the stages therefore maintains body temperature within an acceptable range. In humans the transition between non-REM and REM is abrupt. Researchers have proposed different models to elucidate the undoubtedly complex rhythm of electrochemical processes that result in the regular alternation of REM and NREM sleep.

Monoamines are active during NREMS but not REMS, whereas acetylcholine is more active during REMS. The reciprocal interaction model proposed in the 1970s suggested a cyclic give and take between these two systems. More recent theories such as the "flip-flop" model proposed in the 2000s include the regulatory role of in inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid; the standard figure given for the average length of the sleep cycle in an adult man is 90 minutes. N1 is when the person is awake to falling asleep. Brain waves and muscle activity start to decrease at this stage. N2 is. Eye movement has stopped by this time. Brain wave frequency and muscle tonus is decreased; the heart rate and body temperature goes down. N3 or N4 are the most difficult stages to be awakened; every part of the body is now relaxed, blood pressure and body temperature are reduced. The National Sleep Foundation discusses the different stages of their importance, they describe REM sleep as "A unique state, in which dreams occur.

The brain is awake and body paralyzed." This unique stage is when the person is in the deepest stage of sleep and dreams. The figure of 90 minutes for the average length of a sleep cycle was popularized by Nathaniel Kleitman around 1963. Other sources give 90 -- 80 -- 120 minutes. In infants the sleep cycle lasts about 50–60 minutes. In cats the sleep cycle lasts about 30 minutes, in rats about 12 minutes, in elephants up to 120 minutes; the cycle can be defined as lasting from the end of one REM period to the end of the next, or from the beginning of REM, or from the beginning of non-REM stage 2. A 7–8-hour sleep includes five cycles, the middle two of which tend to be longer than the first and fourth. REM takes up more of the cycle. Unprovoked awakening occurs most during or after a period of REM sleep, as body temperature is rising. Ernest Hartmann found in 1968 that humans seem to continue a 90-minute ultradian rhythm throughout a 24-hour day, whether they are asleep or awake. According to this hypothesis, during the period of this cycle corresponding with REM, people tend to daydream more and show less muscle tone.

Kleitman and others following have referred to this rhythm as the basic rest–activity cycle, of which the "sleep cycle" would be a manifestation. A difficulty for this theory is the fact that a long non-REM phase always precedes REM, regardless of when in the cycle a person falls asleep; the sleep cycle has proven resistant to systematic alteration by drugs. Although some drugs shorten REM periods, they do not abolish the underlying rhythm. Deliberate REM deprivation shortens the cycle temporarily, as the brain moves into REM sleep more in an apparent correction for the deprivation. Michel Jouvet fo

William Arthur Heazell

William Arthur Heazell FRIBA was an architect based in Nottingham. William Arthur Heazell was born on the son of Robert Heazell and Mary, he was educated at Nottingham. He was articled to Messrs Waler of Nottingham in 1846 and was assistant to Walker and Rawlinson, he set himself up in practice in Nottingham in 1854 entering into a partnership with Arthur Ernest Heazell as Heazell and Son. In 1893 he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Institute of British Architects, he was President of the Nottingham Architectural Society in 1883. He married Anne Nicholson on 18 June 1861 at Holy Trinity Church, Trinity Square, they had eight children: Emily Annie Heazell Arthur Ernest Heazell who joined him in practice Francis Nicholson Heazell Edward Henry Heazell Kate Mary Heazell Frederic William Heazell Walter Albert Heaell Edith May Heazell He retired in 1903 and died in 1917 and is buried in the Church Cemetery Mansfield Road Nottingham. Warehouse for W. Cotton, Weekday Cross, Nottingham 1874-75 St Mark's Church, Nottingham 1875 New chancel St Stephen's Mission Schools, Charlotte Street/Mount East Street, Nottingham 1875.

