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Economy of Costa Rica

The economy of Costa Rica has been stable for some years now, with continuing growth in the GDP and moderate inflation, though with a high unemployment rate: 8.13% in 2018. Costa Rica's economy emerged from recession in 1997 and has shown strong aggregate growth since then; the estimated GDP for 2017 is US$61.5 billion, up from the US$52.6 billion in 2015 while the estimated 2017 per capita is US$12,382. Inflation remained around 4% to 5% per annum for several years up to 2015 but dropped to 0.7% in 2016. The estimated unemployment level in 2017 is 8.1% the same as in 2016. The country has evolved from an economy that once depended on agriculture, to one, more diverse, based on tourism and medical components exports, medical manufacturing and IT services. Corporate services for foreign companies employ some 3% of the workforce. Of the GDP, 5.5 % is generated by 18.6 % by industry and 75.9 % by services. Agriculture employs 12.9% of the labor force, industry 18.57%, services 69.02% Many foreign companies operate in the various Free-trade zones.

In 2015, exports totalled US$12.6 billion while imports totalled US$15 billion for a trade deficit of US$2.39 billion. The growing debt and budget deficit are the country's primary concerns. By August 2017, Costa Rica was having difficulty paying its obligations and the President promised dramatic changes to handle the "liquidity crisis". Other challenges facing Costa Rica in its attempts to increase the economy by foreign investment include a poor infrastructure and a need to improve public sector efficiency. One of the country's major concerns is the level of the public debt as a percentage of the GDP, increasing from 29.8% in 2011 to 40.8% in 2015 and to 45% in 2016. The total debt in 2015 was $22.648 billion, up by nearly $3 billion from 2014. On a per capita basis, the debt was $4,711 per person. Costa Rica had a formal line of credit with the World Bank valued at US$947 million in April 2014, of which US$645 million had been accessed and US$600 million remained outstanding. In a June 2017 report, the International Monetary Fund stated that annual growth was just over 4% with moderate inflation.

The report added that "financial system appears sound, credit growth continues to be consistent with healthy financial deepening and macroeconomic trends. The agency noted that the fiscal deficit remains high and public debt continues to rise despite the authorities’ deepened consolidation efforts in 2016. Recent advances in fiscal consolidation have been reversed and political consensus on a comprehensive fiscal package remains elusive"; the IMF expressed concern about increasing deficits, public debt and the heavy dollarization of bank assets and liabilities, warning that in tighter-than-expected global financial conditions these aspects would "seriously undermine investor confidence". The group recommended taking steps to reduce pension benefits and increase the amount of contribution by the public and increasing the cost effectiveness of the education system; the country's credit rating was reduced by Moody's Investors Service in early 2017 to Ba2 from Ba1, with a negative outlook on the rating.

The agency cited the "rising government debt burden and persistently high fiscal deficit, 5.2% of GDP in 2016". Moody's was concerned about the "lack of political consensus to implement measures to reduce the fiscal deficit will result in further pressure on the government's debt ratios". In late July 2017, the Central Bank estimated the budget deficit at 6.1 percent of the country's GDP. A 2017 study by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development warned that reducing the foreign debt must be a high priority for the government. Other fiscal reforms were recommended to moderate the budget deficit. In 2014, President Solís presented a budget with an increase in spending of 19% for 2015, an increase of 0.5% for 2016 and an increase of 12% for 2017. When the 2017 budget was proposed, it totaled US$15.9 billion. Debt payments account for one-third of that amount. Of greater concern is the fact that a full 46% of the budget will require financing, a step that will increase the debt owed to foreign entities.

In late July 2017, the Central Bank estimated the budget deficit at 6.1 percent of the country's GDP. In early August 2017, President Luis Guillermo Solís admitted that the country was facing a "liquidity crisis", an inability to pay all of its obligations and to guarantee the essential services. To address this issue, he promised that a higher VAT and higher income tax rates were being considered by his government; such steps are essential, Solís told the nation. "Despite all the public calls and efforts we have made since the start of my administration to contain spending and increase revenues, there is still a gap that we must close with fresh resources," he said. The crisis was occurring in spite of growth, low inflation and continued moderate interest rates, Solís concluded. Solís explained that the Treasury will prioritize payments on the public debt first salaries, pensions; the subsequent priorities include transfers to institutions "according to their social urgency." All other payments will be made.

