Insurance is a means of protection from financial loss. It is a form of risk management primarily used to hedge against the risk of a contingent, an entity which provides insurance is known as an insurer, insurance company, or insurance carrier. A person or entity who buys insurance is known as an insured or policyholder, the insured receives a contract, called the insurance policy, which details the conditions and circumstances under which the insured will be financially compensated. The amount of money charged by the insurer to the insured for the coverage set forth in the policy is called the premium. If the insured experiences a loss which is covered by the insurance policy. Methods for transferring or distributing risk were practiced by Chinese and Babylonian traders as long ago as the 3rd and 2nd millennia BC, Chinese merchants travelling treacherous river rapids would redistribute their wares across many vessels to limit the loss due to any single vessels capsizing. The Babylonians developed a system which was recorded in the famous Code of Hammurabi, c.1750 BC, and practiced by early Mediterranean sailing merchants.
If a merchant received a loan to fund his shipment, he would pay the lender an additional sum in exchange for the guarantee to cancel the loan should the shipment be stolen. At some point in the 1st millennium BC, the inhabitants of Rhodes created the general average and this allowed groups of merchants to pay to insure their goods being shipped together. The collected premiums would be used to any merchant whose goods were jettisoned during transport. Separate insurance contracts were invented in Genoa in the 14th century, the first known insurance contract dates from Genoa in 1347, and in the next century maritime insurance developed widely and premiums were intuitively varied with risks. These new insurance contracts allowed insurance to be separated from investment, Insurance became far more sophisticated in Enlightenment era Europe, and specialized varieties developed. Property insurance as we know it today can be traced to the Great Fire of London, initially,5,000 homes were insured by his Insurance Office.
At the same time, the first insurance schemes for the underwriting of business ventures became available, by the end of the seventeenth century, Londons growing importance as a center for trade was increasing demand for marine insurance. These informal beginnings led to the establishment of the insurance market Lloyds of London and several related shipping, the first life insurance policies were taken out in the early 18th century. The first company to offer life insurance was the Amicable Society for a Perpetual Assurance Office, founded in London in 1706 by William Talbot, edward Rowe Mores established the Society for Equitable Assurances on Lives and Survivorship in 1762. In the late 19th century, accident insurance began to become available and this operated much like modern disability insurance. The first company to offer accident insurance was the Railway Passengers Assurance Company, by the late 19th century, governments began to initiate national insurance programs against sickness and old age
Printing is a process for reproducing text and images using a master form or template. The earliest examples include Cylinder seals and other such as the Cyrus Cylinder. The earliest known form of printing came from China dating to before 220 A. D. Later developments in printing include the type, first developed by Bi Sheng in China around 1040 AD. Johannes Gutenberg introduced mechanical movable type printing to Europe in the 15th century, modern large-scale printing is typically done using a printing press, while small-scale printing is done free-form with a digital printer. Though paper is the most common material, it is frequently done on metals, cloth. On paper it is carried out as a large-scale industrial process and is an essential part of publishing. Woodblock printing is a technique for printing text, images or patterns that was used widely throughout East Asia and it originated in China in antiquity as a method of printing on textiles and on paper. As a method of printing on cloth, the earliest surviving examples from China date to before 220 A.
D, the earliest surviving woodblock printed fragments are from China. They are of silk printed with flowers in three colours from the Han Dynasty and they are the earliest example of woodblock printing on paper appeared in the mid-seventh century in China. By the ninth century, printing on paper had taken off, by the tenth century,400,000 copies of some sutras and pictures were printed, and the Confucian classics were in print. A skilled printer could print up to 2,000 double-page sheets per day, Printing spread early to Korea and Japan, which used Chinese logograms, but the technique was used in Turpan and Vietnam using a number of other scripts. This technique spread to Persia and Russia and this technique was transmitted to Europe via the Islamic world, and by around 1400 was being used on paper for old master prints and playing cards. However, Arabs never used this to print the Quran because of the limits imposed by Islamic doctrine, block printing, called tarsh in Arabic developed in Arabic Egypt during the ninth-tenth centuries, mostly for prayers and amulets.
