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Economy of Gibraltar

The economy of Gibraltar consists of the services sector. While being part of the European Union, the British overseas territory of Gibraltar has a separate legal jurisdiction from the United Kingdom and enjoys a different tax system; the role of the UK Ministry of Defence, which at one time was Gibraltar's main source of income, has declined, with today's economy based on shipping, financial services, the Internet. In his June 2009, budget speech, Chief Minister Peter Caruana noted that Gibraltar's economy remains in good shape and Government finances remain healthy, solid and robust, despite global economic and financial turmoil. Gibraltar has the Gibraltar Stock Exchange. In December 2008 in a landmark decision the European Court of Justice ruled that: the Court finds that the competent Gibraltar authorities which have devised the tax reform have, from a constitutional point of view, a political and administrative status separate from that of the central government of the United Kingdom.

This allowed the implementation of a new low tax system, took full effect by 2010. Gibraltar is one of the largest bunkering ports in the Mediterranean Sea, with 4.3 million tonnes of bunkers delivered in 2007. This has become the main activity within the Port of Gibraltar. Gibraltar is a constituent part of the European Union as a Special Member State territory, having joined the European Economic Community with the United Kingdom in 1973, under the provisions of the Treaty of Rome relating to European dependent territories. However, it is exempt from the Common external tariff, the Common Agricultural Policy and the requirement to levy Value added tax. Financial institutions operating in Gibraltar are regulated by the Gibraltar Financial Services Commission. Subject to notifying the Commissioner, who must be satisfied that they meet certain criteria in accordance with the relevant EU Directive, Gibraltar-licensed or -authorised financial institutions can provide services throughout the EU and European Economic Area without having to seek separate licences or authorisation in the host Member State.

This is known as the passporting of financial services. Referred to as an International Finance Centre, Gibraltar was among 35 jurisdictions identified by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development as a tax haven in June 2000. However, the list's disclaimer states: That list should be seen in its historical context and as an evaluation by OECD member countries at a particular point in time of which countries met the criteria set out in the 1998 Report, Harmful Tax Competition: An Emerging Global Issue. More than five years have passed since the publication of the OECD list contained in the 2000 Report and positive changes have occurred in individual countries’ transparency and exchange of information laws and practices since that time; the list has not been updated to reflect such changes. As a result of having made a commitment in accordance with the OECD's 2001 Progress Report on the OECD's Project on Harmful Tax Practices, Gibraltar is not included in the OECD's list of uncooperative tax havens.

It has never been listed on the FATF Blacklist of uncooperative countries in the fight against money laundering. It may be referred to as an offshore financial centre, by international institutions such as the International Monetary Fund. However, in its April 2009 progress report, the OECD listed Gibraltar in the list of jurisdictions which, although committed, had not "substantially implemented" yet the internationally agreed tax standard. Following Gibraltar's signing of 12 additional Tax Information Exchange Agreements, as of October 2009, with jurisdictions including the UK, US and Germany, to sum 13, Gibraltar is listed in the OECD "white list", is considered a jurisdiction that has implemented the tax standard, it therefore shares the same status as OECD member states such as the US, Spain or Germany. Fiscal advantages, including no tax on capital income, are offered to a maximum of 8,464 offshore qualified companies incorporated in Gibraltar. After an agreement with the European Union in 2005, this tax exempt regime is due to disappear on 31 December 2010.

A 2007 IMF report on the regulatory environment and anti-money laundering has once again endorsed Gibraltar's robust regulatory environment. According to the report: Gibraltar has a well-regulated financial sector; the Gibraltar authorities are concerned with protecting the reputation and integrity of Gibraltar as a financial center, are cognizant of the importance of adopting and applying international regulatory standards and best supervisory practices. Gibraltar has a good reputation internationally for information sharing. In 2008 Gibraltar was listed for the first time in the Global Financial Centres Index published by the City of London Corporation; the Rock was ranked 26th in a list of 69 leading finance centres around the world based on an online survey of 1,236 business professionals, who provided a total of 18,878 assessments. In the most recent GFCI report of 2011, Gibraltar was ranked 63rd in the world, 8th of the leading offshore financial centres; the Tax Justice Network ranked Gibraltar at #43 out of 71 jurisdictions on its 2011 Financial Secrecy Index.