A 2016 report by the U. S. government report identifies other challenges facing Costa Rica as it works to expand its economy by working with potential foreign investo

Lucky Soul

Lucky Soul are a British six-piece pop band based in South East London. Formed in 2005, the band consists of Ali Howard on vocals, Andrew Laidlaw and Ivor Sims on guitars, Russell Grooms on bass and Paul Atkins on drums, with the recent addition of Art Terry on keys; the band have performed numerous live dates in the UK and overseas and, on 20 June 2007, were one of the first acts to perform at The O2, as part of Greenwich Council's soft launch event. They supported Bryan Ferry on his Dylanesque tour that same year, they have since toured in Spain, Germany, Japan, the United States and Russia, where they performed at the Kinotavr Film Festival in Sochi. After a seven-year hiatus, they announced their return with their third album, Hard Lines, released on 11 August 2017; the project began. He used a sampler to produce electronic music. After moving to London with Nathaniel Perkins, he recruited additional musicians including Sims. Following their departure, Howard joined after responding to a newspaper ad.

Their debut single "My Brittle Heart"/"Give Me Love", released in March 2006, was made Single of the Week by The Guardian newspaper, who described it as featuring "melodies as colossal and irresistible as a stampede of elephants bearing down on your tent". In June of that year they released another single, "Lips Are Unhappy", now famed as the music for the Clas Ohlson TV ads in Sweden; the summer of 2006 saw "Give Me Love" featured on How Does It Feel To Be Loved?'s "Kids At The Club" compilation. This was followed by an EP entitled "Ain't Never Been Cool" in early 2007. "Ain't Never Been Cool" achieved recognition by being featured on BBC Radio 1 DJ Colin Murray's top 20 tracks of the year. A further single, "Add Your Light to Mine, Baby", was released on 26 March 2007 as a digital download, on CD and as a limited edition, hand-numbered vinyl, followed by "One Kiss Don't Make a Summer" in early September; the band's debut album, The Great Unwanted, was released on 9 April 2007. Produced by George Shilling, it had a five star review in Metro and The Independent on Sunday, four stars from both The Guardian and The Times and a further four star review in Uncut magazine.

The group's second album, entitled A Coming of Age was released on 15 April 2010. The song "Woah Billy!" was released digitally in April 2009. In January 2010, the band released a second song off the album, "White Russian Doll", their third album, entitled Hard Lines, was released on 11 August 2017. The first single from the album, "No Ti Amo", was released in June 2017. Official website

Level 10 (USA Gymnastics)

Level 10 is the highest level in the USA Gymnastics Junior Olympics Program. The level is open to women's artistic, men's artistic, trampoline and rhythmic gymnasts. Gymnasts must have reached their 9th birthday to qualify to Level 10. Male artistic competitors must have reached their 16th birthday to qualify. Level 10 can only be achieved by qualifying for the U. S. National Championship. A rhythmic gymnast may start competing at Level 5 when she has reached her 6th birthday, Level 6 when she has reached her 7th birthday. For T&T gymnasts, there is no age requirement. There is no age requirement for acrobatic gymnasts. Competitions, or "meets," as they are known, are held throughout the year but during the Level 10 artistic season, from January to April. Clubs host a meet through those months on behalf of their Booster Club. Regular competitions that are hosted throughout the Level 10 season include the following; the highest level of competition is the J. O. Nationals. Gymnasts qualify to the competitions through their Regional Championships.

There are eight age divisions, the youngest age of qualification is 9 years old. Gymnasts compete for their region and are eligible to win individual all-around and event titles, as well as team medals. Here is a list of Notable Level 10 gymnasts. Alexis Beucler - Former International Elite Mackenzie Brannan - 2014 Nastia Liukin Cup co-champion Kacy CatanzaroTowson Tigers gymnast, American Ninja Warrior McKenna Kelley - 2014 Nastia Liukin Cup co-champion Alex McMurtry - 2013 Nastia Liukin Cup champion, Florida Gators gymnast Melissa Metcalf Katelyn Ohashi2013 American Cup gold medalist, UCLA gymnast

Susie Dent

Susie Dent is an English lexicographer and etymologist. She has appeared in "Dictionary Corner" on the Channel 4 game show Countdown every year since 1992, she appears on 8 Out of 10 Cats Does Countdown, a post-watershed comedy version of the show presented by comedian Jimmy Carr. She has been Honorary Vice-President of the Chartered Institute of Editing and Proofreading since 2016. Born in Woking, Dent was educated at the Marist Convent in Ascot, an independent Roman Catholic day school, she went on to Somerville College, Oxford for her B. A. in modern languages to Princeton University for her master's degree in German. Dent's first job was as a waitress, as she explained on the 18 December episode of Countdown. At the time she began work on Countdown in 1992, she had just started working for the Oxford University Press on producing English dictionaries, having worked on bilingual dictionaries. Dent is well known as the resident lexicographer and adjudicator for the letters rounds on Channel 4's long-running game show Countdown.

