The economy of Burundi is dependent on agriculture, which accounts for 32.9% of GDP in 2008. Burundi itself is a resource-poor country with an underdeveloped manufacturing sector. Agriculture supports more than 70% of the labour force, the majority of whom are subsistence farmers. Although Burundi is self-sufficient in food production, the ongoing civil unrest and soil erosion have contributed to the contraction of the subsistence economy by 25% in recent years. Large numbers of internally displaced persons have been unable to produce their own food and are dependent on international humanitarian assistance. Burundi is a net food importer, with food accounting for 17% of imports in 1997. Little industry exists except for the processing of agricultural exports. Although potential wealth in petroleum, nickel and other natural resources is being explored, the uncertain security situation has prevented meaningful investor interest. Industrial development is hampered by Burundi's distance from the sea and high transport costs.
Lake Tanganyika remains an important trading point. The trade embargo, lifted in 1999, negatively impacted industry. Since October 1993 the nation has suffered from massive ethnic-based violence which has resulted in the death of 250,000 people and the displacement of about 800,000 others. Foods and electricity remain in short supply. Burundi is dependent on bilateral and multilateral aid, with external debt totaling $1.247 billion in 1997. A series of unsuccessful 5-year plans initiated in July 1986 in partnership with the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund attempted to reform the foreign exchange system, liberalize imports, reduce restrictions on international transactions, diversify exports, reform the coffee industry. IMF structural adjustment programs in Burundi were suspended following the outbreak of the crisis in 1993; the World Bank has identified key areas for potential growth, including the productivity of traditional crops and the introduction of new exports, light manufactures, industrial mining, services.
Other serious problems include the state's role in the economy, the question of governmental transparency, debt reduction. To protest the 1996 coup by President Pierre Buyoya, neighboring countries imposed an economic embargo on Burundi. Although the embargo was never ratified by the United Nations Security Council, most countries refrained from official trade with Burundi. Following the coup, the United States suspended all but humanitarian aid to Burundi; the regional embargo was lifted on January 23, 1999, based on progress by the government in advancing national reconciliation through the Burundi peace process. In an article titled "The Blood Cries Out," Foreign Policy reported that the Burundian population growth rate is 2.5 percent per year, more than double the average global pace, that a Burundian woman has on average 6.3 children, nearly triple the international fertility rate. FP further reported that "The vast majority of Burundians rely on subsistence farming, but under the weight of a booming population and in the long-standing absence of coherent policies governing land ownership, many people have enough earth to sustain themselves."
In 2014, the average size for a farm was about one acre. FP added that "The consequence is remarkable scarcity: In the 2013 Global Hunger Index, Burundi had the severest hunger and malnourishment rates of all 120 countries ranked." The following table shows the main economic indicators in 1980–2017. United Nations Economic Commission for Africa List of companies based in Burundi Burundi portal This article incorporates public domain material from the CIA World Factbook website https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/index.html. Economy of Burundi at Curlie Burundi latest trade data on ITC Trade Map
Spartan is a historical fiction novel written by the Italian writer Valerio Massimo Manfredi in 1988. It tells the tale of two Spartan brothers: Brithos, the elder of the two, a strong and healthy boy and Talos, a crippled and weak; because of the rigorous Spartan laws, Talos must be sacrificed to the wolves of Mount Taygetus as his physical weakness would not permit him to help the military city of Sparta during its many wars. However, the young Talos miraculously survives. Nobody would have imagined that the two brothers would meet again and less so that they would meet on a battlefield. Spartan is the story of two brothers born in the military city-state of Sparta; the elder brother, was a Spartan paragon. Because of the cruel and strict laws in vigour at Sparta, babies that were deformed, crippled or had any health issues would not serve the city-state its purpose, to battle; the young Talos however survives, rescued by a shepherd of the Helots, the people who served as slaves to the Spartans.
This shepherd, who becomes Talos' adoptive father, raises Talos with love and recounts him the intriguing tale of Aristodemus, the last King of the Helots. The legend goes. However, the blood that runs in his veins is Spartan after all. Here he faces the inhuman brutality and savagery of the Spartan soldiers and meets his brother for the first time since their separation; when he crosses his brother's gaze whilst attempting to protect Antinea, the woman he loves. But destiny has got a better fate for them in store: as a war between the Achaemenid Empire and the Greek city-states looms, the two brothers will find each other again and will fight shoulder to shoulder for the future of their country. Along the way, he discovers; when his brother dies, he oversees the Helots, with the help of his friend Karas, helps the Helots have victory over his own race
Bruce Edward MacCarthy is a former Australian politician. He was the Liberal Party member for Strathfield in the New South Wales Legislative Assembly from 1996 to 1999. MacCarthy was born in a suburb of Sydney, to parents Thornton and Constance, he attended Homebush Boys' High School, graduating in 1965. He attended the University of Sydney from 1966 to 1968, where he received a Bachelor of Science, joined the Liberal Party on 14 March 1967. On 8 August 1974 he married Leanne Gaye Hilder at Concord, with, he received a Bachelor of Economics in 1976 from the University of New England, worked as a public sector manager. His most prominent position was as Manager of Public Affairs for the Electricity Association of New South Wales, 1988–95. In 1996, the Liberal MP for the local state seat of Strathfield, Paul Zammit, resigned to contest the Australian House of Representatives. MacCarthy was selected as the Liberal candidate for the resulting by-election, which he won with little difficulty. In 1999, Strathfield was redistributed and took in large parts of Ashfield, a Labor seat.