There is some evidence to suggest that these print blocks made from non-wood materials, possibly tin, the techniques employed are uncertain and they appear to have had very little influence outside of the Muslim world. Though Europe adopted woodblock printing from the Muslim world, initially for fabric, block printing went out of use in Islamic Central Asia after movable type printing was introduced from China. Block printing first came to Europe as a method for printing on cloth, images printed on cloth for religious purposes could be quite large and elaborate. When paper became relatively easily available, around 1400, the medium transferred very quickly to small religious images
Chicago metropolitan area
The Chicago metropolitan area, or Chicagoland, is the metropolitan area associated with the city of Chicago and its suburbs. With an estimated population of 9.4 million people, it is the third largest metropolitan area in the United States, Chicagoland is the area that is closely linked to the city through geographic, social and cultural ties. The Chicago metropolitan area is one of the world’s largest and most diversified economies, with more than four million employees, the region is home to more than 400 major corporate headquarters, including 31 in the Fortune 500. The Chicago Metropolitan Statistical Area was originally designated by the United States Census Bureau in 1950 and it comprised the Illinois counties of Cook, DuPage, Kane and Will, along with Lake County in Indiana. As surrounding counties saw an increase in their population densities and the number of their residents employed within Cook County, the Chicago MSA, now defined as the Chicago-Naperville-Elgin, IL-IN-WI Metropolitan Statistical Area, is the third largest MSA by population in the United States.
The 2015 census estimate for the MSA was 9,427,676 and this loss of population has been attributed to taxes, political issues, and other factors. A breakdown of the 2009 estimated populations of the three Metropolitan Divisions of the MSA are as follows, The OMB defines a larger region as a Combined Statistical Area. The Chicago-Naperville, IL-IN-WI Combined Statistical Area combines the areas of Chicago, Michigan City. This area represents the extent of the market pool for the entire region. The CSA has a population of 9,928,312, the Chicago urban agglomeration, according to the United Nations World Urbanization Prospects report, lists a population of 9,545,000. The term “urban agglomeration” refers to the contained within the contours of a contiguous territory inhabited at urban density levels. It usually incorporates the population in a city plus that in the surrounding area, Chicagoland is an informal name for the Chicago metropolitan area. The term Chicagoland has no definition, and the region is often considered to include areas beyond the corresponding MSA.
Colonel Robert R. McCormick and publisher of the Chicago Tribune, mcCormicks conception of Chicagoland stretched all the way to nearby parts of four states. The first usage was in the Tribunes July 27,1926 front page headline, Chicagolands Shrines, A Tour of Discoveries and he stated that Chicagoland comprised everything in a 200-mile radius in every direction and reported on many different places in the area. The Tribune was the dominant newspaper in a vast area stretching to the west of the city, the Chicago Tribunes usage includes the city of Chicago, the rest of Cook County, eight nearby Illinois counties, and the two Indiana counties of Lake and Porter. Illinois Department of Tourism literature uses Chicagoland for suburbs in Cook, Lake, DuPage, the Chicagoland Chamber of Commerce defines it as all of Cook, DuPage, Lake, McHenry, and Will counties. For example, many residents who live in some of the more distant satellite counties nonetheless refer to themselves as being from Chicago or Chicagoans
Mondelez International, Inc. styled Mondelēz, is an American multinational confectionery and beverage company based in Illinois which employs about 107,000 people around the world. It consists of the snack and food brands of the former Kraft Foods Inc after the October 2012 spin-off of its North American grocery operations. The Mondelez name, adopted in 2012, was suggested by Kraft Foods employees and is a combination of the words for world, the company, headquartered in the Chicago suburb of Deerfield, manufactures chocolate, gum and powdered beverages. Mondelez Internationals portfolio includes several billion-dollar brands such as Oreo, Chips Ahoy. TUC, Triscuit, LU, Club Social, the company has an annual revenue of about $30 billion and operates in approximately 165 countries. Mondelez Canada holds the rights to Christie Brown and Company, which consists of such as Mr. Christie. Its head office is in Mississauga, with operations in Scarborough, Mondelez International is rooted in the National Dairy Products Corporation, which was founded on December 10,1923, by Thomas H.
McInnerney. The company was formed to execute a strategy in the fragmented United States ice cream industry. McInnerney operated the Hydrox Corporation, a Chicago ice-cream company, in 1923 he went to Wall Street to ask investment bankers to finance his plan to consolidate the United States ice-cream industry. McInnerney initially encountered resistance, with one banker disparaging the dairy industry and he persevered, convincing a consortium to finance a rollup strategy. As a result, National Dairy was formed with the merger of McInnerneys Hydrox with the Rieck McJunkin Dairy Company of Pittsburgh, the company was listed on the New York Stock Exchange, with its initial public offering of 125,000 shares oversubscribed. National Dairy grew quickly through a number of acquisitions, typical of a rollup strategy. His first year of operations was dismal, when he lost $3,000, the business took hold and Kraft was joined by his four brothers to form the J. L. Kraft and Bros. In 1912, the established a headquarters in New York City to prepare for international expansion.