On each episode, she provides a brief commentary on the origin of a particular word or phrase. Dent is the longest-serving member of the show's current on-screen team, having first appeared in 1992. While she was on maternity leave over the winter of 2007–08, she was replaced as lexicographer by Alison Heard, she works on the spin-off show 8 Out of 10 Cats Does Countdown. Dent appeared as herself in an episode of the BBC sitcom Not Going Out. Dent presented a web series for Channel 4 titled Susie Dent's Guide to Swearing where she explored the etymology and history of a number of English swear words, she has made an appearance on BBC entertainment show Would I Lie to You?. In 2018 she appeared on five episodes of House of Games, a panel show hosted by Richard Osman. In 2019, Dent launched the podcast Something Rhymes With Purple, co-hosted with Gyles Brandreth. From 2003 to 2007, Dent was the author of a series of annual Language Reports for the Oxford University Press; the first was titled The Language Report, this was followed by Larpers and Shroomers and Overdogs, The Like, Language Report for Real and The Language Report: English on the Move 2000 – 2007.

The format of this publication was revised for 2008 as an A–Z collection of new and newly resurrected words. It was published in October 2008 as Words of the Year. In 2005 the same publisher issued Winning Words and in 2009 What Made the Crocodile Cry? 101 questions about the English language. Dent's book about dialects, How to Talk Like a Local, was published in March 2010. "Dent's blog entries for OUP". "Channel 4 Countdown Page". Voices. "Susie Dent interview". "Richard Herring's Leicester Square Theatre Podcast interview". Susie Dent on IMDb


Orthobunyavirus is a genus of the Peribunyaviridae family in the order Bunyavirales. There are ~170 viruses recognised in this genus; these have been assembled into 20 serogroups. The name Orthobunyavirus derives from Bunyamwera, where the original type species Bunyamwera orthobunyavirus was first discovered, along with the prefix orthos meaning'straight.'The type species is Bunyamwera orthobunyavirus. The genus is most diverse in Africa and Oceania, but occurs worldwide. Most orthobunyavirus species are transmitted by gnats and cause diseases of cattle; the California encephalitis virus, the La Crosse virus and the Jamestown Canyon virus are North American species that cause encephalitis in humans. The type species is Bunyamwera orthobunyavirus; the virus is spherical, diameter 80 nm to 120 nm, comprises three single stranded RNA molecules encapsulated in a ribonucleocapsid. The three RNAs are described as S, M and L and are circa 1kb, 4.5kb and 6.5kb in length The S RNA encodes the Nucleocapsid protein and a non structural protein.