Gibraltar's "secrecy score" was 78. Gibraltar was ranked in the top 20 centres for e-readiness, coming 20th after major capitals and leading offshore centres; the territory has a small manufacturing sector, with one company supplying ambulances produced from converted SUV vehicles to the United Nations and other agencies. Gibraltar offers a favourable tax system, good internet connectivity along with a well-developed regulatory system. All gambl

Gar Mandaran

Garh Mandaran is a village and a gram panchayat in Goghat II CD Block in Arambag subdivision of Hooghly district in the state of West Bengal, India. The ruins of a fort at Gar Mandaran provided the setting for Bankim Chandra Chatterjee’s novel Durgeshnandini. Durgeshnandini is a romantic novel, based on history and on hearsay; the story centres around the attack and occupation of Gar Mandaran stronghold of Raja Birendra Singh, linked to the Bishnupur Raj, by the Pathans who were entrenched in Odisha. The Mughal general Man Singh’s son, Jagat Singh, was despatched to keep the Pathans at bay. Jagat Singh fell in love with the beautiful daughter of Raja Birendra Singh; the Pathans captured the fort, killed Raja Birendra Singh and held Jagat Singh and Tilottama, but a fatal attack on the Pathan general Kotlu Khan, turned things around. Durgeshnandini, published in 1865, took the literary world by storm and was considered an epoch-making novel, it went through 13 editions during Bankim Chandra’s life-time.

Around the time when Bakhtiyar Khilji came to Bengal, the region was divided into five parts – Rarh, Vanga and Mithila. Vanga was further subdivided into three parts – Lakhanabati and Saptagram; when the frontiers of Bengal were expanded during Mughal rule, there were three prominent administrative zones in the Saptagram area – Sirkar Satgaon, Sirkar Selimabad and Sirkar Mandaran. As per the 2011 Census of India, Gar Mandaran had a total population of 6,264 of which 3,242 were males and 3,022 were females. Population below 6 years was 734; the total number of literates in Gar Mandaran was 4,100. Gar Mandaran is on Kamarpukur-Gar Mandaran-Kajla road, it is 2 km from Kamarpukur. Gar Mandaran High School is a Bengali-medium co-educational institution, it was established in 1944

Kunst and Albers

Kunst and Albers or Kunst & Albers was a German trading company in Russia. Founded by Gustav Kunst, a merchant, Gustav Albers, a sailor, it operated the first department store in Vladivostok. At its height, it was a vast business empire and the largest trading company in the Russian Far East. On September 16, 1864, Gustav Albers, the son of a Hamburg jeweller, arrived in Vladivostok on board the schooner “Meta”, he unloaded a cargo of food staples and building materials. Shortly before that, he had met the Hamburg merchant Gustav Kunst in Shanghai and they decided to go into business together. At the time, the town of Vladivostok consisted of 44 wooden buildings; the first store, constructed of wood, was built in 1865. In 1875, Adolph Dattan, a young man from Rudersdorf, who had worked as a bookkeeper for Albers' brother in Hamburg, joined the firm. In 1884, the store moved to a new stone building. Apart from the bricks, all the building materials used in the store had come by boat from Hamburg.

The new store had 18 departments and the company was to offer banking services. The construction of the Trans-Siberian Railway, heading west from Vladivostok, began in 1891, this meant an economic boom for the city and the department store. Gustav Kunst left the company in 1898, taking up residence in Samoa. Dattan became a partner and, in 1914, was elevated to the Russian nobility for his contributions to the development of the Primorye region. During his many business trips, Dattan amassed extensive collections which he donated to various European museums, including a large ethnological collection given to the Museum of Ethnology, Austria and a zoological collection donated to the Naturhistorisches Museum, Germany. In 1907, the German architect Georg Junghändel, who designed St. Paul's Lutheran Church in Vladivostok, built a new department store on Svetlanskaya Ulitsa in the art nouveau style, it now houses the GUM department store. Junghändel built an elegant house in the villa style for Dattan, opposite the department store.