Simkin's butchers shop, Angel Row, Nottingham 1876 Nottingham Cemetery Chapel, 1876 220 Station Road, Beeston Cottage. 1877-78 Warehouse, 32a, Stoney Street, Nottingham 1885 restored after a fire St Jude's Church, Mapperley 1892-93 New chancel 1 Houndsgate 1887 6 Bridlesmith Gate/21 St Peter's Gate, Nottingham, 1895-96 45 Bridlesmith Gate, Nottingham 1896 19 Stoney Street, Nottingham 1898 Semi-detached villas, 429-443 Mansfield Road, Nottingham Insurance Offices, Upper Parliament Street, Nottingham 1900 Church of St Mary the Virgin and All Souls, Bulwell 1900 New Reredos 17 Stoney Street, Nottingham 1901 National Westminster Bank, Radford Road/Gregory Boulevard, Nottingham 1901 Coach and Horses, Upper Parliament Street, Nottingham 1904 St Andrew's Church, Nottingham 1905 porch and vestries Oriel Chambers, Long Row, Nottingham 1905-06 Letchworth Garden City mission church, 1908 St Mark's Church, Nottingham 1908 New hall 34-35 Long Row, Nottingham 1910 15 Stoney Street, Nottingham 1910 All Saints’ Church, Stanley Common, Derbyshire 1913 George Hotel, George Street, Nottingham 1914 remodelling

Ian Clarke (flautist)

Ian Clarke is a British flautist and composer. Born in Broadstairs to a chemist father and a mother who gave private music lessons in cello and piano, Clarke's musical studies began on recorder at age 6, he started piano lessons at age 8, developed an interest in the flute by age 10, such that he began to teach himself how to play the flute. Following early private lessons from clarinet teachers, at age 16, he began private lessons with Simon Hunt and Averil Williams at the Guildhall School of Music and Drama. Whilst Clarke listened to classical music in his childhood, with time, he developed an increasing interest in rock music. Clarke read mathematics for a year at the London School of Economics, but left university for a year to focus on playing the flute, where his teachers included Kate Lukas, he formed a rock band. He continued part-time studies at Guildhall whilst giving private lessons and performing with his rock band, he transferred to Imperial College London to complete his degree, graduated with Honours in mathematics in 1986.

Clarke and his rock band recorded an album in Environmental Images. The band evolved and by 1992 had taken the name Diva Music, a collaboration between Clarke and Simon Painter. Diva Music has produced music for television. Since 2000, Clarke has been professor of flute at the Guildhall School of Drama, he has given master classes at the Royal Academy of Music, the Royal Scottish Academy, the Royal Northern College of Music, the Royal Welsh College of Music and Drama and Trinity College of Music and has been invited to perform & lead workshops at numerous flute events and summer schools internationally. Along with Clare Southworth, Clarke led the Woldingham International Summer School for many years. In 2013, he took up performance at the Scottish Summer School. Clarke made his international debut in 2001 as guest soloist at the International Flute Convention of the National Flute Association in Dallas, he was the guest artist at the 2003 Hungarian National Flute Event and a headline artist in the 2005 NFA convention in San Diego.

He has since performed as a featured guest soloist at major conventions in Italy, Slovenia, Hungary and numerous times for the British Flute Society and for the NFA. In 2005, Clarke released his debut CD, which featured twelve of his own compositions. Clarke has composed classical works for solo flute, for flute and piano and for "flute choir", his composing makes much use of extended techniques – jet whistles, timbral trills, alternative fingerings, simultaneous singing and playing. Clarke's work to greater public attention in the UK when flautist David Smith chose to perform Clarke's composition Zoom Tube in the woodwind finals of the 2008 BBC Young Musician of the Year competition. Zoom Tube The Great Train Race Beverley Orange Dawn The Mad Hatter Sunstreams & Sunday Morning Hypnosis Spiral Lament Touching the Ether Hatching Aliens Deep Blue T R K s Tuberama Within… maya Curves Within… Walk Like This Zig Zag Zoo Ian Clarke's Web Site Famous Flute Players: Ian Clarke Guildhall School of Music & Drama page on Ian Clarke

Rayleigh flow

Rayleigh flow refers to frictionless, non-Adiabatic flow through a constant area duct where the effect of heat addition or rejection is considered. Compressibility effects come into consideration, although the Rayleigh flow model also applies to incompressible flow. For this model, the duct area remains constant and no mass is added within the duct. Therefore, unlike Fanno flow, the stagnation temperature is a variable; the heat addition causes a decrease in stagnation pressure, known as the Rayleigh effect and is critical in the design of combustion systems. Heat addition will cause both supersonic and subsonic Mach numbers to approach Mach 1, resulting in choked flow. Conversely, heat rejection decreases a subsonic Mach number and increases a supersonic Mach number along the duct, it can be shown that for calorically perfect flows the maximum entropy occurs at M = 1. Rayleigh flow is named after 3rd Baron Rayleigh; the Rayleigh flow model begins with a differential equation that relates the change in Mach number with the change in stagnation temperature, T0.