By 1914 thirty-one varieties of cheese were sold across the US, in 1915 the company developed pasteurized processed cheese, which did not require refrigeration and had a longer shelf life than conventional cheese. The following year Kraft began national advertising and made its first acquisition, in 1924, the company changed its name to the Kraft Cheese Company and was listed on the Chicago Stock Exchange. Two years later, it was listed on the New York Stock Exchange, Kraft began to consolidate the US dairy industry through acquisition, competing with National Dairy and Borden. Acquisitions included, In 1928 Kraft acquired the Phenix Cheese Company, manufacturer of Philadelphia cream cheese, the following year, The New York Times reported that Kraft Phenix, the Hershey Company, and Colgate were considering a merger
Logan Square, Chicago
Logan Square is an official community area, historical neighborhood, and public square located on the northwest side of the City of Chicago. The Logan Square community area is one of the 77 city-designated community areas established for planning purposes, the area is characterized by the prominent historical boulevards, stately greystones and large bungalow-style homes. Logan Square is named for General John A. Logan, an American soldier, at the center of the square, known as Logan Square is the Illinois Centennial Monument, built in 1918 to commemorate the 100th anniversary of Illinois statehood. The monument was funded by the Benjamin Ferguson Fund, many of its early residents were English or Scandinavian origin, mostly Norwegians and Danes, along with both a significant Polish and Jewish population that followed. Today, the neighborhood is home to a population including Latinos, a number of ethnicities from Eastern Europe. Additionally, the increase in housing costs in nearby Wicker Park, Lincoln Park, just north of Logan Boulevard, on Francisco Ave.
is St. Lukes Lutheran Church of Logan Square. Bucktown has three of the citys most noted Polish Cathedrals – the former Cathedral of All Saints, St. Hedwigs, on Fullerton just east of Milwaukee is a Christian Science church offering services in Spanish. On Ridgeway, just north of Fullerton, is Our Lady of Grace Catholic Church, Grace Methodist Church stands at the corner of Kimball and Wrightwood Avenues, as does a Spanish Pentecostal church, across the street. In 2015 the church began raising funds to use a portion of the land as the site of a prayer labyrinth. These spaces have been used to provide a public meditation, the boundaries of Belmont Gardens are generally held to be Pulaski Road to the East, the Union Pacific/Northwest rail line to the West, Belmont Avenue to the North, and Fullerton Avenue to the South. Belmont Gardenss first urban development began thanks to Homer Pennock, who founded the village of Pennock. Centered on Wrightwood Avenue, which was laid out as Pennock Boulevard, was planned to be a hefty industrial and residential district.
The development was so renowned that the village was highlighted in a History of Cook County, Illinois authored by Weston Arthur Goodspeed, the original name of the Healy Metra Station was originally named after this now lost settlement. While Homer Pennocks industrial suburb failed, Chicagos rapid expansion transformed the farms into clusters of factories and homes. Belmont gardens offered more than just a less congested setting for its new residents, due to its proximity to rail along the Chicago, Milwaukee, St. Paul and Pacific Railroad, the area developed a plethora of industry that still survives in the citys Pulaski Industrial Corridor. It was adjacent to his own factory that Mr. Walter E, the ambitious project took 200 workers more than six months to fashion it out of 800 tons of stone and 800 yards of soil. Latino settlement in the began in the 1980s. Today the area retains its blue collar feel as much of surrounding Logan Square
Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a federal republic in Europe. It consists of 26 cantons, and the city of Bern is the seat of the federal authorities. The country is situated in western-Central Europe, and is bordered by Italy to the south, France to the west, Germany to the north, and Austria and Liechtenstein to the east. Switzerland is a country geographically divided between the Alps, the Swiss Plateau and the Jura, spanning an area of 41,285 km2. The establishment of the Old Swiss Confederacy dates to the medieval period, resulting from a series of military successes against Austria. Swiss independence from the Holy Roman Empire was formally recognized in the Peace of Westphalia in 1648. The country has a history of armed neutrality going back to the Reformation, it has not been in a state of war internationally since 1815, nevertheless, it pursues an active foreign policy and is frequently involved in peace-building processes around the world. In addition to being the birthplace of the Red Cross, Switzerland is home to international organisations.