By 1914, Kunst & Albers had 32 branch stores. World War I brought an end to the flow of merchandise from Germany. Multiple publications spread the rumour that the firm was operating a German spying network, the main source of such rumours being the publicist Ferdynand Antoni Ossendowski. In the 1950s, George F. Kennan wrote that: "it is doubtful whether the history of journalism could produce another instance of such a violent and prolonged personal vendetta.” Adolph Dattan was exiled in 1915 to Siberia, did not return to Vladivostok until 1919/1920, at the age of 65. Alfred Albers, son of Gustav Albers and junior partner in the company, was drafted into the Tsar's army; some of the branch stores were destroyed and others expropriated, in the end the whole company was expropriated under Bolshevik rule. In 1924, Alfred Albers moved the company's main business to China. In the same year, Adolph Dattan died in Naumburg. In 1930, the Vladivostok store was forced to close its doors because of overwhelming taxation by the Soviet authorities.

One year the shipping office closed. In China, under the direction of Georg von Dattan, the company remained active as a wholesaler and general representative for German companies opening ten branches between the Amur region and Hong Kong; the start of World War II brought an end to that business, too. After the war, Alfred Albers continued to operate an export business under the Kunst and Albers name, his death, in 1960, brought the history of the company to an end. List of trading companies Lothar Deeg. Kunst und Albers Vladivostok: The History of a German Trading Company in the Russian Far East, trans. Sarah Bohnet. Vladivostok: Far Eastern Federal University Press, 2012. ISBN 978-5-7444-2812-9. Lothar Deeg. Kunst & Albers: Die Kaufhauskönige von Wladiwostok: Aufstieg und Untergang eines deutschen Handelshauses jenseits von Sibirien. Essen: Klartext Verlag, 2012 ISBN 978-3-8375-0764-5. Ludmila Thomas. „Das Handelshaus Kunst und Albers im russischen Fernen Osten bis 1917: Zum Problem des deutschen Kapitals in Rußland“.

Jahrbuch für Geschichte der sozialistischen Länder Europas, no. 28. Berlin: Deutscher Verlag der Wissenschaften, 1984. ISSN 0075-2657

Heinrich XIX, Prince Reuss of Greiz

Heinrich XIX, Prince Reuss of Greiz was Prince Reuss of Greiz from 1817 to 1836. Heinrich XIX was born at Offenbach, Grand Duchy of Hesse, elder surviving son of Heinrich XIII, Prince Reuss of Greiz, his wife, Princess Wilhelmine Louise of Nassau-Weilburg. At the death of his father on 29 January 1817, he succeeded as the Prince Reuss of Greiz. In 1819 he restored the Unteres Schloss, where his father had transferred the family residence. Heinrich XIX married on 7 January 1822 in Prague to Princess Gasparine of Rohan-Rochefort, third daughter of Charles Louis Gaspard of Rohan-Rochefort, his wife, Marie Louise Joséphine of Rohan-Guéméné, they had two daughters: Princess Louise Caroline Reuss of Greiz, married firstly in 1842 to Prince Eduard of Saxe-Altenburg, but died in 1852, had issue. Princess Elisabeth Reuss of Greiz, married in 1844 to Charles Egon III, Prince of Fürstenberg, had issue. At his death in 1836, having no male heir, the Head of the House Reuss of Greiz passed to his younger brother Heinrich XX. 1 March 1790 – 29 January 1817: His Serene Highness Prince Heinrich XIX Reuss of Greiz 29 January 1817 – 31 October 1836: His Serene Highness The Prince Reuss of Greiz L'Allemagne dynastique, Giraud, Reference: I 333 Gehrlein Thomas, The House of Reuss - Older and Younger line Börde Verlag 2006, ISBN 978-3-9810315-3-9

Trapper Keeper (South Park)

"Trapper Keeper" is the twelfth episode of the fourth season of the animated television series South Park, the 60th episode of the series overall. It aired on Comedy Central in the United States on November 15, 2000. In the episode, a man from the future wants Cartman's new Trapper Keeper, while Mr. Garrison's kindergarten class holds an election for class president with confusing results; the Trapper Keeper storyline is an allusion to the Terminator films as well as the anime movie Akira. The subplot with the class president election is a parody of the 2000 United States presidential election and the controversy surrounding its outcome. While waiting for the school bus, Kyle shows his friends his new Dawson's Creek Trapper Keeper, he is joined by Cartman who reveals he has a special, advanced Dawson's Creek Trapper Keeper Ultra Keeper Futura S 2000, which has advanced computerized features including a television, a music player with voice recognition, OnStar and the ability to automatically hybridize itself to any electronic peripheral device.