The differential equation is shown below. D M 2 M 2 = 1 + γ M 2 1 − M 2 d T 0 T 0 Solving the differential equation leads to the relation shown below, where T0* is the stagnation temperature at the throat location of the duct, required for thermally choking the flow. T 0 T 0 ∗ = 2 M 2 2. For example, if a turbojet combustion chamber has a maximum temperature of T0* = 2000 K, T0 and M at the entrance to the combustion chamber must be selected so thermal choking does not occur, which will limit the mass flow rate of air into the engine and decrease thrust. For the Rayleigh flow model, the dimensionless change in entropy relation is shown below. Δ S = Δ s c p = l n The above equation can be used to plot the Rayleigh line on a Mach number versus ΔS graph, but the dimensionless enthalpy, H, versus ΔS diagram is more used. The dimensionless enthalpy equation is shown below with an equation relating the static temperature with its value at the choke location for a calorically perfect gas where the heat capacity at constant pressure, cp, remains constant.

H = h h ∗ = c p T c p T ∗ = T T ∗ T T ∗ = 2 The above equation can be manipulated to solve for M as a function of H. However, due to the form of the T/T* equation, a complicated multi-root relation is formed for M = M. Instead, M can be chosen as an independent variable where ΔS and H can be matched up in a chart as shown in Figure 1. Figure 1 shows that heating will increase an upstream, subsonic Mach number until M = 1.0 and the flow chokes. Conversely, adding heat to a duct with an upstream, supersonic Mach number will cause the Mach number to decrease until the flow chokes. Cooling produces the opposite result for each of those two cases; the Rayleigh flow model reaches maximum entropy a

World Network of Biosphere Reserves

The UNESCO World Network of Biosphere Reserves covers internationally designated protected areas, each known as biosphere reserves, that are meant to demonstrate a balanced relationship between people and nature. The World Network of Biosphere Reserves of the MAB Programme consists of a dynamic and interactive network of sites, it works to foster the harmonious integration of people and nature for sustainable development through participatory dialogue, knowledge sharing, poverty reduction, human well-being improvements, respect for cultural values and by improving society’s ability to cope with climate change. It promotes North-South and South-South collaboration and represents a unique tool for international cooperation through the exchange of experiences and know-how, capacity-building and the promotion of best practices; as of 2019 total membership had reached 686 biosphere reserves in 122 countries occurring in all regions of the world. Myanmar had its first biosphere reserve inscribed in 2015.

This takes into account some biosphere reserves that have been withdrawn or revised through the years, as the program’s focus has shifted from simple protection of nature to areas displaying close interaction between man and environment. 1 Includes the Intercontinental Biosphere Reserve of the Mediterranean, shared between Morocco and Spain* Source - UNESCO Directory of the World Network of Biosphere Reserves, 2019 Article 4 of the "Statutory Framework of the World Network of Biosphere Reserves". Defines the criteria for Biosphere Reserves, including it should encompass a mosaic of ecological systems representative of major bio geographical regions, including a graduation of human interventions It should be of significance for biological diversity conservation It should provide an opportunity to explore and demonstrate approaches to sustainable development on a regional scale It should have an appropriate size to fulfill the three functions of biosphere reserves It should include these functions through appropriate zonation, recognizing core and outer transition zones.

Article 9 of the Statutory Framework states that “the status of each biosphere reserve should be subject to a periodic review every ten years, based on a report prepared by the concerned authority, on the basis of the criteria of Article 4". If a biosphere reserve no longer satisfies the criteria contained in Article 4, it may be recommended the state concerned take measures to ensure conformity. Should a biosphere reserve still does not satisfy the criteria contained in Article 4, within a reasonable period, the area will no longer be referred to as a biosphere reserve, part of the network. Article 9 of the Statutory Framework gives a state the right to remove a biosphere reserve under its jurisdiction from the network; as of 2018, a total of 45 sites had been withdrawn from the World Network of Biosphere Reserves by 9 countries. Some reserves have been withdrawn after they no longer met newer, stricter criteria for reserves, for example on zonation or area size. In June 2017, during the International Coordinating Council of the Man and the Biosphere Programme meeting in Paris, the United States has withdrawn 17 sites from the program.

Searchable list of UNESCO World Network of Biosphere Reserves