On the European level, it is a member of the European Free Trade Association. However, it participates in the Schengen Area and the European Single Market through bilateral treaties, spanning the intersection of Germanic and Romance Europe, Switzerland comprises four main linguistic and cultural regions, French and Romansh. Due to its diversity, Switzerland is known by a variety of native names, Suisse, Svizzera. On coins and stamps, Latin is used instead of the four living languages, Switzerland is one of the most developed countries in the world, with the highest nominal wealth per adult and the eighth-highest per capita gross domestic product according to the IMF. Zürich and Geneva have each been ranked among the top cities in the world in terms of quality of life, with the former ranked second globally, according to Mercer. The English name Switzerland is a compound containing Switzer, a term for the Swiss. The English adjective Swiss is a loan from French Suisse, in use since the 16th century.
The name Switzer is from the Alemannic Schwiizer, in origin an inhabitant of Schwyz and its associated territory, the Swiss began to adopt the name for themselves after the Swabian War of 1499, used alongside the term for Confederates, used since the 14th century. The data code for Switzerland, CH, is derived from Latin Confoederatio Helvetica. The toponym Schwyz itself was first attested in 972, as Old High German Suittes, ultimately related to swedan ‘to burn’
Trump International Hotel and Tower (Chicago)
The Trump International Hotel and Tower, known as Trump Tower Chicago and Trump Tower, is a skyscraper condo-hotel in downtown Chicago, Illinois. The building, named after businessman and current President of the United States, Donald Trump, was designed by architect Adrian Smith of Skidmore and Merrill. Bovis Lend Lease built the 98-story structure, which reaches a height of 1,388 feet including its spire and it is next to the main branch of the Chicago River, with a view of the entry to Lake Michigan beyond a series of bridges over the river. When topped out in 2009, it became the fourth-tallest building in the US and it surpassed the citys John Hancock Center as the building with the highest residence in the world, and held this title until the completion of the Burj Khalifa. The design of the building includes, from the ground up, retail space, a parking garage, the 339-room hotel opened for business with limited accommodations and services on January 30,2008, full accommodation and services on April 28. A restaurant on the 16th floor, opened in early 2008 to favorable reviews, the building topped out in late 2008 and construction was completed in 2009.
As of 2015, the hotel is three in Chicago with an elite five-star Forbes Travel Guide rating. It hosts a restaurant that is one of three five-star Forbes-rated restaurants in the city and a spa that is one of six that is at least a four-star Forbes-rated in the Chicago area in 2015. Sixteen is one of five restaurants in Chicago with at least a Michelin Guide two-star rating in 2016, the tower sits at 401 North Wabash Avenue in the River North Gallery District, part of the Near North Side community area of Chicago. The building is across the Chicago River from the Chicago Loop and it is a block away from the southern end of the Magnificent Mile portion of Michigan Avenue. The restaurant, has a view of the Chicago Rivers entrance to Lake Michigan. The design of the building incorporates three setback features designed to provide continuity with the surrounding skyline, each reflecting the height of a nearby building. The third setback, on the east side, relates to 330 North Wabash building, some views distort the alignment of the second setback.
The setbacks and rounded edges of the building combat vortex formation, the body of the building is raised 30 feet above the main Wabash entrance and 70 feet above the Chicago River. The buildings Permasteelisa curtain wall uses clear low-emissivity coated glass and a curved wing-shaped polished stainless-steel mullion system that projects 9 inches from the glass line and it incorporates a brushed stainless steel spandrel panels and clear anodized aluminum. The building has 2,600,000 square feet of space, rises to 98 stories. These include studio apartments, a mixture of suites with one to four bedrooms, the tower features a luxury hotel condominium with 339 guest rooms. The building includes, from the ground up, retail space, a garage, a hotel
Bank of America
Bank of America is a multinational banking and financial services corporation headquartered in Charlotte, North Carolina. It is ranked 2nd on the list of largest banks in the United States by assets, as of 2016, Bank of America was the 26th largest company in the United States by total revenue. In 2016, it was ranked #11 on the Forbes Magazine Global 2000 list of largest companies in the world and its acquisition of Merrill Lynch in 2008 made it the worlds largest wealth management corporation and a major player in the investment banking market. As of December 31,2016, it had US$886.148 billion in assets under management, as of December 31,2016, the company held 10. 73% of all bank deposits in the United States. It is one of the Big Four banks in the United States, along with Citigroup, JPMorgan Chase, Bank of America operates—but does not necessarily maintain retail branches—in all 50 states of the United States, the District of Columbia and more than 40 other countries. It has a retail banking footprint that serves approximately 46 million consumer, Bank of America provides its products and services through 4,600 retail financial centers, approximately 15,900 automated teller machines, call centers, and online and mobile banking platforms.