Although the margin was still notionally Liberal, MacCarthy was resoundingly defeated by Ashfield Labor MP Paul Whelan. After his defeat, MacCarthy worked as a part-time member of the New South Wales Election Funding Authority until 2003. In 2006 he was appointed a senior member of the Migration Review Tribunal
Al-Khor Sports Club is a Qatari professional sports club based in Al Khor, featuring teams in a number of sports including football, basketball, handball, table tennis and swimming. It is best known for its football team, it plays its home games at Al Khor Stadium. Al-Khor was unofficially established in 1951 by oil workers to fulfill them with the appropriate facility to invest their energy after their participation with the multinational oil companies at the time; the club was re-established in 1961 and adopted football as its primary sport, as well other recreational sports and activities. The club coincided within the presence of two other clubs in Al-Khor, with the three operating separately from each other, they merged with one of the clubs, Al-Jeel Sports Club in 1962. In 1964, they conglomerated with Nahdi Al-Aswad and had formally made a request to join the Qatar Football Association on 10 June that year. From on, the club was known as Al-Taawun. Embracing the youth movement, they drew up plans and programs and being provided funds for all the facilities, the club was able to expand the base of participation in most sports as well as participate in various activities.
Their original club colors from 1961 were yellow and white. The colors were changed to blue and white after entering the football league in 1964, their current crest features all 3 colors in it. In 2004, by decision of the Qatar Olympic Committee, the club changed its name to Al Khor, in order to reflect on where the club's headquarters are located. Qatar Crown Prince CupWinners Qatar Sheikh Jassem CupWinners: 2003Qatari 2nd Division:Winners: 1983 Q = Qualification GS = Group stage R16 = Round of 16 QF = Quarter-final SF = Semi-finalGCC Champions League 2009 FIFA Confederations Cup: The following players have played in the FIFA Confederations Cup whilst playing for Al Khor: 2009 – Alaa Abdul-Zahra 2009 – Mahdi Karim 2009 – Salam Shakir Gulf Club Champions Cup: 3 appearances2008: Group stage 2010: Group stage 2011: Semi-finals 2012: Semi-finals As of Qatar Stars League
The 48th Battalion was an infantry battalion of the Australian Army. It was raised in 1916 for service during World War I and took part in the fighting in the trenches of the Western Front in France and Belgium, before being disbanded in early 1919. After the war, the battalion was re-raised as a part-time unit based in Victoria and in South Australia. In 1930 it was amalgamated with the 43rd Battalion and remained so until late 1939, subsequently being linked with the 10th Battalion in 1942; the battalion did not see combat during World War II, after the war was re-raised as an amalgamated unit, again with the 43rd Battalion, in 1952. They remained linked until 1960 when the 43rd/48th Battalion was subsumed by the Royal South Australia Regiment; the 48th Battalion was raised in Egypt on 16 March 1916 as part of the reorganisation and expansion of the Australian Imperial Force following the Gallipoli campaign. This was achieved by transferring cadres of experienced personnel predominately from the 1st Division to the newly formed battalions and combining them with recruited personnel, dispatched as reinforcements from Australia.
The unit's first intake of personnel were drawn from men originating from South Australia and Western Australia, many of whom had served with the 16th Battalion. Under the command of Lieutenant Colonel Raymond Leane of the 11th Battalion, the battalion became part of the 12th Brigade attached to the 4th Australian Division. Several of Leane's relatives, including his brother, who served as adjutant, three of his nephews – Allan and Geoffrey – and a few others served in the 48th; as a result, the battalion was nicknamed the "Joan of Arc Battalion", in reference to a quip that the battalion was "made of Leanes" – that is, a pun on Joan's own nickname, "The Maid of Orleans. Throughout March and April 1916, the battalion undertook training in the desert before being moved to Habieta in early May where they manned defensive positions as a precaution against a possible Ottoman attack on the Suez Canal. On 1 June, after a preliminary march to Serapeum, the battalion was moved by rail to Alexandria and boarded the troopship Caledonia, which sailed for France two days later.
