The economy of Chad suffers from the landlocked country's geographic remoteness, lack of infrastructure, political turmoil. About 85% of the population depends on agriculture, including the herding of livestock. Of Africa's Francophone countries, Chad benefited least from the 50% devaluation of their currencies in January 1994. Financial aid from the World Bank, the African Development Bank, other sources is directed at the improvement of agriculture livestock production; because of lack of financing, the development of oil fields near Doba due to finish in 2000, was delayed until 2003. It was developed and is now operated by Exxon Mobil Corporation; the following table shows the main economic indicators in 1980–2017. GDP: purchasing power parity - $28.62 billion GDP - real growth rate: -3.1% GDP - per capita: $2,300 Gross national saving: 15.5% of GDP GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 52.3% industry: 14.7% services: 33.1% Population below poverty line:: 46.7% Distribution of family income - Gini index: 43.3 Inflation rate: -0.9% Labor force: 5.654 million Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 80%, industry and services 20% Budget: revenues: 1.337 billion expenditures: 1.481 billion Budget surplus or deficit: -1.5% Public debt: 52.5% of GDP Industries: oil, cotton textiles, natron, cigarettes, construction materials Industrial production growth rate: -4% electrification: total population: 4% electrification: urban areas: 14% electrification: rural areas: 1% Electricity - production: 224.3 million kWh Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 98% hydro: 0% nuclear: 0% other renewable: 3% Electricity - consumption: 208.6 million kWh Electricity - exports: 0 kWh Electricity - imports: 0 kWh Agriculture - products: cotton, millet, sesame, rice, onions, cattle, goats, camels Exports: $2.464 billion Exports - commodities: oil, cotton, gum arabic, shea butter Exports - partners: US 38.7%, China 16.6%, Netherlands 15.7%, UAE 12.2%, India 6.3% Imports: $2.16 billion Imports - commodities: machinery and transportation equipment, industrial goods, textiles Imports - partners: China 19.9%, Cameroon 17.2%, France 17%, US 5.4%, India 4.9%, Senegal 4.5% Debt - external: $1.724 billion Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $22.9 million Chad Economy of Africa Petroleum industry in Chad United Nations Economic Commission for Africa General This article incorporates public domain material from the CIA World Factbook website https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/index.html.
Economy of Chad at Curlie Chad latest trade data on ITC Trade Map World Bank -- Chad-Cameroon Pipeline Project
Shaka Sola is a Samoan shot putter and discus thrower who became a popular if surprising star at the 2005 World Championships in Athletics. At the 2005 World Championships in Athletics, Sola arrived late, having missed his flight from Samoa, did not reach the games until his specialist event had completed; as compensation, he asked to be allowed to compete in the javelin, although he had never thrown a javelin. Sola finished last in the event by a considerable distance, throwing the javelin 41.18 metres, over 17 metres less than the next worst competitor. He was roundly applauded and supported by the other javelin throwers, all of whom were aware of the reasons for his participation in that event. Sola, though not a spectacular javelin thrower, is more than capable in his own sports, he won gold at the 2004 Oceania Athletics Championships in both discus and shot put, represented Samoa in the discus at the 2004 Olympic Games. In 2005, Sola competed in the South Pacific Mini Games for the first time, winning two medals - one gold and one silver.
He first competed in the shot put, winning his medal of the games. Sola competed in the discus and came second place with a throw of 49.33. Shaka Sola at World Athletics Sports reference biography
Yann-Ber Kalloc'h was a Breton war poet who wrote in both Breton and French. Yann-Ber Kalloc'h was born on the island of Groix, near Quimper, on July 24, 1888, he was the son of his wife. He describes his childhood in the autobiographical poem. Kalloc'h at first wanted to become a Roman Catholic priest and entered the minor seminary of St Anne d'Auray in 1900 the major seminary at Vannes in October 1905, he was forced to renounce his vocation after his two sisters and his younger brother revealed signs of mental illness, since canon law forbade the priesthood to those who had relatives suffering from such diseases. Yann-Ber had dreamed of being a missionary and his exclusion from the priesthood brought him great distress, he became tutor in various cities including Paris. During military service, Yann-Ber made a point of teaching fellow Bretons to read and write in their own language, his earliest writings were in French. Taking the bardic name of Bard Bleimor, Kalloc'h wrote for various regionalist and autonomist newspapers.
He used to say, "I am not in the least bit French."According to Ian Higgins, "When the war came, Calloc'h, like so many others, saw it as a defense of civilization and Christianity, volunteered for the front. Only Ireland and Brittany, he writes in one poem, still help Christ carry the cross: in the fight to reinvigorate Christianity, the Celtic people's are in the van. In addition, now fighting for France, he saw the war as the great chance to affirm the national identity of Brittany and resurrect it's language and culture."On October 12, 1915, he wrote a letter to Achille Collin which became the basis for a 1919 petition in favor of Breton. Yann-Ber Kalloc'h was a terrible foe in hand to hand combat and wielded a sailor's axe used in the French Navy for boarding enemy ships, his motto was "For God and Brittany". He was killed in action when a German shell landed near his dugout near Urvillers/Cerizy on April 10, 1917. In Brittany, at least six streets bear his name, his name appears in the Panthéon with those of 546 other writers who were killed in the First World War.
The Breton Scouting organization Bleimor is named in his honor. In her 2009 album Uam, Scottish vocalist and folk singer Julie Fowlis performed Kalloc'h's song Me'zo Ganet kreiz ar e mor; the lyrics were translated from the Breton language to Scottish Gaelic. The literary work which reveals him to be one of the greatest Breton authors is a posthumous collection, of poems mystical, as in Ar deulin published by his friend Pierre Mocaer in 1925; this collection includes the famous poem Me'zo Ganet kreiz ar e mor. In these poems composed in large part to the front, he expresses his deep Roman Catholic faith, love of his native language and feelings in favor of Breton political autonomy. According to Ian Higgins, "His pre-war poetry is either devotional, militantly Catholic or militantly Breton; these three strands are spun into one. Calloc'h himself selected what he thought was the best of his work, gave the manuscript, along with his own French translations of most of the poems. If he were killed, it was to be published, under the title Ar en deulin.
(The book by L. Paulus contains further texts, including two short stories revealing a touch of humour one would not have expected from the author of Ar en deulin." Tim Cross The Lost Voices of World War I: an international anthology of writers and playwrights. Iowa City: University of Iowa Press ISBN 0-7475-0276-5