The M RNA encodes a polyprotein, cleaved by host protease into Gn, NSm and Gc proteins. The L RNA encodes the viral RNA dependent RNA Polymerase or L Protein The taxonomy remains somewhat fluid as few viral genomes in this genus have been sequenced. Several of the viruses listed have been shown to be recombinants of other viruses and may be reclassified. 18 serogroups have been recognized on the basis of the results of cross-hemagglutination inhibition and antibody neutralization relationships. Another - Wyeomyia - has since been recognised. Several viruses have not yet been classified into one of the serogroups; the Simbu serogroup contains at least 25 members. There are at least 13 members in the Group C serogroup. Medically important viruses belong to the Bwamba, California, Group C and Simbu serogroups. Anopheles A virus Tacaiuma virus Virgin River virus Trombetas complex Arumateua virus Caraipé virus Trombetas virus Tucuruí virus Anopheles B virus Boraceia virus Bakau virus Nola virus Birao virus Bozo virus Bunyamwera virus Cache Valley virus Fort Sherman virus Germiston virus Guaroa virus Ilesha virus Kairi virus Maguari virus Main Drain virus Lokern virus Northway virus Playas virus Potosi virus Shokwe virus Stanfield virus Tensaw virus Xingu virusBatai complex Batai virus Čalovo virus Chittoor virusNgari complex Garissa virus KV-141 virus Ngari virus Bwamba virus Pongola virus California encephalitis virus Chatanga virus Inkoo virusJamestown Canyon virus Jerry Slough virusKeystone virus Khatanga virusLa Crosse virus Lumbo virus Melao virus Morro Bay virus San Angelo virus Serra do Navio virus Snowshoe hare virus South River virusTahyna virus Trivittatus virus Acara virus Benevides virus Capim virus Alajuela virus Gamboa virus 75V 2621 virus strain Pueblo Viejo virus San Juan virus Bruconha virus Ossa virus Caraparu complex Apeu virus Bruconha virus Caraparu virus Vinces virusMadrid complex Madrid virus Marituba complex Gumbo limbo virus Marituba virus 63U-11 virus strain Murutucu virus Nepuyo virus Restan virusOriboca complex Itaqui virus Oriboca virus Ananindeua virus Bertioga virus Bimiti virus Cananeia virus Catu virus Gan Gan virus Guama virus Guaratuba virus Itimirim virus Mahogany hammock virus Mirim virus Timboteua virus Trubanaman virus Koongol virus Wongal virus Buffalo Creek virus Mapputta virus Maprik virus Murrumbidgee virus Salt Ash virus Minatitlan virus Palestina virus Eretmapodites virus Nyamdo virus Botambi virus Olifanstlei virus Abras virus Babahoyo virus Pahayokee virus Patois virus Shark River virus Zegla virus Iquitos virus Jatobal virus Leanyer virus Mermet virus Oya virus Thimiri virus Akabane serocomplex Akabane virus Tinaroo virusOropouche serocomplex Madre de Dios virus Oropouche virusSathuperi serocomplex Douglas virus Sathuperi virusShamonda serocomplex Peaton virus Shamonda virusShuni serocomplex Aino virus Shuni virusSimbu complex Schmallenberg virus Simbu virus Bahig virus Batama virus Matruh virusTete virus Tsuruse virus Weldona virus Kedah virus Lednice virus M'Poko virus Turlock virus Umbre virus Anhembi virus Cachoeira Porteira virus Iaco virus Macaua virus Sororoca virus Taiassui virus Tucunduba virus Wyeomyia virus Batama virus Bellavista virus Belmont virus Enseada virus Estero Real virus Herbert virus Jonchet virus Jurona virus Kaeng Khei virus Kibale virus Kowanyama virus Mojuí dos Campos virus Taï virus Tataguine virus Triniti virus Witwatersrand virus Wolkberg virus Yacaaba virus Viralzone: Orthobunyavirus

Ian Scott (American football)

Josef Ian Scott is an American former college and professional football player, a nose tackle in the National Football League for six seasons during the 2000s. Scott played college football for the University of Florida, thereafter, he played professionally for the Chicago Bears, Philadelphia Eagles and San Diego Chargers of the NFL. Scott was born in Greenville, South Carolina in 1981, he attended Gainesville High School in Gainesville, where he played high school football for the Gainesville Purple Hurricanes and he was a member of the Purple Hurricanes' 1999 Florida state championship basketball team. Scott was a member of the National Honor Society and the valedictorian of his graduating class in 2000. Scott accepted an athletic scholarship to attend the University of Florida in Gainesville, where he majored in industrial engineering and played for coach Steve Spurrier and coach Ron Zook's Florida Gators football teams from 2000 to 2002. After starting for the Gators in 2001 and 2002, he was a second-team All-Southeastern Conference selection both seasons.

After his junior year, Scott decided to forgo his final season of NCAA eligibility and entered the NFL Draft. Scott was selected by the Chicago Bears in the fourth round of the 2003 NFL Draft, he played for the Bears for four seasons from 2003 to 2006. After being released by the Bears following the 2006 season, Scott was signed to a one-year contract by the Philadelphia Eagles on May 3, 2007, but was placed on injured reserve before the start of the season and did not appear in a regular season game during 2007. On April 29, 2008, Scott was signed by the Carolina Panthers, he was released on August 20. On September 23, 2008, Scott was signed by the San Diego Chargers after the team released cornerback DeJuan Tribble. On October 14, 2009, he was re-signed by the Chargers after the team released safety Clinton Hart. Scott played in sixteen games for the Chargers in 2008 and 2009, started in seven of them in 2009, he was released on June 21, 2010. In his six-season NFL career, Scott started forty of them.

He totaled two fumble recoveries and an interception. Florida Gators List of Chicago Bears players List of Florida Gators football players in the NFL List of Philadelphia Eagles players Ian Scott – Florida Gators player profile Ian Scott – San Diego Chargers player profile