They docked at Marseilles on 9 June, after. In July and August, the battalion was committed to the fighting along the Western Front for the first time, taking part in the Battle of Pozières, during which it suffered 598 casualties out of its complement of just over 1,000 men. Following this, it undertook a defensive role around Mouquet Farm, before being moved to Flanders where they rotated with the other three battalions of the brigade to man a sector of the line south of Ypres. No major attacks occurred in their sector during this time, although there were a few casualties, the battalion was able to replace some of its losses, reaching a strength of around 700 men. After enduring the worst European winter in 40 years, during which they continued to take their turn at the front line, in March 1917 the battalion followed up the Germans as they withdrew towards the Hindenburg Line. A new defensive line was established further west and early the following month the battalion attacked around Bullecourt, suffering 435 casualties.
Its next major battle came around Passchendaele in October. With three companies forward and one in reserve, the battalion advanced in its sector, taking over 200 prisoners; as the advance stalled on their left, the battalion was caught in a German counterattack and suffered losing 369 men killed or wounded, out of the 621 men involved. After Passchendaele, the battalion was withdrawn out of the line throughout the winter, before being moved to Belgium in January 1918. In March 1918, following the collapse of Russia, the Germans launched the "Spring Offensive", a major operation on the Western Front; as the Allies were pushed back, the 48th Battalion undertook a defensive role around Dernancourt, blocking the Amiens Road, before joining the final Allied offensive around Amiens in August. It was withdrawn from the line in mid-September and did not see action again before the war ended in November. During its last battle, at Le Verguier, north-west of St. Quentin, Private James Woods performed the deeds that resulted in him receiving the Victoria Cross.
The 48th Battalion was disbanded on 31 March 1919. During the fighting, it suffered lost 843 killed in action or died on active service and 1,628 wounded. Members of the battalion received the following decorations: one VC, one Companion of the Order of St Michael and St George, four Distinguished Service Orders, 36 Military Crosses, 23 Distinguished Conduct Medals, 177 Military Medals, three Meritorious Service Medals, eight French Croix de Guerres. A total of 16 battle honours were awarded to the 48th Battalion in 1927 for its involvement in the war. In 1921, the battalion was re-raised as part the re-organisation of the Australian military that took place at that time. Assigned to the 3rd Military District, the battalion was raised as a part-time unit in Victoria, drawing personnel from the Citizen Forces' 5th Battalion, 24th Infantry Regiment. Following a re-organisation, the Victorian-based 48th Battalion became the 52nd Battalion and the 48th Battalion was re-raised in South Australia from the 32nd Infantry Regiment, which traced its lineage back to the 79th Infantry.
In 1927, the battalion adopted the territorial designation of the "Torrens Regiment" and the motto Nunquam Victis, was entrusted with battle honours from World War I. In 1930, an alliance with the Northamptonshire Regiment was formed; that year, am
Amilton Minervino da Silva, or Amilton, is a Brazilian professional footballer who plays as a right winger for Süper Lig side Antalyaspor. He spent most of his career in Portugal, where he achieved Primeira Liga totals of 75 games and 9 goals for União da Madeira and Aves lifting the Taça de Portugal with the latter in 2018. Born in Pernambuco, Amilton began his career with Sport Club Peladeiros in the Viana do Castelo Football Association's second district league in 2008–09, he made the short journey over the border to play with CD Ourense B in Spain came back to the district's top tier to play for Sport Clube Valenciano. He played two seasons with Varzim S. C. and earned promotion from the third tier at the end of the latter signed a three-year deal with newly promoted Primeira Liga club C. F. União in July 2015. Amilton scored five times as the Madeirans were relegated, including two on 3 April 2016 as they held Vitória F. C. to a 2–2 home draw. He joined LigaPro club Portimonense S. C. that July.
Manager Vítor Oliveira led the Algarve side to the title and Amilton contributed a career-best professional haul of six goals, including two on 17 December in a 3–0 home win over S. C. Freamunde. In January 2017, Portuguese manager Vítor Pereira signed Amilton and Lumor Agbenyenu from Portimonense, with the Brazilian signing until 2020, he did not score as the team suffered relegation from the 2. Bundesliga via the play-offs, returned to Portugal's top flight in July on a three-year deal at C. D. Aves. In his debut season in Vila das Aves, Amilton was the top scorer with five goals as the side won the Taça de Portugal, their first major trophy; this included a hat-trick on 13 December 2017 in the last 16, in a 5–1 win at former club União. In January 2019, after falling out with manager Augusto Inácio, he was loaned to Antalyaspor of the Turkish Süper Lig with an option to buy. Amilton Minervino da Silva at Soccerway Amilton at ForaDeJogo