Kyle accuses Cartman of having purchased it to make him envious. On the bus, a mysterious white man calling himself "Bill Cosby" asks about Cartman's Trapper Keeper, which the man attempts to steal, he succeeds by buying Cartman's trust, despite Cartman saying "I'm not supposed to have male friends over 30. When "Bill Cosby" is caught by Officer Barbrady and Cartman, he explains his actions: the Trapper Keeper binder is destined to gain sentience and hybridize into a supercomputer to conquer the world in the future, wipe out all traces of humanity. Cosby himself is a cyborg from the future named BSM-471, sent back in time to destroy the binder before it could rise to power. Meanwhile, Mr. Garrison has been demoted to a kindergarten teacher, his class holds an election for class president. Kyle's brother Ike has been admitted to kindergarten two years early because of his supposed intelligence. Ike is chosen by Mr. Garrison to run against a boy named Filmore, resulting in a tie, broken by the vote of a little girl named Flora.

At first, Flora can't decide. After she picks Ike, Filmore's side demands recounts and involves Rosie O'Donnell, who comes to protest that Filmore has not won. While this is happening, Stan and Kenny accompany their robotic companion to Cartman's house to convince his mother to help them, but she goes off with Bill Cosby to have sex. Meanwhile, Cartman's Trapper Keeper integrates itself into Cartman's computer and most of his belongings, absorbs Cartman himself. Cartman is transformed into a giant, cybernetic blobby monster that retains most of Cartman's features, similar in style and execution to the movie Akira, it kills Kenny and destroys the house, sets off to Cheyenne Mountain to absorb the secret military base's computer. Bill Cosby warns that if the Trapper Keeper assimilates with the supercomputer at Cheyenne Mountain, it will become unstoppable. Kyle sneaks into the huge Cartman-Trapper Keeper hybrid through a ventilation pipe. Rosie O'Donnell yells at it for blocking the road; the Trapper Keeper absorbs her, but fusing with her makes the behemoth sick.

Kyle is freed and disconnects the Trapper Keeper's CPU, the beast returns to its powerless state. The destruction of the Trapper Keeper causes Bill Cosby to disappear, Stan tells Cartman to thank Kyle, who just saved his life. Cartman starts to thank Kyle just as the episode ends, but the credits roll before he can finish and cuts him off at "Kyle..." As for the kindergarteners, after countless lawyers come in and legal forms and endless meetings, Filmore concedes because "this game is stupid". With Ike as president, the kids decide to go fingerpaint, much to Mr. Garrison's delight; the episode is a parody of the controversy surrounding the 2000 United States presidential election on November 7, 2000. State results tallied on election night gave 246 electoral votes to Republican candidate George W. Bush and 255 to Democratic nominee Al Gore, with New Mexico and Florida too close to call that evening. Mathematically, Florida's 25 electoral votes became the key to an election win, despite the fact that both New Mexico and Oregon were declared in favor of Gore over the next few days.

After an intense recount process, Bush won Florida's electoral votes and as a result, the entire presidential election. There was a disagreement over who won Florida's 25 electoral votes, the recount that happened there, the uncommon event that the winner got fewer popular votes than the loser. "Trapper Keeper" was written by South Park co-creator Trey Parker when he, Matt Stone, a group of friends visited Lake Powell. It is one of the many South Park episodes; the main plot of the episode involving the Trapper Keeper was written before the election, but the subplot is a parody of the controversy surrounding the election's outcome. "Trapper Keeper" did not feature the election storyline, only a subplot about Ike attending his first day of kindergarten. Parker and Stone said the presidential election controversy was "kids' stuff", and, what they were trying to show with the episode. Stone commented that "it makes perfect sense because everything is just so childish anyway, the way people are acting about the election and the way candidates are.