The history of Bank of America dates back to October 17,1904, Giannini was raised by his mother and stepfather Lorenzo Scatena, as his father was fatally shot over a pay dispute with an employee. When the 1906 San Francisco earthquake struck, Giannini was able to all deposits out of the bank building. Because San Franciscos banks were in smoldering ruins and unable to open their vaults, from a makeshift desk consisting of a few planks over two barrels, he lent money to those who wished to rebuild. In 1922, Giannini established Bank of America and Italy, in 1918 another corporation, Bancitaly Corporation, was organized by A. P. Giannini, the largest stockholder of which was Stockholders Auxiliary Corporation. Monnette and consolidated it with other holdings to create what would become the largest banking institution in the country. Bank of Italy was renamed on November 3,1930 to Bank of America National Trust and Savings Association and Monnette headed the resulting company, serving as co-chairs.
Branch banking was introduced by Giannini shortly after 1909 legislation in California that allowed for branch banking in the state and its first branch outside San Francisco was established in 1909 in San Jose. By 1929, the bank had 453 banking offices in California with aggregate resources of over US$1.4 billion. There is a replica of the 1909 Bank of Italy branch bank in History Park in San Jose, and the 1925 Bank of Italy Building is an important downtown landmark. Giannini sought to build a bank, expanding into most of the western states as well as into the insurance industry, under the aegis of his holding company. In 1953, regulators succeeded in forcing the separation of Transamerica Corporation, the passage of the Bank Holding Company Act of 1956 prohibited banks from owning non-banking subsidiaries such as insurance companies. Bank of America and Transamerica were separated, with the company continuing in the insurance business
JPMorgan Chase & Co. is a U. S. multinational banking and financial services holding company headquartered in New York City. It is the largest bank in the United States, the third largest bank by total assets, with total assets of roughly US$2.5 trillion. It is a provider of financial services, and according to Forbes magazine is the worlds sixth largest public company based upon a composite ranking. The hedge fund unit of JPMorgan Chase is the second largest hedge fund in the United States, the company was formed in 2000, when Chase Manhattan Corporation merged with J. P. Morgan & Co. The J. P. Morgan brand, historically known as Morgan, is used by the investment banking, asset management, private banking, private wealth management, and treasury & securities services divisions. Fiduciary activity within private banking and private wealth management is done under the aegis of JPMorgan Chase Bank, the Chase brand is used for credit card services in the United States and Canada, the banks retail banking activities in the United States, and commercial banking.
The corporate headquarters is located at 270 Park Avenue in Midtown Manhattan, the retail and commercial bank is headquartered in 270 Park Avenue, Midtown Manhattan, New York City, New York, U. S. JPMorgan Chase & Co. is considered to be a universal bank. As of 2016, JPMorgan Chase is one of the Big Four banks of the United States, followed by Bank of America and Wells Fargo. JPMorgan Chase, in its current structure, is the result of the combination of several large U. S. banking companies since 1996, including Chase Manhattan Bank, Bank One, Bear Stearns and Washington Mutual. The Chase Manhattan Bank was formed upon the 1955 purchase of Chase National Bank by the Bank of the Manhattan Company, the Bank of the Manhattan Company was the creation of Aaron Burr, who transformed The Manhattan Company from a water carrier into a bank. This of course injected a powerful element of politics into the process and invited what today would be called corruption, the innocuous-looking clause allowed the company to invest surplus capital in any lawful enterprise.