You try to satirize something by taking it to the extreme. But it was kind of hard to satirize because it's just so stupid

List of Queer as Folk characters

This is a list of characters in the Showtime series Queer as Folk. The characters are listed alphabetically by their last name or by the name which appears in the episode credits. Drew Boyd is the quarterback of the fictional Pittsburgh Ironmen, he was introduced in season four when he hired Emmett Honeycutt to cater the party for his engagement to his girlfriend, Sierra. At the party Drew and his teammates make disparaging homophobic remarks about Emmett and a waiter, Emmett confronts him about it; the next day, when Emmett visits Drew's house to pick up his check, Drew becomes aggressively flirtatious and the two have sex on the living room floor. Although Drew and Emmett continue the affair, Drew does not identify as gay, instead thinking of himself as just a man who enjoys sex with other men. Over time, his feelings for Emmett become less purely sexual and more romantic. Drew allows Emmett to persuade him to model in a Brown Athletics underwear campaign for Brian's agency Kinnetik. Despite an agreement that Emmett must never show up at Drew's games, Emmett accompanies Ted to the Ironmen stadium.

They run into Drew's fiancée, delighted to see Emmett and brings them to the locker room. Drew breaks off the affair, but seeks to resume it, admitting to missing Emmett. However, Emmett turns him down when Drew reveals he still intends to marry Sierra and keep the affair up. In season five, Emmett believes he is being stalked, it turns out to be a panicking Drew, being threatened with being outed by a tabloid. Drew appears on the news station that employs Emmett for an interview and comes out, kissing Emmett on live television and losing each of them their jobs. Drew and Emmett resume their relationship and Drew is picked back up by the Ironmen after they lose several games in a row; the relationship ends on a bittersweet note when Emmett spots Drew flirting with another man. Rather than being angry or jealous, Emmett recognizes that Drew, being so newly out, needs time to explore his new-found gay world. Benjamin "Ben" Novotny-Bruckner became a main character during season two, when he is the first customer in Michael Novotny's comic book store.

He is a gay studies professor at Carnegie Mellon University, the author of the non-fiction book RU12 and the unpublished novel Gentlemen in Paris. Upon first meeting Michael, he states; the two begin to date. After several failed attempts at dating other men, Michael realizes he is in love with Ben, that he will have to accept his HIV status. Debbie initially disapproves of the relationship because of Ben's HIV status. However, when Ben is hospitalized due to complications from his HIV medication, Debbie sees how devoted Michael is to Ben and realizes that Michael's happiness is more important than her worries. In the third season, Ben learns that the man who gave him HIV has died which upsets him and drives him to begin using steroids and exercise obsessively. Ben's erratic behavior begins taking a toll on his relationship with Michael. In a desperate attempt to get through to Ben, Michael threatens to infect himself with Ben's used needle in order to get him to stop taking steroids. Ben and Michael begin providing shelter to a teenage prostitute, Hunter Montgomery, after encountering him soliciting outside their apartment.

Ben feels a special bond with the troubled youth after learning Hunter is HIV positive as well. Michael is less patient with Hunter's presence in their home, but the couple grow to accept Hunter as a member of the family. Ben and Michael become Hunter's legal guardians by the beginning of the fourth season after winning custody from his abusive mother; when Michael and Justin get a deal for a movie adaptation of their comic book, Ben becomes envious because his own book, Gentlemen in Paris, can't get published. Ben begins secretly meeting with Anthony, a former student who flirtatiously offers praise for his work. However, Ben is horrified when Anthony reveals that Ben's novel inspired him to intentionally infect himself with HIV. Ben and Michael travel to Toronto, Canada for the start of the Liberty Ride. On the bus ride up to Canada, Ben asks Michael to be his husband; the two get married in Canada, but they experience trouble in returning to the United States as their marriage will not be recognized once they return.

In the fifth season and Michael move into a house on a traditional street, to which Brian accuses them of being'conformist homosexuals'. This does not matter to the couple who are proud of two children. However, this does not last long as after Hunter's HIV status is revealed at school and his ex-girlfriend starts dating someone new, he decides to leave home. Ben takes Hunter's departure hard and becomes distraught and angry with both Michael and himself, until they receive an e-mail from Hunter a few weeks later. Ben tirelessly parades to stop "Proposition 14" which would take away gay civil rights and is present during the bombing of Babylon which injures Michael. During the vigil for the Babylon victims, Ben displays uncharacteristic rage when he brutally beats up a counter-protester who began mocking Michael's near death. Hunter reunites with Ben and Michael after the bombing and the couple adopts him in the series finale. Throughout the series, Ben is characterized as a compassionate person who becomes outwardly angry, upset, or emotional.

He adheres to the Buddhist ideals and advocates for "living in the now". In adjusting to his HIV status, Ben