Within six months of the creation, and long before it had laid a single section of water pipe, the company opened a bank. Still in existence, it is today J. P. Morgan Chase, weakened by the real estate collapse in the early 1990s, it was acquired by Chemical Bank in 1996, retaining the Chase name. Before its merger with J. P. Morgan & Co. the new Chase expanded the investment, in 1999, it acquired San Francisco-based Hambrecht & Quist for $1.35 billion. In April 2000, UK-based Robert Fleming & Co. was purchased by the new Chase Manhattan Bank for $7.7 billion, the New York Chemical Manufacturing Company was founded in 1823 as a maker of various chemicals. In 1824, the company amended its charter to perform banking activities, in the 1980s and early 1990s, Chemical emerged as one of the leaders in the financing of leveraged buyout transactions. In 1984, Chemical launched Chemical Venture Partners to invest in equity transactions alongside various financial sponsors. At many points throughout history, Chemical Bank was the largest bank in the United States
Jones Lang LaSalle Incorporated or JLL is an American professional services and investment management company specializing in real estate. Since March 2014 it has officially marketed itself under the abbreviation JLL, global headquarters are located in Chicago, with an operational remit covering the Americas regional market. Sub-headquarters operate in London and Singapore, Jones Lang Wootton opened its first US office in New York in 1975. In 1997, the public offering was completed by LaSalle Partners for the companys common stock in the market. JLW and LaSalle Partners formed Jones Lang LaSalle in 1999, which was the largest international merger in the real estate industry at the time, through a combination of organic growth and mergers and acquisitions the company has grown in recent years. S. In May 2011, Jones Lang LaSalle purchased King Sturge LLP for £197 million, in 2014 the organization shortened its name to JLL for marketing purposes, while the legal name remained Jones Lang LaSalle.
In November 2015, the announced that theyre moving into the residential property market with the acquisition of Guardian Property Asset Management. In June 2016, the announced they are moving into workplace technology. Jones Lang Lasalle is an Investment management and professional services company specializing in real estate, JLL is headquartered in the Aon Center in Chicago, Illinois. The company which is one of US Fortune 500 companies has about 53,000 employees including professional and it has over 230 offices worldwide in 80 countries. Global revenue in 2014 was $4 billion and the firm has a portfolio of 3 billion square feet under management, after CBRE Group, the company is the largest publicly traded commercial real estate brokerage firm in the world. Other competitors include Cushman & Wakefield, DTZ, Cassidy Turley, Colliers International, in 2016 JLL was named one of the World’s Most Ethical Companies by the Ethisphere Institute for the ninth consecutive year. Aon Center, company headquarters DeAnne Julius, Independent Non-Executive Director Roger Staubach, Executive Chairman and Director
Transport or transportation is the movement of people and goods from one location to another. Modes of transport include air, road, cable, the field can be divided into infrastructure and operations. Transport is important because it enables trade between people, which is essential for the development of civilizations, terminals may be used both for interchange of passengers and cargo and for maintenance. Vehicles traveling on these networks may include automobiles, buses, trucks, helicopters, operations deal with the way the vehicles are operated, and the procedures set for this purpose including financing and policies. In the transport industry and ownership of infrastructure can be public or private, depending on the country. Passenger transport may be public, where operators provide scheduled services, freight transport has become focused on containerization, although bulk transport is used for large volumes of durable items. Transport plays an important part in growth and globalization, but most types cause air pollution.
While it is subsidized by governments, good planning of transport is essential to make traffic flow. A mode of transport is a solution that makes use of a type of vehicle, infrastructure. The transport of a person or of cargo may involve one mode or several of the modes, each mode has its own advantages and disadvantages, and will be chosen for a trip on the basis of cost and route. Human powered transport, a form of transportation, is the transport of people and/or goods using human muscle-power. Modern technology has allowed machines to enhance human power, human-powered vehicles have been developed for difficult environments, such as snow and water, by watercraft rowing and skiing, even the air can be entered with human-powered aircraft. Animal-powered transport is the use of working animals for the movement of people, humans may ride some of the animals directly, use them as pack animals for carrying goods, or harness them, alone or in teams, to pull sleds or wheeled vehicles. A fixed-wing aircraft, commonly called airplane, is a craft where movement of the air in relation to the wings is used to generate lift.
The term is used to distinguish this from rotary-wing aircraft, where the movement of the lift surfaces relative to the air generates lift, a gyroplane is both fixed-wing and rotary-wing. Fixed-wing aircraft range from small trainers and recreational aircraft to large airliners, two things necessary for aircraft are air flow over the wings for lift and an area for landing. The majority of aircraft need an airport with the infrastructure to receive maintenance, restocking and for the loading and unloading of crew and passengers. While the vast majority of land and take off on land, some are capable of take off and landing on ice, snow